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VOL. 114, PARTS 1 & 2 
31 MAY, 1990 

Transactions of the 

Royal Society of South 



Koste, W. & Shiel, R. J. Rotifera from Australian inland waters V. Lecanidae (Rotifera: 

Monogononta) - - - 1 

Jones, G. K. Growth and mortality in a lightly fished population of garfish 

yHyporhamphus meianochir), in Baird Bay, South Australia - 37 

Austin, A. D. & Burnyoczky, V. Catalogue of invertegrate type specimens held in the 
collections of the Waite Agricultural Research Institute and the 
South Australian Department of Agriculture 47 

Lansbury, I. Notes on the Hebridae (Insecta: Hemiptera-Heteroptera) of Australia 

with descriptions of three new species 55 

Locket, N. A. A new genus and species of scorpion from South Australia (Buthidae: 

Buthinae) - ________ 67 

Tyler, M. J. Geographic distribution of the fossorial hylid frog Cyclorana platycephala 

(Giinther) and the taxonomic status of C. slevini Loveridge - 81 

Burton, T. C The New Guinea genus Copiula Mehely (Anura: Microhylidae): A new 

diagnostic character and a new species ----- 87 

Brief Communications: 

Gowlett-Holmes, K. L. On the taxonomic status of the Australian Chiton Parachiton 
vereonis (Cotton & Weeding, 1939) (Mollusca: Polyplacophora: 
Leptochitonidae) --------- 95 

Hutchinson, M. N. Leiolopisma trilineatum (Gray, 1838), an addition to the 

herpetofauna of South Australia ------ 99 

Pledge, N. S. & Sadler, T. A new subspecies of the sea urchin Peronella lesueuri from 

the quaternary of South Australia ------ 103 

Barker, S. Two replacement names in Castiarina (Buprestidae: Coleoptera) - - 105 






VOL. 114, PART 1 


CONTENTS, VOL. 114, 1990 

PARTS I & 2, 31 May 

Kosle, VV. & Shiel, R. J. Rotifera from Australian inland waters V, Lecanidae (Rotifera: 

Monogononta) 1 

Jones, G. K. Growth and mortality in a lightly fished population of garfish 

(Hyporhamphus melanochir), in Baird Bay, South Australia - - 37 

Austin, A. D. & Burnyoczky, V. Catalogue o[ invertebrate type specimens held In the 

collections of the Waite Agricultural Research Institute and the South 

Australian Department of Agriculture ------ 47 

Lansbury, I. Notes on the Hebridae (Insecta: Hemiptera-Heteroptcra) of Australia with 

descriptions o^ three new species -------55 

Locket, N. A. A new genus and species of scorpion from South Australia (Buthidae: 

Buthinae) 67 

Tyler, M. J. Geographic distribution of the fossorial hylid frog Cyclorana platycephalu 

(Giinther) and the taxonomic status of C. s/evini Loveridge - - 81 
Burton, T, C The New Guinea genus Copiu/a Me'hely (Anura: Microhylidae): A new 

diagnostic character and a new species ------ 87 

Brief Communications: 

Gowlett-Holmes, K. L. On the taxonomic status of the Australian chiton Porachiton 

verconis (Cotton & Weeding, 1939) (Mollusca: Polyplacophora: 

Leptochitonidae) ----------95 

Hutchinson, M. N, Leioiopisma trilineatum (Gray, 1838), an addition to the herpetofauna 

of South Australia - 99 

Pledge, N. S. & Sadler, T. A new subspecies of the sea urchin Peronella lesueuri from 

the Quaternary of South Australia 103 

Barker, S. Two replacement names in Castiarina (Buprestidae: Coleoptera) - 105 

PARTS 3 Sc 4, 30 November 

Wells, A. New species and a new genus of rnicro-caddisfly From northern Australia, 

including the first Australian record of the tribe Stactobiini 

(Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) - --,--- 107 

Koste. W. & Shiel, R. J. Rotifera from Australian inland waters. VI. Proalidae, Lindiidae 

(Rotifera: Monogononta) - - 129 

McDonald, K. R. & Davies, M. Morphology and biology of the Australian tree frog Litoria 

pearsoniana (Copland) (Anura: Hylidae) - - - 145 

Twidale, C R., Parkin, L. W. & Rudd, E. A. C. T. Madigan*s contributions to Geology 

in South and Central Australia 157 

Barker, S. New species of Castiar'ma (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and redescriptions oi C. 

di versa (Kerremans) and C. elderi (Blackburn) - - - 169 

Lee, D. C & Shepherd, K. J. Magnobates (Acarida: Cryptostigmata: Haplozetidae) from 

South Australian soils ..-_._. 179 

McDonald, K. R. Rheohatrachus Liem and Taudaetylus Straughan & Lee (Anura: 
Leptodaetylidae) in Eungella National Park, Queensland: distribution 
and decline ------ 187 

Hartinann-Schriider, G. & Parker, S. A. First Australian records of the family Pisionidae 

(Polychaeta), with the description of a new species - 195 

Harlmann, Schroder, G. & Parker, S. A. First Australian record of Hesionura (Polychaeta: 

Phyllodocidae), with the description of a new species 203 

Davies, M. & Richards, S. J. Developmental biology of the Australian hylid frog 

Nyctimystes dayi (Gunther) -_-_.._- 207 

Read, J. L & Tyler, M. J. The nature and incidence of post-axial, skeletal abnormalities 
in the frog Neohatrachus centralis Parker at Olympic Dam, South 
Australia - 213 

Campbell, R. A. & Beveridgc, I. Pseudochristianella (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha), a new 
genus for Tentacularia minuta (Van Beneden, 1S49) sensu Southwell, 
1929 and its relationships with the family Eutetrarhynchidae 

- - - 219 

Brief Communications: 

Bird. P. & Tyler, M. J. First South Australian record of the fossorial leptodactylid frog 

genus Uperoleia Gray _______ 223 

Twidale, C R. & Bourne, J. A. Comment: Preliminary investigations of beach ridge 

progradation on Eyre Peninsula and Kangaroo Island - - 225 

Short, A. D., Buckley, R. C. & Fotheringhani, D. G. Reply: Preliminary investigations 

of beach ridge progradation on Eyre Peninsula and Kangaroo Island 227 

Johnston, G. R. Cyclorana maini and Notaden sp: additions to the frog fauna of South 

Australia » > 229 

tnwrt at Vrumaatons oj the Royal Smwry of South Atointhu. Vol. IN. /wt\ J A 4, SO ^ovemhrr, JVW 



BY W. KOSTE*, & R. 7. SHIELf 


Diagnositic keys are given to genera and species of the rotifer family Lecanidae {Hemimonostyla, 
Monostyla, Lecane) recorded from Australian inland waters. All species are figured and available 
distribution data and ecological information given. Some widely-distributed taxa not yet recorded 
from the continent are included. 
KEY WORDS: Rotifera, taxonomy, Australia, known species, Lecanidae 

ntwwtiwts t>t ihs N»vui Kocn-ty ey s. Avm o^m. |MiI), |-06 



by W Kosrrt* & RJ. SHir-tt 

Kosrt, W„ <&. Shim, RJ. (1990) Rotifera from Australian inland water*. V. Lecanidae iRoiifera: 
Monognnoma). ftew, K. Q>tt S Au*t. 1M<1|. 1-36, 31 May, 1990 

Diagnostic keys arc given to gencnx and species <>T ihc tOtHfei lainilv leeamdtie (Hemtiftortostyitt t 
Monostyta, Lucane) recorded from Australian inland water;. All species arc figured and available distribution 
data and ecological information given, Some widely-distributed tasa not yet recorded from the continent 
are included. 

Key Words Router*, taxonomy. Australia, known species, lecamdae 


In tbis parr of our revision of the Australian 
RotUcra (Koste & Shiel 1986b, 19S7b, 1989a, b)we 
review the Australian representatives of the family 
J.ecanidae \Monosiyla. HettrimonoMyla, Lc-cartc), 
which generally are littoral (epiphytic or cpibenthic) 
in habit. They are common Iji ihe shallow vegetated 
areas of billabongs and orher wetlands, with some 
species [Monostyta hmaris, Lecane luria) occurring 
regularly in the plankton communities of open 
water. In eight billabongs o( the Magcla Creek, for 
example, Tail a al. (1984) recorded 16 species of 
Lecane/Monosfyia from a single net tow in Mine 
Valley billabong Such high species 
diversity is exceptional, a result of concentration as 
the dry season progressed; more commonly, in 
temperate Australia, two to four congeners in a 
Collection may he expected 

diagnostic feeys brief descriptions and figures of 
all known Australian representative* of the family 
are provided to enable identification of species. 
Some widely distributed taxa not yet recorded from 
Australia are included. The lortnat follows that Of 
earlier parts; diehotnmous keys are followed hy 
individual species' descriptions and known 
Australian records. Relative abundance is indicated 
by; "common" (more than 30 widely dispersed 
records), "uncommon" 00-30 localities*, 'tare*' 
(<\0 records). Brief ecological data arc included 
where available. Early Australian records cued in 
Shiel A Koste (1979) are not repeated here, nor are 
the majority ol northern hemisphere citations given 
by Koste (1978), which contains a detailed treatment 
of the Rorifera outside Australia. Keys ro families 
are included in Koste & Shiel (1987b). 

Family Lecanidae Bartos 
The family was erected by Bartos (1959) to 

* 5 Uidwig-Brilt-Strasse, Quakenbriick D 4570, Federal 

Republic of Germany, 
t Murray-Darling Frethwaier Research Centre; PO. Bob 

92t, Albury* N.S.W 2G40 

separate the genus Lecane from the taxonormc 
group containing Proales* ProaJinopsis. UryeeeUa 
and Tetrastphon, The subgenus Hemtmonosiyta was 
erected to accommodate lecanids with incomplete 
fusion of their toes (Bartos 1959; 497-499), 
\tvrta\tyJu (Ehrcnberg), with a single toe, had 
previously been relegated to subgeneric status 
(Edmondson 1935). Nor all subsequent reviewers 
accepted subgeneric status for the three groups; 
their differences are now considered to be 
sufficiently distinct to warrant generic separation 
(WT. Edmondson pers, curnrn.). Accordingly, we 
have separated Xtortastyia, Hemimonostyla and 
t£cane(s. sin) in the following keys, and rather than 
provide an exhaustive synonymy, note here that in 
previous references to species ol Mtmosiyia and 
Hetnimonosiyta* authors may have referred cither 
to their nominate genera or Lecane (A/.)/ 'Lecane 
\H.) respectively (cf. Koste 1978}. 

Lorica undivided; foot with three segments, first 
two fused with ventral plate, only distal segmenl 
moveable; one or two toes with free or more or less 
fused daws. Corona with supraoral buccal area. 
most without pseudotrochus; masrax malleate, but 
also capable of a virgatc function by means of 
strong muscles attached to the inner pharyngeal 
wall. Three genera are recognized in the family. 

Key to gerteni of the family Lecanidae 
1 Pvro rocs, s-cparated along their lull length (Fig, 

6:5a). . - iecatte Nlizsch, itt? 

Single toe or toes partly fused 2 

1. Oisral half of toes separated (Fig. 6:3) 

Jlcmimonostyla Ratios, i959 

Single toe [H& t:|) 

Monostyta thjcnbere, 1K3<1 

Key to species of Ihe genus Monostyta 

I. Toe with two claws or a single fused claw . . .2 
Toe without etaw 20 

2(U- Portal lorica anterior margin wuh median curved 

spines Af ipMUirktetttati} Enrenbcrg 

Dorsal lorica margin without median spines. 3 

M2) Lorica anterior nvugin(s) more or lew deeply 









mi 2). 


17(1 5>. 

sinuate 12' 

Loriea margin(s) relatively straight 4- 

Claws held tightly together, orfused with only a 

median groove 6 

Claws diverging, immobile (Fig. J:4) ... 5 
Ventral lorioa with paired posterolateral -.pines 
("hip spurs"). , -*- . .Af bifurra Bryce 

Ventral loriea without hip spurs. - 

. Af. fttrcaia Murray 

Toe with only one claw, or indiMincl dividing line 

Claws separarc (Fig. 4J> Af otousa Murray 
I)or>at lonca with distinct $1 nations/patterning/ 

ornamentation , , 8 

Doisal loriea smooth . . . , , Ifr 

Uorsjl and ventral sutlaccs heavily wrinkled and 
folded; total length <&Vm Af. rvgvsa Harring 
Regular frtce'taiion, lew diuinct; loriea 

>*>0 dm .,9 

Dorsal f-Avettatiori tegular, each facet hounded by 
double longitudinal lines: ventral lonca patterned 

, . . , Af. telhis Harring & Myers 

Only Hitiefiof facet row regular, no double 
boundaries; no venltal pattern (single transverse 

fold in front of foot* 

, Af, efochix Harring &. Myers 
Ventral plate constricted just behind anterior 
IttSfgin Mi subulata Harring & Myers 

Ventral plate not constricted U 

Tbe spindle-shaped, widest in the middle (Tig 2:1. i 

,\{, copcis Harring & Myers 

Toe Upcrs evenly (Fig. 4*6) . . 

Af. iCUtatQ Hatting St. Myers 

Dorsal and ventral anterior margin* concave, . 


Dorsal margin straight, ventral with sinus.. 13 
Ventral sinus shallow, with strongly convex sides. 
externally with two short, stout, incurved hooklike 

Irontal .spines (Pig. 5;2) 

Af. sienroosi iMeivoierj 

U-shaped shallow *mu* flaring amcriorly, sides 

not convex; rromal spines absent (Fig. 6:1) 

Af uneuiwa Fadccv 

Loriea ouiline nearly circular (Fig. 2:2) 

. . Af vormHa (Mullet) 

Lonca outline oval to gcoid 15 

Lonca ovoid, upcrs to narrow head jpertuie(< Vi 

hody width) (Kig. 1 S> Ifi 

Loriea subcirculat 10 elongate oval, taper less 
acute, head aperture wide I > X A body uidth) 

(Figs 3:3 5:5 '. , .17 

Toe long, slender, ca. Y\ body teogllt, claw vi toe 

length ... Af ha(h Ousse 

The > \A body lenglh; claw extremely long- > 
'/* toe length ... Af. styiax Harring &. Myers 
Lonca <120j<m; toe >'/» body length, long, thin, 

parallel-aided 18 

Loriea >20O//m; toe <V4 body length, stout with 
medial bulge . 

A/, lattwllata (Harring & Myersi 

18(17}, Dorsal and ventral anterior sinuses deep. . , .IK 
Dotsal margin only slightly concave; vennat 
margin with deep U-shaped sinus with convex 
bides , M cretutw Harring 

19(18). Identical broadly V-shapcd sinus in both dorsal 
and venrral margins, latter projects slightly beyond 

dorsal margin (Fig. I.Ta) Af acus Hairing 

Ventral sinus deepei than dorsal, rounded ai 

posterior margin (Fig. 3:3). . . 

M, lunaris (Ehrenberg) 

20(1). Loriea with lateral curved spine-like processes. 

Af. monoslyla (Daday) 

Laietul ptocesses absent. , , . . ,- 21 

2K20X Lonca anterior margin with more or less targe 

from a I corner cusps/spines .. .23 

Front corner cusps absent ...22 

22(2J>. Ventral loriea margin somewhat concave ..24 

Ventral loriea margin straight 

Af. pyriformh t>ada> 

23/22), Ventral lonca plate in upper thud bilaterally 

cun>ltteleit Af. anvutu Bryce 

Ventral loriea plate not constricted 

Af cicsierocerre Schmarda 

24(221. Head aperture margins stiaighi, coincident; coma 
spines small . ... .Xf apias Harring & Myen 
Head aperture with dorsal and ventral sinuses or 
different siae; corner spines large 25 

25(24). Posterior segment of ventral loriea with sinuate 
margin and two lateral acute triangular cusps. 

. Af. batjlfifer Murray 

Posterior margin smoothly oval or elliptical. 2(> 

2)1(251, Dorgttl lonca surface snuH>th, unomamentcd. 


Dorsal loriea with regular well-mar ted facets (Fig, 
3:2a) Af. hematu Stokes 

-7(26). Head aperture with deep, coincident dorsal and 
veniraJ margin*, flanked by pointed <-u*p& 

(extensions ol ventral loriea) 

Af. deapiens Murray 

Dorsal anterior sinus shallow, rounded posteriorly 
with convex edges; ventral sinus a much deeper, 
narrow cleft (Fig. 5:1b); truncate rather than 
pointed anterior corners of ventral plate 

. , . . - Af stniumt HauCt 

Monostyla acus Harring 
FIG. 1:1 

Monostyla acus HHix\n$. \9\i t p. 398, PI. 36, Figs 1-3. 

Lecane (M.) acus: Myers 1937. p. -4. 
Diagnosis: Fiead opening with V-shaped sinuses 
dorsally and ven (rally, lalter projecting slightly 
beyond dorsal plate margin; posteriorly, ventral 
plate extends beyond dorsal margin as broad shield 
over foot; lateral sulci deep; toe approx. 4/5 body 
length, slightly decurved; claw very long. 

Total length 180 pity dorsal plate 85 x $2 ,urn. 
ventral plate 100 >: 72 ;tm; depth of anterior sinus 

Fig. I, 1, Monostyla acus Harring: (a) dorsal; (b) ventral. 2, Af. arcuata Bryce: £a] dorsal; <b) ventral. 3. A/, bai/litfer 
Murray: (a) doi-sal; (b) ventiat 4, .W bifurca Bryce: (a) dorsal; (b) ventral. Af. /.<. entome iBcrcim), dorsal 5, 
Af. bulla Oosse: (a) don»dl; (br venoal 6, K& ctosteroccrca Schmarda: (a| dorsat: lb) ventral. Fig. l:L 2, 3, 4a-L\ 
5, 6, after Harring & Myers 0926); 4c. redrawn from Renins (!982| ScaJ« lincv 50;im. 


10 *trn; posterior shield projection 15 urn; distance 
between inner edges of lateral sulci 53 /iin; toe 64 
/<m; claw 12 /<m; greatest depih of body 3K //m 
Distribution*. Palearctic, IMearclie, Indonesia, 
acidophil in moor and Sphagnum pool*. Rare. Tas. 
]6.5-17,0°C\ pH 3.1-5.8, 46.2-30.6 , A S cm'. 
Literature: Koste 1978; Koste & Shiel 1986a. 

Monastyta arcuate Bryce 
FIG. 1:2 
Monastyta arcuata Bryce, 1891, p. 206, t$k( ftfc 
Levant! (M.) anuata: Pax $ Wultet t 1941, p. 14J, Tig. 8. 
Diagnosis: Head aperture dorsal margin .slightly 
concave, ventral margin wiih shallow median sinus 
Hanked by two straight sections; transverse fold of 
ventral plate anterior to foot; tac long and stout, 
> 'A body length, parallel sided or bulging slightly 
in middle, then tapering to point. Resembles M, 
closterocerca tFig. 1:6). 

Dorsal plate 45-69x49-63 /on; ventral plate 
60-73x41-50 j<m; roe 23-28 /nn. 
Distribution: Between moss and algae in i-prings 
and flowing waters. Rare: N.S.W.. NT., Qld„ Vic. 
10.5-28.5°C, pH 5.4-7.9, DO 6.040,1 mg I ', 
23 750 ,iS cm ', 67 NTU alkat. 2.7 mg I '. 
Literature: Russell 1%1; Kosie 1978. 

Monostytii bittithfer Murtav 
FIG, 1:3 

.Kfwufstyfa bauUifcr Murray, Wi 3h, p. 43M, HI ft, r"j£. 

Diagnosis: Head aperture with deep V-shaped 
ventral sinus flanked by large spine-like cusps. 
Uursally with narrow, shallow U-shaped sinus; 
ventral plate constricted anteriorly; relatively deep 
Lateral sulci; footplate small, narrow', undulate 
posteriorly with two distinctive laterally projecting, 
acutely tiiangular cusps, projects beyond dorsal 
plate; toe approx. l A body length, parallel-s-ided Tot 
% of its length, conical posteriorly, ends in biistle- 
like point. 

Toul lengih 120 j<m; dorsal plate 85 ;aii long; 
ventral plate 95 jon; anterior dorsal margin width 
17 /mi; ventral margin width 26 /un; toe 30 ftm. 
Distribution: Endemic, rare. Described from a pool 
near Sydney, later recorded also from the NT 
Literature: Shiel & Koste 1979; Berzins 1982. 

Mnnnstyfa bifurca entome (berzins) 
FIG. 1:4c 
Lveune (M.) bifurca e.'uome flfinrlrt*. 19H2, |\ '? 
Diagnosis. Original description and figure 
inadequate, but as wc have not encountered this 
taxon, are reproduced here: ** . . the lortea docs 
not (havcj a straight frontal margin ft has a very 
small sting pspinulcl on tnC frontal earners, and 
the dorsal !oiica has a short fold on the nedpilal 

end. The dorsal frontal margin has two not[c|hcs 
and the ventral margin has a shallow sinus in the 
middle." f Berlin* 1962:91. 

Dorsal plaic 50x45 /im; veniruf plate 55x43 fim; 
toe KS fim. 

Distribution: Endemic. Only record Creswick 
Creek, Vic. 

Comment-. The typical form, M. htfurca (Bryce 
1892; 274) (Fig. 1:4a, b) is described as follows* Very 
flexible integument; body length approximately 
equals width; outline broadly oval; anterior margin 
straight; lateral sulci lacking; small posterior 
segment, extending beyond dorsal plate, carries two 
small lateral spines at sides of foot; toe > '. \ oody 
length, capers distally; claw doubled, spread and 

Dorsal plate 45-54x42-52 ^m; ventral plate 
48-58x44-52 iflffi toe 154? PTC claw 3.2-5 ,im. 
Comment'. Of the integument, Harring & Myers 
(1926:416) noted ihat it tv can not bv any stretch of 
(he imagination be called a loriea". M, bifurca 
enrome appears loricate, with characteristic margin 
morphology markedly different from the nominate 
species. We retain the ssp. ranking as proposed by 
Berlins until further material is examined in 
determine if the variant as described represents 
ecotypic variation, or if specific status is warranted. 

Monustyia bulla bulla Gosse 
FIU 1:5 

Monostyta bulla Gosse, 1851, p. 200. 

Lecane (\\t.) bulla'. WUzniewski 1954, p. 63. 
Diagnosis: Head aperture with shallow V-shaped 
sinus dorsal ly, U-shapcd notch at posterior margin 
of sinus for protrusion of dorsal antenna; ventral 
anterior margin with very deep sinus (Fig. I;5.5b). 
rounded at posterior end; transverse fold on ventral 
surface in front of foot; toe long, ea. l A hody 
length, terminates in slender acute claw with basal 
spicules; claw with median line, undivided. 

Dorsal plaLe 100-133x74-105 pVX\ ventral plate 
93-140x6K-97 ,,,m; toe 48-85 ,*m; claw to 20 Mm; 
resting egg 90x70 jiffl. 

Distribution: Cosmopolitan in littoral. Movi 
common lecanid in Ausualia: euryiopic, 
paneontinemai in billabongs, lake margins, and 
occasionally in the plankton t}{ reservoirs and rivers, 
e.g. R. Murray (Shiel et aL 1982). 8.0-3l,n°C_\ pH 
3.5-9.4, DO 3.0-13.8 mg ! \ 16-6. 600 pS cm', 
< 1-160 NTU. 
Literature: Harring & Myers 1926; Koste 1978. 

Monostyla closterocerca Schmarda 
FIG. 1:6 
AfonostytaditstemcwtvStnimKii*, 1859, p. 59, PI. 14, 

f-i ? . i:>s- 

Leiafie fAf./ ilrmerocera: Cdmondvnn IW, p .102. 


Fig. 2. K Monostyla copeis Harring & Myers: (a) dorsal; (b) ventral. 2, M. cornuta (Miiller): (a) dorsal; (b) ventral. 
3, M. crenata Harring: (a) dorsal; (b) ventral. 4, M. decipiens Murray: (a) dorsal; (b) ventral. 5, M. elachis Harring 
& Myers: (a) dorsal; (b) ventral. 6, M. furcata Murray: (a) dorsal; (b) ventral. Fig. 2: 1-6, after Harring & Myers 
(1926). Scale lines 50 /un. 




Diagnosis: Head aperture dorsal and veniral 
margins similar, shallow V-shaped sinuses with 
widely flaring convex sides; raim dorsal fold near 
apex of anterior sinus; transverse ventral fold in 
Irani of fool; lateral sulci shallow; toe long, < ^4 
body length, parallel-titled for V>- lenglh and 
tapering to slender acute point. 

Dorsal plate 54-K5x40-6O /an; ventral plate 
57-82x39-49 t m; toe 21-38 ^.m. 
Distribution: Cosmopolitan in standing and flowing 
waters, salinity tolerant (to 16 g I '). In Europe 
found in branchial chamber of AstatwsfinvititHis. 
Common: pancontincnral. 11.8-26.0 6 C, pH 3.4-7.9, 
DO 5.1-10.3 mg 1 . 42-6, 120 ,<S cm 1 , 0,8-$7 NTU 
literature. Koste & Shiel 1987a. 

Monostvla copess Marring & Myers 
FIG. 2:1 

Afonastvta copex* Hairing & Myers, 1926. pp, 598-9, 
R «J. Fl&s 1. 2, 

Lecane (M.) cvpets: Voigi 1957, p. 238. 
Diagnosis* Mead aperture margins coincident, 
slightly concave: transverse ventral fold in front of 
fool, short curved folds each side of loo!; Toe 
spindle-shaped, enlarged in middle, approx, '/. body 
length, tetnrinating in stout acute claw. 

Dorsal plate 75-R8x72-80 jan; veniral plare 
86-94x60-65 >un: toe 29-33 /im; claw 4-5 pttU 
Distribution: Europe, N. America. (Jnctint'inned 
record from Vic 
LiWraiutv. Berlins 1982. 

Monostvla cornuta (Mutter) 
FIG. 2:2 
Trnhitdrjairmtta Muller, I7fc<i, p. 208, PI. Wj F\gv 1-3, 
Monoxtyfa cornuta EhtcubtrA IS30, p, 46 
Levatie {Atj cottnttu: Edmoudsoti 1936. p. 214. 
Diagnosis: Head aperture vvilh similar deep lunate 
dorsal and ventral sinuses; angles of sinuses obtuse, 
without spines, in rctracicd animal, dorsal Told 
obvrous commencing ai ba<e of dorsal sinus, 
reaching margin* behind anterior points: nans verse 
fold in front of toot; toe paialtel-siUed, ca.'/i body 
length, terminates in large claw with median groove 
and iwo basal spicules, 

Dorsal plate to 102x88-110 ^m; ventral plare 
85-128x105 ,an: toe 38-46 //in; daw 8-10 ,an. 
Distribution: Cosmopolitan between submerged 
plants, periphyton. Rare: N.S.W., QJd. 
Literature: Sud/uki & TImms 1977; Shiel &. Koste 

Monosiyta crenaia Marring 
" FIG. 2:3 

Monostyla cri'tiata Harriug, 1913. p. 399, Fig, 36:4*6. 

Lecane (M.) cre^ani Voift 1957, p. 23*2. 
Diagnosis: Head aperture slightly concave dorsally, 
veniral margin with deep sinus, rounded posteriorly. 
lorica lateral margins lightly convex, running to 
frontal corners; deep lateral sulci: toe extremely 
long, slender >A body leiigih, straight, parallel- 
sided, ending in short claw with two basal spinules, 

Dorsal plate 90-120x75-105 urn, ventral plate 
94-129x67-93 ^m; loe 60-92 ;<rn; claw 8-12 ,an. 
Distribution: Abundant in tropical and subtropical 
shallow littoral** iherrnophile. Rare: NX, Qld, Vic. 
22.5°C T pH U, DO 7.8 mg I '. 1,080 pS cm ! , 3.0 
Literature: Russell 1961; Koste 1981. 

Monostvla devipiens Murray 
FIG. 2:4 

Xtonosrvfa decipiens Murray, 1913a, p. 36, pi. 1 5, Fig. 

Lecaftv (M.) decipiens: Wisiniewski 1953. p. 375. 
Diagnosis: Head aperluie dorsal and veniral 
margins coincident with deep Vshaped sinuses, 
rounded posteriorly; two triangular acute cusps 
between anterior sinus and edges of lorica; no 
frontal spines; lateral sulci deep; toe long and 
slendet, V\ body length. 

'Itnal length 175 /an; dorsal plate 76-116x60-9$ 
am; ventral plate 9O-12Rx50-7H /an; width anterior 
cusps 44 ^m; toe 25-48 >*tn. 
Distribution: Sth and Central America, Su Lanka, 
?Europc Identified from Nth QldfCH. Fernando 
pcrs. comtn.). Rccoid unverified. 
Literature: Chengalath & Fernando 1973; koste 

Monostyla etachts Harring & Mvcrs 
FIG. 2:5 

yV/c/7tiy/v/tf c/ai'toHamn^&MycT^, 1926, p. 406, Fig. 
43:1, 2. 

Lecane furcata clachis; Wiszniewski N54, p. 65. 
Diasnosis: Head aperture with lightly convex dorsal 
margin; ventral margin with shallow median 
concavity, convex towards exterux angle*; dorsal 
lorica ornamented with regular row uf facets 
anteriorly, remainder of surface patterned (Fig. 
2:5a); deep lateral sulci: toe > V\ body length, 
terminating in short, acute claw. 

local length 90 /an; dorsal plate 62x62 /*m; 
ventral plate 68*54 um; anterior dorsal margin 40 

Fig. 3. I, Monostyia goniata Harriug & Myers: (a) dorsal: Ibl ventral. 2, \1. namota Stokes: (aj dorsal; (b) veniral; 
(c)AA humaia victoriensi* Ki>*le & Shiel. 3, \f. kmans Ehrenberg: (a) dorsal; (b) ventral; (c) another jnorph, ventral; 
(d«*) morphs of W iutioris perpfcxa (Ahlslroni), veniral; It'-g) morphs of .V/. htnaris conswlcta (Murray), ventral. 
Fit. 3.1. 2n-b, 3a-e. alter HarrhJg & MjMflXKK fa *»# KosieA Shiel imo)\ ffl\ ..- |ftfl Ahl&ttom (iy38); 3c-g, 
after Koste U978), Scale lines 50 jmi. 



/zro, ventral 50 /un; toe 20 j*rn; claw 4 pm. 

Distribution. Pond littorals, U.S. A , Sri Lanka. 

Rare; N.T,, Tas. 16,0 24.5*CpH 6.3-7.1 DO 5.8 

mg J-' t 59-1020 M S cm L 

Literature: Chengalaih A rernando 1973; Koste 


Monostyla furcuto Murray 
FIG. 2;6 
Monostyla furcata Murray, 1913a, p. 358, Fife, 15:40 
ttfcam* (M.) furcata: LdmoruJson 1936, p. 215. 
Diagnosis: Ventral and dorsal margins of head 
aperture straight; ventral plate parallel-sid-rd behind 
triangular areas extending beyond dnrxal 
anterolateral margins; loe short, stout, Mi body 
length, terminating in two distinct claws, immobile, 
separated by V-shaped notch. 

Dorsal plate 58-76x57-70 Mm; toe 21-35 tmr. claw 
5-6.5 f/m. 

Distribution; Cosmopolitan in periphylon. Rare: 
NT, T Old. las., Vic. J5.0-24.5 <> C pH 5J-7.9, DO 
5.H-6.12 mg \\ 28-X0»iS cm'. 

Monostyla #ootata Harrlup & Mvers 
HG. .1:1 

Mmtosfvla gomufa Harnng & Myers, 1926, p. 590, PI. 
37, Fig* 5, 6. 

bpcatte (At) zonmttr Vnigi 1957, p. 238, 
Diagnosis: Lorica broadly ovate, somewhat angular 
povteriorly, aJmosl pe*r-shnped; head aperture 
Tesembtes That of M bulla, ijt. shallow dorsal V- 
shaped sinus with median semicircular excision, 
very deep ventral sinus; dorsal lorica rnoTC angular 
than M. bulla, pointed posteriorly; ventral pljnc 
narrows in front of foot; posterior segments small, 
angular, concave terminally; first foot segment 
broad, indistinct, second segment larger, 
trapezoidal; toe very long, spindle-shaped, l A body 
length, terminating in acute conical point with 
median line. 

Total length 200 iav, lorica length 145 /mi, width 
115 /tm, anteriot margin width 40 //in, toe 65 pm. 
Distribution: N. America, eastern Turope, shallow 
waters. Rare: unconfirmed report from western Vie. 
Literature. Bcizins 1982- 

Comment Although \ynonytnised with M, bulla 
1^ various authors (e.g. Kosle 19781, this taxon is 
immediately recognizable and sepaiable front that 
species. The specific status proposed by Hairing 
& Myers is retained here. 

having two cusps in middle of margins, rounded 
posteriorly.; ventral plate extended anteriorly co 
form two acute cusps on either side of head 
aperture; dorsal plate with conspicuous regular 
facetting; transverse fold and several longitudinal 
folds on ventral plate. 

Dorsal plate 61-88x52-66 >zm; ventral plate 
77-98x40-60 /mi; toe J6-38 fxm. 
Distribution: Cosmopolitan m penphyton, moss 
pools. Common: probably pancontincntal, not 
recorded from S. AilSt. !0.fJ-3l).7 6 C, pH 3.8-8.4, DO 
4.K-I3.0 mg I •, 23-3330 uS cm , 4-160 NTU alkal 
1.9-4.1 nig I *. 

Comment: A variant from a Goulburn R. 
billabong, described as Leeane (MJ hamata 
victonensis [Koste & Shiel 1980 (Fie 3:2c)J has a 
deep irape/.oid notch in the anterior ventral margin, 
and congruent points of anterior dorsal and ventral 

Literature: Shicl 6c Koste 1979; Green 1981; Ko«e 

Monostyla lamellate thaleru (Hnrring & Myers) 

FIG. 6:1 

Monostyla thuleta Rattftig tic Mvers, IM26, p. 394, F\g. 
39; h 4. 

M. fwiu'lttita lhalera: Koste 1978, p, 254 

Diagnosis- Head aperture with concave, sinuate 
dorsal margin; ventral margin with, deep, V-shapcd 
sinus; two small anterior spines at external angles; 
toe long and stout, < t A body length, spindle 
shaped and enlarged near middle: claw long, stout, 
acutely pointcd> with basal spicules and median 
mucUvS groove. 

Dorsal plate 109-167x90-128 /mi: ventral plate 
146-173x90-155 /.cm; toe 42-82 /mi; claw to Ifi /mi. 
Distribution: N. and S. America, Fttropc, N. Africa. 
Halophilc, not found in freshwater. Rare: saline 
waters in S. AusU Tas., W A. 
Comment: Described by Marring & Myers <|926) 
as specifically distinct from M. lamellate, which ha* 
a lunate anterior ventral sinus and distinctive 
posterior lateral triangular cusps, howevei 
intergrades have been reported in varying salinities. 
These variants may represent ccotypic responses to 
extremes tn the biotopc. Only the thaleru morph has 
been identified from southern Australian saline 
Literature: Koste & Shiel 1987a. 

Monostvlc hamate Slokcs 

FIG. 3:2a, b 

Monostyla hamata Stokes, 1896, p. 21. PI. 7. figs 6-8. 

Levant (\].} hurnatu: Myen 1937, p. A. 

Piagnusis: Head aperture with narrow U-shaped 

sinus dorsally, vent rally with deep V-shaped sinus 

Monostyla lurtarts Ehrenberg 

FIG. 3:3 

Monostyla lunufis Ehrctibcrg, 1832.. u, J27. 

fjecane (Mj lutusrts: Edinondsoii 1935, p. 302- 

Diagnosis: Head aperture nai row dorsally, with V- 

shaped posteriorly rounded sinus; ventral margin 

wide, sinus deep; transverse dorsal fold at base of 


anterior sinus; transversa ventral /aid in I'roni of 
fool; toe long and slender, >Vj body length, with 
two annular constrictions claw lon^t. slender, 
acutely pointed, two minute spicules at base. 

Dorsal plate K7-1 15x70-95 *tm; ventral plate 
96-122*54-89 /im; toe 42-76 >im; claw 6 12 fitn. 
Distribution: Cosmopolitan in a remarkable range 
of habitats; standing and flowing waters, fresh to 
saline, soda lakes, acid moss pools, etc. Common: 
paflconiineiical. 6.0-29 8°C, pK 3.1-8.9, DO 4.9-14.4 
mg 1 , 13.4-3330.0 $ era '. U.4-160 NTU alkal. 2.3 
mg 1 '. 

Common: Extremely variable eurytopiV species, 
possibly a species-complex. Recognizable variants 
recorded from Australia include M, lurturk* 
vonstrkta (Murray 1913b) (Fig. 3:3f r g) ftom the R. 
Murray at Blanehetown, S.Aust. and M. Junans 
perpiexa (Ahlstrom 1938) (Fig. 3:3d, c) from 
Victoria. M. lunaris austratis described by Berlins 
(19821 from Victoria falls within Ihe range of 
vanaiion of the parent species and is here 

Lttenmw: Koste !97R ( 1981; Shiel & Ko.ste 1979; 
Koste & Shiel 1983. 1986a, 

Monocyte monostyfa Daday 
FIG. 4:1 

Mottnstyto monos'tyta Daday, 1X97, p. 143. Tig. 10. 

Lecune (MjL rrtanuuyta- WihT-mewAfci 1954, p. *»8. 
Diagnosis: Head apenure margins straight and 
coincident; two small spines at external angles; long 
moveable curved spines hinged to lateral margin of 
dorsal lorica, can be rotated and swuii£ back into 
lateral sulcus when animal swimming, conforming 
to margin of poslcrior lorica. 

Total length (contracted) 125-151 f im; dorsal plare 
30-58x47 /an; ventral plate 62-80x46-50 am; toe 
25-40 Km. 

Distribution) PamropkaJ and subtropical, also in 
temperate latitudes in summer Single record from 
L. Euramoo, Old. 
Literature: Koste 1978. Grccw 1981. 

Moriostvla obtusa Murray 
FIG. 4:3 

Monocyte obhtw Murray, 1913a, fr 357, PI IS fig. 37. 

i-ecane (l\4.) obiusa: Wivzniewiki 1953. p. 378. 
Diagnosis: Head aperture margins straight, 
coincident; two minute frontal .spines at external 
angles; lateral sulci shallow, indistinct; toe '/'. body 
length, slightly enlarged distally; claw long, acutely 
pointed, with median dividing line, but u n separated; 
two basal spicules. 

Contracted length 10 115 /tin; dorsal plate 
53-78x45-73 /tm; ventral plate 62-80x45-58 /im; 
antciiot margin width to 58 jitn; toe 22-40 Mm; claw 
6-13 wm, 

Distribution; Cosmopolitan, pH tolerant, citry topic 
Known only from U> Ouramoo, Qld, and 
Yaekendandah Cieek, Vic. 
Literature: Koste I97K; Green 1981. 

Moriostvla opias Harring & Mvers 
FIG. 4:2 
Mofiouvtu optfo Banting & Myroi ii>2r., p. 45, 

Fiss 5, 6. 

Lecatw (M.) optas: Vo'igl 1957, p. 229. 

Diagnosis: Head aperture margins coincident, 

straight, with two small acute fmntal spines; 

transverse ventral fold in front tif foot; toe long, 

s> Va body length, tapering gradually to brtstle-bke 


Contracted length 95-100 fim: doisal plate 

59-66x54-60 pm\ ventral plate 67-99x42-55 pro; loc 

26-30 /tm. 

Distribution: Europe, Americas* between 

Sphagnum, Aulwuchs. Acidophil. SingJc record 

Yarra R. ( McMahons Creek, Vic, needs 


Literature: Koste 1978; Berzins 1982. 

Monos/vla pyriformis Daday 
FIG. 4:4 

Monosryta 'pyriformis Daday, 1905, p. 330. 

Lvcitne (M.) pyriformts: Fdmondson 1936, p. 214. 
Diagnosis: Anterior margins coincident, medially 
siraighl or weakly convex, strongly rounded at 
lateral rims; rudimentary lateral sulci; toes variable, 
generally dagger-like. 

Dorsal plate 51-67x40-60 ^m; ventral plate 
53-70x39-49 /mi; toes 22-36 pit) I Daday 0905) gave 
toe length of 57 >*m] 

Distribution: Cosmopolitan in inundation zones, 
periphyton, moss, margins of standing and flowing 
waters* Rare: N.S.W.. N.r., Qld, Vic. 14.7-2S.5°C, 
pH 5.4-7.K DO 4.1-6.2 mg I '. 23-240 p$ «*• $ 
NTU, alkal. 2.7 mg I*. 
Literature: Green 1981; Koste 1VSI; Ber/uu? IV82. 

Monostyfa quadridentata Ehrenbcrg 
FKi. 4:5 

Monostyfa qttudriderttaia Ehrenberc 1832. p. 130. 
Levant* (M.J quadridentata: Edmondton I$*5, p. 502. 

Diagnosis Anterior dorsal margin with pyriform 
median sinus flanked by iwo totig outeurved and 
deeurvtd spines /which Ciin be crossed in strongly 
contracted individuals); ventral plate with deep* 
sharply pointed V-shaped sinus; two minute frontal 
spines present; dorsal plate with two ribs originating 
on anterior spines; toe long, ' i body length, with 
indistinct annular constriction near distal end; claw 
long, slender with two basal spicules. 

Dorsal plate 105-106x90-125 0\ ventral plate 
130-170x90-1 IS mm toes 45-90 ,mi; claw 14 20 /an. 





Distribution: Cosmopolitan, warnfi-stenorberm, 

between maerophytes in littoral or fresh and slightly 

brackish waters, ftare: NX, Q1d, Ta&., Vic, W.A. 

(Kirabcrlcy). 12.0-I6,0°C, pH lo 8.8, to 3820 ,»S 

cm 1 . 

Literature-. Koste 1978. 

Dorsal plate 62-78x63-72 jtm: ventral plate 
68-80x50-72 /*m, toe 26-34 ,/.m; claw 5-7 ^m. 
Distribution: Cosmopolitan acidophil, in 
Sphagnum. Karc: N.I., S. AusL, Tas. II.U-28.5 H\ 
pH 5.4-7.8, DO 6.2 mg I '. alkaJ. 2.7 mg I L 
Literature: Koste 19SJ; Kostc & Shicl 1986a. 

Fig. 5. Monostyia Harring: (a) dorsal; (b) vcmral. 
Scale line 50 txm, Alter Hairing & Mym (1926). 

Monostyla rugose Harring 
FIG. 5 

Mmostyta rugosa Harring, 1914, p. MS, Fig. 24:4-6. 
Diagnosis: Head aperture margins nearly 
coincident, ventral straight, dorsal lightly concave; 
dorsal plate wider than long, anterior margin 
nat rower than that of ventral plate; dorsal wrinkles 
deep and irregular; ventral ornamentation constant 
as shown (Fig. 5b); lateral sulci shallow, indistinct; 
loe approx. '/i total length terminating in long 
double claw, 

Total length 84 /*m, lorica length 57 ^m. dorsal 
plate 54x62 //m, ventral plate width 45 /mi, anterior 
margin dorsal plate 34 /im, ventral plate margin 45 
/in), toe 21 /*m, claw 6 /tm. 
Distribution: Panama, U.S.S.R. First Auvtralian 
record Ryan's #1 billabong at Albtiry, N.SiW, 
I2.V.R8, in Eleodwris reedbed. 15.8°C, pH 7 .16, DQ 
7.12 mgl\ 82.2 *S cm'. 

Monostyla sett lata Harring & Myers 
FIG. 4:6 

Xfottostvfa SCUfM Hairing & Myers, 1926, p. 401, PI. 
40, Figs. I 2. 

Lrttifie (MJ WUtittti: Wiszuiewski 1954, p 378. 
Diagnosis Head aperture margins coincident, 
ligjilly concave; sharp corners but no anterior 
spiues; lateral sulci shallow, indistinct; transverse 
fold ol ventral plaie: toe long, stout, W total length, 
parallel- sided then tapering to slender acute claw. 

Monosfvta sinuutu Waiter) 
FIG. 6:1 

Lecane stnuata llauer, 1918, p. 545, Ktg. 67. 

/.. hamate vat, sifumar. Kostc 1978, p 259 
Lhagnosts: Head apertuie conspicuously small, both 
margins with V-shaped sinuses, but not coincident 
dorsal with convex sides, ventral very narrow, twice 
as deep as dorsal, with straight sides; minute frontal 
spine on either side of head aperture; dorsal plate 
smooth, rounded posteriory; ventral plate same 
width as dorsal anteriorly, much narrower medially, 
has transverse fold, longitudinal lines as figured; 
posterior plate extends beyond dorsal margin; toe 
W body length, no claw* 

Dorsal plate 74 76x53-55 fim, ventral plate 
80-82x41-46 ^m; toe 28 ;tm. 
Distribution: Sumatra. India. Rare: Tas. 
1 8.0-21. 5 a C, pH 6.S-7.7, 92.1-3330 /*S cm '. 
Comment: Described from a single specimen, M, 
sinuata was noted by Hauer 11938) to resemble M. 
hamata and was so synonymised by Koste (1978). 
The distinctive head apenure and lack of 
ornamentation of the dorsal plate renders the 
species immediately recognizable as disiinci from 
M, hamata. The specific detei initiation is retained 
Literature: Wulfert 1966; Koste & Shicl 1986a 

Monosfvta s/enroosi Meissnei 
FIG. 6:2 
Monostyla srtmroosi Meissner, 190ft, p. 22, Fig. 1:8. 
Lec<me f'WJ stenroost: Wiszniewski 1953, p. 378. 

Diagnosis: Head aperture dorsally straight, ventrally 
with shallow rounded sinu.s with strongly convex 
.sides; two short stout, incurved hooklikc frontal 
spines; lateral sulci very deep, particularly in 
anterior hall', with characteristic constriction in 
ventral plate; toe long, stout l A body length, slightly 
enlarged in middle; claw short, stout, acutely 
pointed, with two basal spicules. 

Dorsal plate 90-117x83-100 nm\ ventral plate 
9K-I22XK5-103 pfl; toe 40-51 /mi; claw 10-11 /mi. 
Distribution: Widespread, but isolated. Abundant 
in algal mats in ephemeral pools, in periphyton and 
littoral of larger waters. Warm stenotherm. Rare- 

Fig 4. I. Mf/ntxstyia tnrstwsfy/u Daday: U) dorsal; I'bi ventral. 2. Af. npitto Han my & Mvei's: (a) dorsal; (b) ventral. 
3. M. obtusu Murray: (a) (b) veniral. 4. M. pyriformh Duday (u) dorsal; lb) yvntr&h 4, Xt quiirtridcmatu 
khrenbera: (n) dorsal; (b) veniral. (>, A-/, svutato Harring & Myers: (a) dorsal; (h) vential. Fij». 4: l~b, alki Harnne 
& WyCW 0926) .Scale lines 50 pen, 




N.S.W., Old, 13J^-20.0°C 1 pH 7.5-9.1, DO 7.0-9.0 mg 
]\ 400-575 ,*S cm *', 50-160 NTU 
/ Uerature: Sluel & Ko«e 1979. 

Monnsevta styrax Hariwg & Myers 
FIG. 6:3. 

Monostyta stvrax Hairing St. Mvcrs, 1926, p. 3HV.'H), 
PI. 37, Figs 3, 4. 

Levane bulla myrow, My«is 1937, p. 2. 
Diagnosis: Head aperture narrow, dorsally with 
wide median elliptic notch, ventral ly with deep 
straight-sided sinus, rounded posteriorly; lateral 
sulci very deep; toe long, slender, > 'a total length, 
iucre&sing slightly in width in distal half, tapering 
to blunt points claw extremely lone, slender, acutely 
pointed. Can be distinguished liom 'V/. butia by 
daw alone, however anterior margin, Tool and toe 
also differ significantly. 

Dorsal plate- 124x90 urn; ventral plate 128x90 
ptm; toe 78 >ini; claw 24 pm. 
Distribution; North America, N.Z. Single record 
from Qld. 

Literature: Russell 1961; Koste 1978; SWel & Koste 

Monosty/a subulate perpusittu <H<uier) 

FIG. 6:5 

Monosty/a perpusitla Hauer, 192V, n I5ft ( Lie- \4 

Lecone (M.) perpasitfa; Wisznicwski 1953, ^ 578, 

L. subttlara perpusUta: Koste 1962, p. 113 

Diagnosis: Ventral plate bilaterally constricted ju.« 

under anterior margin: anterior margins lightry 

convex, coincident; dorsal and ventral surfaces may 

have indistinct folds; toe long, with distinct 

constriction to posterior third, > '/j body length; 

claw long-, acutely pointed. Large red eyespot, 

irregularly formed, seen in fresh material. 

Total length 69-72 pm; length, dorsal 44-50 pm, 
ventral 55 pm; width, dorsal to55jim* ventral 41-48 
/*m; anterior margin width 4i juri; toe 19-29 /*m; 
claw 10-11 pm. 

Distribution: Sphagnum, capillary water of beach 
sands. Single record from Yarra R. near tvanhoc, 
Vic needs verification. 

Comment; The typical form, Af subulate Hairing 
Si Myers (1926) (Fig. 5:4) has not been recorded 
from Australia. Jt can be distinguished from the 
above taxon by its larger size and relatively shorter 
toe and claw: Total length (contracted) S7-H.0 ;tin; 
dorsal length 53-64 j/m, width 51-65 /ajh; ventral 
length 59-68 /*m, width 46-55 #jn; anterior margin 
39-50 j*m; toe L6-27 /im; claw 8-10 pm. 
Literature: Kosie 1978; Berlins 1982, 

Monostyia tethis Haaiug & Myers 

FIG. 6;n 

Monostytas- tethis Harung. & Mvers. IV26, p. 4Q5, PI. 
38, figs L 2: 
Levane (fvl) tethis; WUcjiicWski 1954^ p. 71. 

L/taraia var. thet^ Ncj: Ko«t I97R, p. 242, Fit, 8|:7a* 


Diagnosis: Head aperture with coincident straight 
dorsal and ventral margins; regular facetting of 
dot sal plate, with each facet bounded by double 
longitudinal lines; ventral plate also with 
longitudinal markings; transverse fold in front of 
foot, two small semieucular folds; toe long* W body 
lengths straight with slight taper; claw long, slender. 
Total length 100 pin, dorsal plate 70x62 >iin; 
ventral plate 74x62 ^m; anterior margin width. 
dorsal, 42 pin, ventral 53 >irru toe 24 pm; claw 6 >un. 
Distribution; Rare in N. America, Central Europe. 
Single record from L. Euramoo, Qld. 
Comment: Synonymiscd with M./urcata by Koste 
(1978), Sf tethis lacks the disJinctive divided claw 
of M. f areata, and ils lorica morphology onl.v 
superficially resembles that specie*, which does not 
have the dorsal and ventral patterning as described. 
Af. tethis is of restricted occurrence, probably of 
precise habitat requirements. 
Literature: knste 1978; Green 1981. 

Monostyia unguiwta Fnrieev 
FIG, 7:2 

Mtiwntyfa anguhutu Fadccv, 1915, p. 2l r Tig. I.; 

Levant (M.) tm^uitata: W'i&*me*ski 1954, p 72. 
Diagnosis: UcAii a pert ure dorsal margin straight, 
ventral with median U-shaped notch in broad, 
shallow lunate sinus. (Fig, 6;2b); dorsal plnte 
narrower and shorter than ventral; ventral obliquely 
truncated on end; small frnrn corner spines point 
inwards as in Af stenroosi. toe paiallel-Mded, 
slightly swollen distally; claw long, separated or 

Dorsal plate 83-H0x$6-92 pm, ventral plate 
93-322x93*95 pin; toe 37-44 pm; claw to 15 pm. 
Distribution: Rare in East Europe. N. America, 
Asia, Sri Lanka. Billabongs at Albuiy, N.S.W., and 
Jabiluka. NT. 25.0-31.0°C. pH t>.2-6.s\ DO 3.2-10 3 
rag l', 48-140 pS cm'- 

Comment: A single ?ccotyptc variant was identified 
from a brtlabong of the Coleman R., Gtpc York, 
Qld, lacking ihe characteristic anterior projcciions, 
and slightly smaller in some dimensions. 
\feasuternews: DorsaJ, plate 104 x 72 prn; ventral 
plalc 104x83 ,um; toe 28 pm; claw 12 pm) (Sbiel <& 
Koste 1985). 

Fig. 6. L Monostyia sinuata Hauen (a) dorsal: (b) venrrai. 2, Af stenroosi McKsncn (at dorsal; (b) venrrai. }. AL 
sryrax Hairing & Mvcrs: (a) dorsal; <b) ventral. 4. Af. subutota Hnrnng & Myers: (a) dorsal; i'h) vcniral 5, M t 
sxtbuhta pexpuritta Haucr: (a^ ventral; <b) dorsal. 6, M. tethis Harring & Myers: tat fldttal; (b) vcniwl. V\p,. & 
\-s, 5, alter FUrrine; & Myers. \\92f*)\ 4, after Haucr |I929|. Scale lines 50 pra_ 



4a JT 

4b a 

5a \ 



Literature: Hauer 1938;: Wulferi I96A; Koslc 1978, 

Of fourteen taxa of lecanids with part fusion of 6tSj. 
the toe listed by Koslc (1978), only two variants ol' 
a single species, Henunnwostyfo inopinata (Fig. TlSj 
4) are known from Australia. No key is provided 
for die ^eous. lor details refer to koste (1978). 

Hemimottasfvta inopinata (Warring & Myers) 
FIG. 7:5 

Lec&ne W&Mtfrttt Hairing & Myers, J926, p. 274, Fig, 
J2;5. 6. 

Diagnosis: Head aperture margins coincident. 
slightly convex; no frontal spines; dorsal plate 
smooth, narrower than ventral plate anteriorly, 
slightly truncate posteriorly; ventral plate with two 
transverse and several longitudinal ridges; lateral 
sulci deep; toes long, slender, '4 total length, fused 
for distal n of their length, terminate in distinct 

Dorsal plate 56-75x54-62 »un; ventral plate 
59-80x40-58 *u»; toe 21-31 ^m; claws 3-5 ion. 
Diufibutiom Probably cosmotropieul -subtropical, 
warm stenolherm. Single record from Wyangala 
Dam> N SW. A record of H, inopinata sympoda 
(Hauer 1929) {Fig, 7:4) from Cairns, Qid (C.H. 
Fernando pers, comm.) is unverified Also a warm 
stenotherm, possibly panuopicai, sympoda is 
distinguished from the nominate species by the 
bilaterally constricted anterior ventral plate, 
presence of triangular cusps at (he anterior rnrners, 
and variable lineation of dorsal and ventral plates 
(sec Koste 1978). 

Dorsal plate 55-33x49-73 ^n; ventral plate 
58-87X4S-68 >im; claws, 3-9 jtfp. 

Key to species of the genus Lecane 









1 4<13). 



Loriea with acute cusps or rounded projections 

at anterior external angles , 1 

Lonca without opines Or projections at anterior 

angles 2 

Toes wiih clows or pseudoclaws R 

Toes without claws or pseudoclaws, , , .4 

Toes with claws or pseudoclaws. 26 

Toes without claws or pseudoclawv . ....17 

Dorsal plate at least as long or toftgtf iltaji 17(3). 

vemrai plate. L. claro tBrycej 

Dorsal plate noticeably shorter than ventral 

plate 5 

Anterior margin almost straight or lightly 18(17), 
convex 6 

Anterior margin (dorsal) wiih regular undulating, 
lines - \-- ... . - ii i . . .£. nodosa Hauer 

Toes \A body length; dorsal and ventral surfaces 

with complex partem (Fig, Ifi:3) 

■ , i i venusttt Warring & Myers 

Toes w-ii body length; dorsal surface smooth 
or sparsely lined, venlral plate with single 
transverse fold and some longitudinal folds. 7 

Lonca wider than long; 2nd fool segment 

projects well beyond posterior margin 

. , , £. hornettHtnni (Ehrenberg) 
Loriea longer than wide; 2nd foot segment 
beneath loriea margin. L nana (Muriay) 

Loriea 180-200 Am; toes >70/mi 9 

I.orica < 180 /im; toes <50 /<m. . 10 

Barrel-shaped louca (L:W ratio 1.25); broad 
footplate without marked constriction of loriea 

margin L. grundis (Murray) 

Loriea more elongate (L:W ratio 1.5), with 
anicriot constriction behind head aperture and 
marked constriction of margins at toorplare 
/., boorati Koste &. Shiel 

Toes long r/»44 body length) clearly visible 

beyond footplate. ...-,.. ,11 

70es rcmaikably short (<1/I0 body length) 
barely protruding beyond footplare in dorsal 

view . . L, namifo RousM-let 

Loriea elongated (I .:\V ratio 1.8) 

- • ...... JL. inermis (Bryce) 

Lonca broadly ovate (L:W <l.5) 12 

Dorsal and ventral plates disnnclly paUcrucdJ5 
Dor**l plates smooth, ventral with tingle 
transverse fold or light ornamentation J3 

Claws short (claw:toe ratio <3.0) 14 

Claws long (ratio >i.0) t .L, tenuiseta Hairing 

Ventral plate with posterolateral corners anteriot 
to footplate producing rectangular appearance 

L. ruttneri Haucr 

Ventral plate posterior mfttgins smoothly curved, 
without vomers. L. formosa Harring & Myers 

Claws shon (<I0 / ( m).. Ifi 

Claws long (13-18 finj) K doryssa Harring 

Dorsal ptate subcircular; footplate projects beyond 

dorsal plate to cover 2nd foot segment 

L. pusttia Harring 

Dorsal plate parallel -sided; 2nd foot segment 

projects beyond footplate 

L subttlis Harring & Myers 

Caudal margin of lonca broadly Ixurtcalc or 

rounded 18 

Caudal margin tapering to point, bilaterally 

constricted tongue or ft$litalp- 2S 

Caudal margin straight, with obtuse angled 
corners . , , 19 

Fig- ?. I, Monosryla tamettata thalcnt (Harring &. Myers*, (a* dorsal, (b) ventral. 2. M, ungu'mtta Fadccv: {at dorsal; 
ft) ventral. 3, Hemimonostyla inopinata (Harring & Myers): (a) dorsal; (b) ventral. 4, H. inopinata aympoda Hauer: 
h) dorsal; (b) ventral, % Lerone acronyrha Harring St Myers: (a) ventral; (b) dorsal. & (.. aculeate (Jakubski); 
<al dot sal; (b) ventral. Fig. 7: I, 3-5, after Harring & Myers (1926); 2, after Mailer fffijA); fo at'rcr Wulfert (I96.H 
Scale lines 50 /im. 



Caudal margin smoothly oval/elliptical 

1^(18) Toe <30 Mm. short and stout 

L. hrachydactyta (Sfenroos) 

Ibc >30 jun, chin, with finer taper 

L. tudkola Harring & Myers 

2008). Second foot segment protrudes at least Va iis 
length beyond caudal margin. . -,,-... .21 
Second foot segment not protruding 22 

21(20). Toes <50 /*m; ventral lorica >J50 am 

r . L. pertica Harring k Myers 

Toes <40 jx\n\ lorica <LU0 ftm ., , 

, L thytida Hai ring & Myers 

23(20). Lorica surfaces smooth . . . -, 23 

Surfaces (particularly dorsal) clearly ornamented 
i i t A., signiferti (Jennings) 

23(22). Frontal margins straight or slightly concave; 

caudal margin smoothly rounded 24 

Maigins deep V-shaped sinuses; caudal margin 
lobate /, twztgi Kosle & Shiel 

24(7.3), Ui'jca elongated, 200 gat; toes 75 /<.m 

/.. pyrrha Harring & Myers 

Ivonca <!50/tm; toes <20>m 

U tevistyia (Olofsson) 

25(17). Posterior lorica tapers to point 

L ludwigi (Eckstein) 

Posterior lorica a bilaterally constricted blunt 
tongue, or 'fishtail*. .L. ohiowiis (Merrick) 

26(3). Frontal corners of lorica with acute spines oi 

cusps 27 

Frontal corner projections rounded rather than 
acute L. papiuma (Murray) 

27(26). Claws with knoblike swelling 

/.. hustaia (Murray) 

Claws without swelling. , . , , , , ,28 

28(27). Ventral plate with elongated footplate 

..... ...L. ieontitut ( turner) 

Ventral caudal margin symmetrically rounded 

2y|28). lorica ventral margin projects beyond dorsal. 

/.. etsa Hauer 

Margins coincident or doisal projects beyond 
ventral .. , , 30 

30(29). Dorsal anleriot marain straight or lightly convex 


Dorsal anterior margin concave 31 

.3U30). Head aperture margins coincident V-shaped 

sinuses , . . . 32 

Both matgttb broad lunate sinuses 33 

32(31), Smooth or weakly ornamented lorica; head 

aperture margins smooth 

- . . , , . . i . /,, et/' - v/ct"vm (Murray) 

Both surfaces distinctly ornamented; head 
aperrure margin undulate../., muda (Murray) 

33(31). Dorsal surface unoinamenied; no noticeable 
constriction o( posterolateral margins at 

footplate L. lumi (Muller) 

Dorsal surface stippled; footplate elongated, with 
distinct bilateral constriction of posterolateral 
margins L, aptweeri iShepbard) 

20 34(30). Dorsal margin straight between cusps, ventral 
margin coincident or lightly concave 

--- .- 35 

Dorsal margin convex between cusps* ventral 
margin coincident, straight or concave 38 

33(34). Distal foot segment not visible beyond lorica 

margin . . ^ 

Disial foot segment visible beyond lorica margin 
,L miru (Murray) 

36(35). Ventral margin concave; dorsal plate smaller than 

ventral; toes >60 ^m long 37 

Margins coincident; dorsal plate larger than 

ventral; toes <60 /*m long 

/.. tasmanlensis Koste <& Shiel 

37(36). Claws short (claw;roc ratio >5) 

L acronycha (JakubsVil 

Claws long (ratio <X5). L. uniwlata (Gosse) 

38(34). last foot segment visible beyond dorsal margin 


Last foot segment not visible beyond margin39 

39(38) J lead aperture margins coincident, convex; lorica 

not noticeably elongated 40 

Dorsal margin convex, ventral concave; lorica 
elongated, , r L glypia Harring & Myers 

40(39). Lorica <80 jun long; ventral plate constricted 
anteriorly; small semicircular footplate projects 

slightly beyond posterior lorica.,, .♦. 

i . . - , .L. flexitis (Gossc I 

Lorica >100 iixw long; ventral plate uoi 
constricted; footplate broad, extends well beyond 

posterior margin of dorsal plate , 

...... . . U nspasia Myers 

41(38). Ventral plate strongly constricted in 'hip' region 

■ . • - L ctvpidti Harring 

Ventral plate not constricted .42 

42(41 ). Dorsal plate covers all ventral plate and footplate 

/.. mylacris Harring &. Myers 

Footplate visible posterior In dorsal plate. .43 

43(42), Cusps large, outer margins convex, pointing 

outwards L. tuvteufa (.takubuki) 

Cusps small, outer margins concave, point ahead 
or inwards .... .44 

44(43j. Toe points short with distinct step on inside 

distinguishing claw L stivhaea Harring 

Toe points elongated, claws indistinct, . .. 
/.. hatk'tysro Harring $ Myers 

Lecane acronycha Harring ft Vlyeis 
FIG. 7:5 

Lctvne acronycha Harring & Myas, 1926. p. 322. PI. ft. 
Figs 3, 4. 

Diagnosis: Dorsal anterior margin straight, ventral 
slightly concave, with two triangular cusps at 
external angles; unmarked dorsal plate not reacliint* 
margin of ventral plate; transverse fold of ventral 



A^ *J\ 

Fig. 8. 1, Lecane aculeata arcuia (Hairing): (a) dorsal; (b) ventral, 2, L. aspasia Myers: (a) dorsal; (b) ventral. 3, 
U booraii Koste & Shiel: (a) dorsal; (b) ventral. 4, L. brachydactyla (Stenroos): (a) dorsal; (b) ventral. 5, L. clara 
(Bryce): (a) dorsal; (b) ventral. 6, L. crepida Harring: (a) dorsal; (b) ventral. Fig. 8: 1,2, 4-6, after Harring & 
Myers (1926); 3, after Koste et at. (1983). Scale lines 50 pm. 






plate anterior to foot; slight indentation of 
posterolateral margins at footplate; toes long ( > X A 
body length) with slight distal bulge; claw short, 
with small basal spicule. 

Total length to 290 //m; dorsal plate ill-lf»2x to 
136 \l\x\\ veulral plate I25-IS2X95-U3 /*rn; toe* 
60-t02/mi; claw 10-12 pSu 

Distribution: N. America, Asia. Acidophil Two 
Australian records; billabong* Jabiluka* NX, river 
at Kirtglake West, Vic 25.0°C\ pH 6.2. DO 3.0 nig 
I: 1 , 48/jtScm'. 
Literature: Koste 1978, 1981; Berzins J982. 

Lecane aculeata (Jakubski) 

FIG. 7;6 

Oistyla acuteatu Jakubski, J912, p.543, fig3 3, 4. 

Diagnosis: Resembles L. jlexilis (Fig. 8:4), bui can 
readily be distinguished from it by oblique, 
Outwardly directed frontal cusps, narrower lorica, 
second toot segment visible at posterior end, 
straight toe and bilaterally constricted necdie-hke 
clawi. Dorsal plate usually truncated, with Iwo 
transverse plans bcneaih (Fig. 7:6a). 
Dorsal plate 62-67x45-55 im; ventral plate 
73-87x46-52 <nn; toe 22-28 #Rl claw 5-7 pft, 
Distribution: Warm Mcnotherm in subtropical and 
tropical vegetated waters, particularly riccficlds. 
Rare: Wyangala, N.S.W., Jabiluka, NX, Qld, 
southeast S.Aust.. Vic. 24.0-27.0°C, pH 6.3-7.4, DO 
5.1-7.5 nig I , 42-245 ^S cm' 1 , 0.5-15.0 NTU. 
Comment: A subspecies, Lecane aculeata areata 
(Harriog) (Fig. 8:1), recorded from Magela Creek, 
NT., and Ciippsland, Vic. Similar lorica 
ornamentation, but outline rnurc circular, 
particularly posterior margin of don>al plate; 
transverse pleats posterior to dorsal plate lacking, 
frontal cusps reflexcd upwards; overall dimensions 

Dorsal pjatc 57-63x49-56 jim; ventral plate 
67-78x44-51 jun; toe 22-27 u.m; claw 4-6 nm. 
Liti'Mure Koste 1978. 1981; Berzins 1982. 

beyond dorsal plate; toes > V* body length, straight, 
lapering; daw long, pointed. 

Tutal length 132 ym\ dorsul plate 82x75 jgmi 
ventral plate 94x75 ;uii; head aperture width 63 /un. 
toes 30 fim\ claw -8 /on. 

Distribution: California. Single record from 
Victoria needs verification. 
Literature: Berzins 1982. 

Lecane hooraH Koste &l Sl'iel 
FIG. &3 

Lecane hoorali Koste &. ShiVl, 1983, pp. 14-15, Figs 6-8. 

Diagnosis; Head aperture margins not coincident, 
dorsal straight, ventral concave, occasionally with 
median V-shaped groove; no cusps at external 
Angles; dorsal plate narrower, shorter than ventral; 
characteristic triangular depressed foot cavity 
bounded by raised cuttcular ridge (Fig. 8:3b); 
elongated loot plate deposed front body; toes with 
laterally opposed claws, 

Total length 260 /rioij dorsal plate 180x120 /un; 
ventral 200x132 ^m; anterior margin width 100 /un; 
toes 82 /an; claw 10 /mi. 

Distribution: Endemic, recorded only front a pool 
near Meekatharra, W.A, pH 8.6, 68 (£3 cm 1 . 

lecane brachydactyla (Stcnroos) 
FIG. 8:4 

Cathvprw hrachvducnla Srcnmos, IX^N, rO(S0 t V\ ?, 

Lucerne bracbydatty/a: Harhrtg 1913, p.ftO. 

Diagnosis; Head aperture dorsal margin slightly 
undulate with prominent lateral cusps; ventral 
margin with median concavity; lorica dorse- 
ventrally compressed, no markings, footplate 
prominent, trapezoidal; iocs short, straight on inner 
edges, with long conical points. 

Dorsal plate 100-130x92-115 ;irn; ventral plate 
128-150x78-119 (t m; toes 20-40 ,<m 
Distribution: U.S.A., in soli acid waters with 
Sphagnum. Single record from Qld 
Literature: Koste 1978; Shiel & Koste 1979. 

Lecane aspasia Myers 
im/ne ay^uv/w Myers. I**(7, p.476 PL 41), Tigs it *. 

Diagnosis; Lorica broad, nearly parallel-sided 
anteriorly, posteriorly rounded; head n pert Lire 
margins coincident, slightly convex; two small cusps 
at external angles; posterior segment projects 

Lecane data (Brycc) 
FIG. 8:5 
Cathypna tiara Brycc, iyx2, r>.27l, tcu ftf, 

Lecutte claru Harrint 101?, p.£0. 

Diagnosis; Very flexible membraneous lorica; 
anterior margins not coincident, dorsal lightly 
convex, ventral concave; no spines at external 
angles; no markings on dortal plate; toes long, 

Hg. 9. I, Lecane curvicornis (Murray): (a) dorsal; (fa) ventral. 2, L. dorysset Hairing: (a) dorsal, fl>) ventral. 3,. L, 
Wstf Haucr: (a) dorsal; (b) ventral. 4, L- ffexilis (Gos&e): (a) dorsal; (b) ventral. 5, L. J&rfiUbQ flairum &. Myers: 
(a j dorsal; (bj ventral. 6, /.. g/vpfa H&UlflB *c Myers: tiO clonal; (b) vcnlral. Fiii. 9: I. 4-6. after Harrnip & Mvcrs 
(IV26); 2, atrei Haucr (WX); 3, altei tlauei (1931). Scale lines 50 urn. 



robust, Vi total length, terminating in bristle-like 

Total length 1*70-200 /*m; dorsal plate 
72-83x40-62 /an; ventral plate 75-90x40-55 ^tn; 
toes 25-40 jfflft 

Distribution; N. America in Sphagnum. Single 
unconfirmed record from Vic. 
Literature: Berzins I y 82. 

Lecane crepida Hairing 
hlti. K:6 
Umri*' wpidii Harring, 1914, p.533, PI. 22. Fjgs \-7, 

Diagnosis: Head aperture dorsal margin slightly 
convex, ventral slightly concave; tw« short stout 
incurved cusps at external angles; dorsal plate 
smaller than ventral, strongly convex; three pain* 
of divergent wavy ridges on dorsal anterior surface; 
ventral plate with interrupted longitudinal pleats; 
no lateral sulci; toes > Y* total leneth; claw long, 

Dorsal plate 75x45 ^rn; >entral plate 100x68 pm; 
lues 40 jon; claws 9-tG ftOL 
Distribution: Often numerous in tropical and 
subtropical shallow waters. Single record; L. 
Mulwala, Vic. 24.2 d L\ pH 7.7, DO 8.6 me 1 '. 60 
M Senr', 22NTU 
/ itemture: Kosie 197S. 

Lecane curvicorrtis (.Murray) 
FI& 9:1 

Catbypnai unicornis Murray, 1913a, p. 346. fig. 14:22. 
L<?cane afrviatrtth: Haning J914, p.53% Fig. 17:3. 

Diugriasis: Head aperture margins coincident, both 
with broad V-shaped sinuses; two large cusps al 
external angles; ventral plate much wider than 
doTsal, with transverse fold; posterior segment 
rounded; toes "? total length. 

Dorsal plate 110-120x95-112 ptn\ ventral plate 
130-145x105-116 /itn; toe 4H-79 ^ m; c taw 8-13 ^m. 
Distribution: Abundant in tropical and subtropical 
shallow waters. Rare: f innis R. and MagcLa Creek, 
NX, Coongic Lakes, S.Aust. and southwest W.A. 
24.5-29.8°C, pH 5.2-6.3, DO 3,0-6.1 mgl ', 28-59 IS 
cm 1 , alkal. 1.9 mgl'. 
Literature: Koste 197S; Berzins 1982; Koste & Shiel 

Lecane dorvssa Hnrrine 
FlOi 9:2 

Ifivne doryssu Harriny, 1914, p. 542, PI. 21. Fig* 4-6. 

Diagnosis: Head aperture margins not coincident; 
dorsal slightly convex, ventral almost straight; no 
cusps at external angles; dorsal plate facetted, 
ventral plate with complex pattern (Fig. 8;2h) 

posterior segment projects well beyond dorsal plate; 
>Y2 second foot segment projects beyond lorica 
margin; toes long, slender, reducing to needle-like 
pseudoclaw at approx. Vi their length. 

Dorsal plate 58x60 #m, ventral plate 58x58 //in; 
head aperture width 52 ^m; toes 30-32 /j.m; 
pseudoclaw 13 pnv. 

Distribution: Central fiurope. Central America, 
Amazonia, Asia. Indonesia, in penphyion. Ran?: 
Magela Creek. NX and acid waters of western 
Tasmania. 12.0-29.9°C P H 3 1-6 3, DO 5.5-5,* mg 
Hi 26-81 t&cm\ 
Literature: Koste IV78, WHI: Koste et at. II98S) 

Leca/te etea Mauer 
FIG. 9:3 

Levant' ctsa Hauer, 1931. p. S. Tig. 2. 

Diagnosis: Head aperture margins not coincident- 
dorsal convex, ventral biconvex (with median 
notch); occasionally tiny spines at frontal angles; 
dorsal plate smooth, smaller than ventral plate; 
ventral plate with distinct transverse fold; posierior 
plate with tonguclikc elongation over foot 
segments; lateral sulci deep; toes slender, < Vi body 
length, tapering to disiinct claw. 

Dorsal plate 122-140x102-113 /an; ventral plate 
I33-160X 106-128 /i.m; toes 60-66 *tm; daws 9-10 ^m. 
Distribution: Rare in littoral of large water bodies, 
but abundant in floodplain waters and inundation 
iones of central Europe, Amazonia Rare: NT, 
W.A., Vic. 20.0-3 1.1°C. pH 5.4-7.2. DO 6.7-9.1 mg 
l\25 ftScnT, Alk. 2,3 mgl' 
Literature: Koste 1978, 1981; Kosie et at. 1983. 

Lecane flexifis (Gossej 
FIG. 9;4 

Distyfa //r.v///.v Uossc In Hudson & Gosse, 1886. p. f,n . 
i'ig. 24:7; 

Leutne ftexilis Harring 1913, p.6l. 

tUagnosts: Head aperture margins coincident, 
convex, with two short cusps at external angles; 
dorsal plate facetted, rounded posteriorly; ventral 
plate narrower than dorsal, less distinctly 
ornamented; lateral sulci indistinct; toes Ion*. 
slender, '/i bod> length, tapenng distally to small, 
acute recurved cluw with small dorsal basal spicule. 
Dorsal plate 72-76x63-66 fim; ventral plate 
66-90x50-60 firn; toes 22-50 jflfa; claws 3-5 jwm. 
Distribution: Cosmopolitan, euiylherm, regarded 
by Koste (1978) as a possible alkalophile. NX, Tas., 
Via, common, abundant in humic acid waters to 
Tasmania. S.2-29;0°C, pH 3.1-8.4, DO 6.110.7 m£ 
1», 9.780 jiS cm ' ( 17.4 NTU 
Literature: Koste 1978, 1981; Koste et ai 1988. 



Lecane formosa Harring & Myers 

FIG. 9:5 

Lecane formosa Harring & Myers, 1926, p. 360, 
Figs 29:1, 2. 

Diagnosis: Head aperture margins straight, 
coincident; no corner spines; dorsal plate smooth, 
narrower than ventral plate at anterior margin; 
ventral plate with single transverse fold, two 
longitudinal lines; posterior segment broadly 
rounded, projects beyond dorsal plate; toes X A total 
length, straight, slightly tapered; claw long, acute, 

Total length 110 fim; dorsal plate 74x68 /Am; 
ventral plate 80x68 itm; toes 25 ^m; claws 7 jim. 
Distribution: U.S.A. Single unverified record from 

Hunter R., N.S.W. 

Literature: Literature: Berzins 1982. 

Lecane giypta Harring & Myers 
FIG. 9:6 
Lecane glvpta Harring & Myers, 1926, p. 360, 
Figs 26:1, 2. 

Diagnosis: Head aperture dorsal margin convex, 
ventral slightly concave, with two small spines at 
frontal corners; dorsal and ventral surfaces 
intricately patterned; lateral sulci indistinct; toes Va 
total length, slender, parallel-sided; claws small. 

Dorsal plate 75-80x50 #rn; ventral plate 
80-86x42-46 //m; toes 22-27 pm\ claws 5 /uru 


Fig. 10. t, Lecane grandis (Murray): (a) dorsal; (b) ventral. 2, /.. haliclysta Harring & Myers: (a) dorsal; (b) ventral. 
3, L. herzigi Koste etal.\ (a) dorsal; (b) venrral. 4, L. muis Harring & Myers: venrral. 5, L. ardwavi Biencrt: ventral. 
Fig. 10: I. 2, 4 t after Harring & Myers (1926); 3, after Koste et at. (1988); 5 after Bienerr (1986). Scale lines 50 ,tm. 







Distribution: N America. Europe, Middle-Basl, 
Asia. Single recoid, Biebeno-Freyeiiiei area, eastern 
Tasmania. I4°C 
Literature: Koste 1978; Koste <& Shiel 19S5, I987u. 

Lecane gnindis (Murray) 
FIG. 10:1 

Cuihy?mu ftrvmJis Murray. I9S34 P 344 r Fig. 13:20. 
Ltxtwe ftrandis: Fadccv 1925, p, 20 t Fig, 1:6. 

Diagnosis: Head aperture margins straight; smooth 
dorsal plate piojcets slightly ahead of ventral plaie; 
bo !h plates of similar shape; single transverse fold 
of ventral plate; posterior segment broad, truncate; 
toes long, blade-shaped; conical claw with basal 

Dorsal plate 165-180'* L18-140 pin; ventral plate 
175-200..: 118-140 ^m; toes 72-80 //m; claws 10-12 

Distnhutton: Possibly cosmopolitan in 
bracfcivh/athallasic syline waters, Euryhabnc. Single 
record, billabong, Jabiluka, NT. 25.0°C, pH 6.2. 
DO 3.0 rng I ', 48 [xS cm '. 
Literature: Koste 1978, 

Lecane hahch'sta Harring & Myers 
FIG. 10:2 
LetoMv halktysiu Marring A Myers, 1926, p. HV 
Fie> 21:3, 4, 

Diagnosis: Head aperture margins coincident, 
.-Mraight, with two small spines at frontal corners; 
dorsal plate facetted, each facet with double 
margins; venttal plate also paiiented, less regularly 
lhan dorsal; caudal plate rounded, projects slightly 
beyond dorsal plate; toes > % body length, straight, 
Gliding in indistinct acute claw. 

Dorsal plate 71-90x58-78 jim; ventraf plate 
82-105 k 56-74 (lay, anterior margin 55-!60 pm\ toes 
31-42 jim; claws 8 jim« 

Distribution: Europe. Asia, North and South 
America, rare in soft vegetated waters, Single 
record: South Esk R,> Penh, Fas. 12.7°C. pH 6.0. 
/ iirrature' Kcwte & Shiel 1987a. 

l#ivne husiatu (Murray) 
FIG, 11:1 
Ci/thy/itw hQHiuut Murray, 1913a, p. 348, Fiy 14:25 
/ fcanc huKtata: Harring & Myers 1936. p. 363, Fig* 28:5, 

Diagnosis: Head aperture margins not coincident 
dorsal slightly conves, ventral straight; two small 
spines at external angles; dorsal plate smaller than 
venual, truncate posteriorly; both surfaces finely 

stippled; ventral plate also with transverse fold and 
two longitudinal lines; no lateral sulci, toes lung. 
> l A total length, with distal dilation, terminating 
in long aieute claw. 

Dorsal plate 74-97x50-79 ^m; ventral plate 
%-l 15 >; 741-90 July toes 37-41 ,<m; claws 14-18 /an. 
Distribution' Possibly cosmopolitan In pet iphyton, 
fresh and slightly saline waters. Recorded in L. 
Grace, southwest W.A.. with a possible record from 
Cairns, nth Qld (C. H. Fernando pers. comm.). 
Literature: Koste ct at, 1983. 

Leeune herzigi Kosle. Shiel & Tan 

FIG 10:3 

Leeune henigi Koste, Shiel & Tan. 1988, p. 125, Fig. 1244 

Diagnosis: Lorica widest medially, ovate; anterior 
margins with deep rounded sinuses* ventral deeper. 
short, incurving pointed cusps at external angles; 
dorsal plate ovate, truncate posteriorly, slightly 
wider than ventral plate; ventral plate with clearly 
demarcated posterior lobe commencing at second 
loot segment; deep lateral sulci; coxa! plates small; 
toes straight to acute poitu, no claw*. 

Dorsal plate 96x74 paa, ventral plate 177x70 ^m, 
width anterior margin 4l ^m t toes 38- .19 ^m, 
Distribution: Endemic, dune pools, western 
Tasmania. I7,0°C, pH 1143, 80,6-98.3 fS cm ' , 
0.5 NTU. 

Comment; Although wc noted (he broad similarity 
nT f* berzigi lo £ wjjfoi Harring & Myers (Fig. 10:4) 
(Koste et ui 19K8) We missed the strikingly similat 
i„ onrfKoWllienert, 1986 (Fig, 10:5). described from 
Florida. Comparative measurements are: 

Dorsal plate 115-121 x 88-99 /im, ventral plate 
125-142x82-92 jtm. width anterior margin 40-52 jim, 
toes 40-44 #m. 

Both L. herztyt and /.. ordwoyiwere recorded from 
highly coloured, low pH waters. The affinity of the 
two taxa may he defined hy comparative SUM 
tropin analysis, howeveT at thiv time, in view of the 
morphological differences, we are satisfied that they 
ure not conspealie. L. kerzigi differs significantly 
in body proportions, it has a proportionate!} 
smaller dorsal plate, with a more elongate, narrowei 
ventral plate, the head aperture margins are more 
miinded, it lacks a transverse foLd above the second 
foot joint, the iobate posterior segment is 
distinctive, and there are obvious differences in the 
co\al region. 

Leeune hornemarmi lEhrenbcrg) 
FIG. 11:2 

Luchlu/sis tiornemanni khrenberg, 1834, pp. 20ft, 22L' 
I ecane Hornt'nwnni; Harring 1914, p 543 

Fig II 1, Levane hosiotu (Murray): (a) dorsal, ib) ventral. 2, /., hornemmwi t'Ehrenheig): tat dorsal; \b) ventral. 
i, /.. ittsrmis (Brycc): (a) doisul, lb> veniiat. 4. / . feotttmu (Turner >: (a) dorsal; lb) ventral. 5. L levistvla ((Motion); 
(altkiisal; ib) ventral. 6. L. htjfV/jjj? {t%ks\£m)\ (a) dorsal; |b) ventraL Fig: II: l-ft, ;*t|cr Harring and Myers (1926). 
Scale tines 50 jan. 





Diagnosis; Lorica broader than long with very deep 
cross-section; head aperture margins coincident, 
conven; no frontal cusps; dorsal lorica ornamented 
with embossed hemispheres corresponding to usual 
facets (only anterior rows shown on Fig. 1 1:2a) 
without distinct demarcations between; ventral plate 
pyriforni with transverse and longitudinal folds.; 
posterior segment projects beyond dorsal ptate: 
second foot segment projects beyond posterior 
segment; toes Va total length, tapering to long. 
conical ontcurving points without claws. 

Total knglh 100-140 ^m; dorsal plate 
72-110x82-100 >im; ventral plate S4-I15x72-Il0>un; 
toes 30-35 jim. 

Distributiotv Widespiead in fresh water, particular ly 
tropics and subfropics. Occasionally in slightly 
saline waters. AJI states except S.Aust.. rare: 
J9.9-24.5°C, pH 6.3*7,2, DO 5.K-8.5 mg I , 59.S5 

t*$ cm ' 

Literature: Koste 1978. 1981; Green 1981. Berzins 

\%l; Koste & ah 1983; Shie] £ Koste 19S5. 

Lecane inermis (Brycxr) 

FIG. 11:3 

Oi.vyto inermis Rryce, JS92, p. 274, text It*.. 
ifratte Inermis: Harrine 1913, p.61. 

Diagnosis: Membraneous, very flexible lotica; 
anterior margins coincideni, (usually) straight; 
ventral plate wider than dorsal, both without 
ornamentation; foot segment rounded, projects 
beyond dorsal plate; second lout segment projects 
beyond lorica; toes short, straight, terminate in 
acute recurved elaw almost as long, as toe. 

Total length 92-154 ^m; dorsal plate 52-80* 36-48 
urn; ventral plate to 96x to 48 piu; toes 34-16 /an; 
claws 10-12 fim. 

Distribution: In athallasic saline waters, in thermal 
springs and warm waters, eurvtopic <j?H 4.8-10.0, 
5-9-43 0°C) (Koste 1978V Kniikova (1070) recorded 
L htermis from a geys-er at 62.5*C. Rare; not 
recorded in this study, but noted by Berlins |19SZ> 
from several localities in Victoria (presumably 
cooler waters* April, July). 

Lecane terwtirta (Turner} 
Cathypna lentttiaa Turner. 1892. p. 61. Pi?- 1*12. 
Jivwte iconttfiv: Hairing 1913, p. 61 

Diagnosis: Head aperture margins not coincident. 
dorsal concave, ventral with broad V-shaped sinik. 
Hounded at apex; two small cusps at external angles, 
dorsal plalc unornamented, ventral with indistinct 

transverse Ibid; posterior segment protrudes over 
tool as a quadrangular plate with undulate posterior 
margin or two divergent lateral spines; iocs 
extremely long, almost body length, terminating in 
long claw with basal spine. 

Dorsal plate 138-170x115-147 fxm: ventral plate 
168-249x118-152 pm; toes 92-154 /an, claws 11-15 

jltTTI , 

Distribution: In vegetated shallow waters, tropical 
and subtropical lake littorals. Rare, possibly 
widespread in northern Australia, although records 
are few: NT., Qld, S.Aust. (Coongie Lakes), VV.A. 
(Kimberley) (last two records: Shiel unpubl.). 
24.<WS.0°C. pH 6.0-6.3, DO 5.1-5.8 mfe I '. 42-59 
fiS cm '. 
Literature: Shiet & Koste 1979; Koste 1981. 

Lecane ievtstvtn (Oktfsson) 

FIG. 11:5 

Cathyptui levivyto Otoftson, 1!>17, jj, 280. Fig. 10. 
f.ecane scobis Haniiuj, & Myers, 1926. 

Diagnosis', Mead aperture margins not coincident: 
dorsal straight, vential concave; incur vied small 
cu.sps at external angles; ventral plate narrower than 
dorsal, both unornamemed; second foot segment 
projects slightly beyond dorsal margin; toes > X A 
total length, tapering from !-i their length to acute 
points (no claw). 

Dorsal plate 95-115x93-113 ;rm; ventral plate 
110-140x61-100 jim; toes 35-45 jim. daws 15-18;im. 
Distribution- Cosmopolitan in inundation areas. 
Rare: single record from Magela Creek, NX 2$.5°C, 
pH 5.4 t DO 6.2 mg I ', 23 f& cm" 1 . 
Literature: koste 1978, 1981. 

Lecane iudwigi ffcekstein) 

FIG. 13:6 

Distyla tudwi^i Eckstein, 1883. p. 383, Tig, 26:57. 
Lecane tudwign Warring 1913. p. 61. 

Diagnosis: Head apeiluie margins coincident, 

concave; two stout cusps at external angles; dnrsal 
plait* truncate posteriorly, ornamented with four 
rows of tessclatiom to give shingled appearance 
(Hg. 11:6a); ventral plate with transverse Told and 
several longitudinal ridges; latral sulci very dee-p; 
posterior .segment produced lo tone, tnarteutai 
pointed spine; toes long, slender. 14 total length, 
Taperine to acute conical points (no daw). 

Dorsal plate 104-121x77-84 ;un; ventral plate to 
Hi2x to SO ;im; loes 40-44 /int. subitaneous egg 
I0:x45 ^ro. 
Distribution: Cosmopolitan warm sicnoihenn. 

I its, 12. I, Lecane *p.; veulral. 2, /., ludwizi wvoo'es tHnrriit^): dorsal. 3, I. fuflti (Mulleri: (a) dorsal; (b) ventral. 
4. /.. miru (Murray): <a) ttorval; rb) ventral. 5. / ttntacris H.irrinj &. Myers: (hi dorsal; (b) ventral. 6. L nana 
(Mucrouh (Q) dorsal; (fa") ventral, 7, / . mtida (Murray): ta) dorsal: (S) ventral, Kta. 12; ?-6, arret Hanim* & Mvcrs 
(1926); 7, after Hnucr <|«hk». Scale linos 50 jyfl, 








Rare, the typical ioaY\ H known from N.T. QI& 
sOulhwesl W.A, 12.0 I7.0°t , pH 4.M.S, 26-9S ,tS 
<vm '. L. ludwigi taticaudatv liauer (1938) occurs 
in Coongie Lakes, S.Ausi. (Shiel unpobl ) 

Lccune tuna (Mullen 
FIG. 12:3 

Cercuria (una M tiller, 1 776, p. 280. 
Lccane (una: Nh/sch 1K27, p, fiK 

Diagnosis; Head aperture mat gins nor coincident: 
both with deep lunate sinuses, dorsal anteriorly J$ 
width of ventral; external angles of ventral sinu* 
cusp-like, dorsai sinus angles more blunt; smooth 
dorsal plate almost circular with broad median 
antenor hump (Fig. 1 2:3a), ventral plate slightly 
narrower wilh single transverse Ibid; posterior 
segment small, rounded, projects slightly beyond 
dorsal plate; toes ] / 3 total length, terminate in claw 
with basal spicule, 

Dorsal plate 122-163x102-150 ant; ventral plaic 
1 32-1 77 x 104-80 pan; toes 44-64 am; daws K-I0,<m 
Disirihuthm: Cosmopolitan in littoral of fresh-, 
athatlasic saline and esluanne waters. Pancon- 
tincntal, common. 10.0-27,0°C, pH 4.6-8.4. DO 
5.8-10.0 mg I \ M 3330 ,.S cm '. <M60 NTU. 
/ iieruture; Evans 1951; Kosre 1978, 19SI; Koste & 
Shiel 1979; Berzins 1982. 

Lecarw rwtra i Murray! 

FIG. 12:4 

Cathypna nura Murray, filfc p. 553. Hg. 22:3 
Jjvanemitv, Ifarrrng & ' Myers 1926, p. 342, Fig*. 17:5,6. 

Diagnosis: Head aperture margins not coincident: 
dorsal almost straight, ventral slightly concave; two 
stout triangular cusps at external angles; dorsal 
plate indistinctly facetted, with anterior row 
incomplete; ventral plate with llehl fold 
only; lateral sulci deep; posterior segment truncate, 
projects beyond dorsal plate; second foot segment 
visible beyond postenoi segment; roes -i total 
length, terminate in stout claw with basal spicule. 
Dorsal plate 10^-132x97-130 pm; ventral plate to 
145x100 ftm, toes 50-56 wffi claws 9-12 /<m\ 
Distribution: Widely distributed in acid 
{Sphagnum) waters. There is an unverified record 
of L. mira from Qld (ller/ins 1982). A single 
individual rrom L. Mulwala, Vic. has some features 
of /. fftirSi however as shown by the ventral view 
{Fig. 12:1 )> there are several morphological 
differences, particularly in the posterior plate, foot 
and toes t which suggest that specific suuus may be 
warranted. Further material is necessary fot 
adequate description. 

Urewrure: Koste 1 978 

lecatte mvJacHs Warrine & Myers 

Ltxwte myhcrts Harrtnfc & Mvers, l!>26. ft 35V. Ti»\ 

Diagnosis: Head aperture margins almost 
coincident: ventral straight, dorsal stluhtly convex; 
two minute spines at external angles; dorsal plate 
smooth, larger Hum vcniral plate; ventral plate with 
distinct folds (Fig. I2:5b); > ' i second foot segment 
projects beyond posterior margin; toes inserted 
ventrally part way along segment rather than at 
usual distal end; extei nal margins of foes curve in 
distally to small pointed claws. 

Dorsal plate 145x108 fim; ventral plate 130x82 
/im: anterior margin width 72 ^m; Toes 32 ^un. claws 

Distribution: North America. Not recorded in out 
collecrions. Unconfirmed record from central Vic. 
Literature Koste 1978; Berzins 1982, 

Lecanc nana (Murray) 
HG. 12:6 
Cathypna nana Murray, 1913a. p, 53. Fjg, !4:29a-e. 
Lecane nana: Hurting 1914, p. 536. 

Diagnosis: Antetior margins coincident and convex, 
without corner spines; dorsal plate smooth, wider 
than ventral plaie, which has several disconnected 
hues (Fig, I2;6b); posterior segment small, truncate, 
projects beyond dorsal margin, covers second foot 
segment; toes straight on inner edges, outer margins 
taper to point, no claw, 

Total length S5-9G;ttn; dorsal plate 45-64x44-62 
/mi; ven Ira I plate 52-68x52-00 j/m, frontal width 36 
/mi; toes 20-30 urn. 

Distribution: Cosmopolitan in fresh and brackish 
water. Rare; Qld. Tas.. Vic. 1 5.5-18. 5°C, pH 6,8-7.4, 
DO to J 1,0 nig I ', 70-565 ><S cm '.. 
Literature: Koste 1978; ShicI & Koste 1979; Green 
1981; Berzins 1982. 

Lecane rtittda (Murray) 
FIG. 12:7 
Cathypna ntttda Mm ray, 19t3u. p. 347. Fin. 14:24a, b. 
/.ccatwa/rvicotriiS Honing & Mvers, t92<Cp. Ml lig. 
7:1. 2 
/.. cunkornis nitida: Unuer 193K, p. SM, Liu. 37a, n. 

Diagnosis: Lorica broadly resembles L. cunicamts. 
however, unlike that species both dorsal and ventral 
plates are distinctly ornamented; posterior plate 
also with distinct lines and more rectangular than 
that of L. curvicomis; head aperture margins show 

Hg. 13 I, Ucane nodosa Hauer: (a) dorsal; (h) ventral, 2, L iWur*7js/v(Hcrriek): (at dorsal; th) veniraL 3 ( I. vhioensis 
h-hrhyouw (Anderson & Shepliardj: |a) dorsal; (h) vemral A, L. papiwna <Murra\»- (a) dorsal; ft) ventral 5, 
L. pertica Uarrin* & Myers: (o) dtn^al; (h) ventral. 6, L. pumi/a (Rousseletk (u) dorsal; (b) verinat Hg l.v I 
<i, after Hauei (193H), 2-5, al'ier Harring & Myers rt926); 5, after Hauei (1938). Scale lines 5n um 







some irregularity of broad V-shape; dorsal plate 
relatively broader; toes impinge on distal end of 
second foot segment rather than on ventral surface 
as in L. curvicornis. No measurements are given for 
L mtkta by Halting & Myers 11926) or Koste (3978). 
however (hose 'fay Hauer (1938) indicate a larger 
animal than L, curvicoems. 

Dorsal plate 127x117 u.m; ventral plate 124 uni 
wide: head .aperture 62 .urn; toes 78 urn; claw 12/*m 
Distribution: South America, Single record from 
Magcla Ck. NT, 
Literature; Koste 1981. 

Lettine nodosa Hauer 
IIO. I3;l 
Lffiatie nodosa Hauer, 1938, p. 520, Fig. 42a, K 

Diagnosis: Head aperture margins coincide/At, 
convex; no corner spines; dorsal plate wider than 
long, rounded posteriorly, covered with regular 
knobby hemispheres (cf, L hornenuwni): veitual 
plate narrower than dorsal, with indistinct lateral 
margins; no lateral sulci; hroad posterior plate 
covers foot segments; toe stout, broad, parallel- 
sided for 14 its length, tapering to oui ward-curved 
point; no claw. 

Total length 87-120 /un; dorsal plate 60-81x67-32 
peat; ventral plate 70-90x67-77 ^m; frontal width 58 
fun: iocs 23-30 #td, 

Distribution; In periprvyton, Java, India. Rare: 
JabMuka, NT. and L. Catani, Vic. 24.5*0, pH 6.3, 
DO 5.8 mg I 1 . 59 pS cm J . 
Cotvment: The possible synonymy of L~ nodosa 
with L. homemanni and L nana was noted by 
Koste (1978). Protrusion of the second foot segment 
beyond the lorica margin, non-curving roes and 
lar.cer overall dimensions in /.. homemanni readily 
separate this taxon. L. nana is similar in size and 
outline, differing apparently only in roe morphology 
and dorsal lorica ornamentation, which may 
represent ecotypic variation of a single specie*. 
Literature; Koste 1981; Berlins 1982. 

Leawe ofu'oensts Herrick) 
FIG. 13:2 
DistyUt ohioensts HcrrtcK, 1885, p. 54, Fig. F 
U'cane oftiofnsls: Hairing 1913, p, <& 

lytagnosis: Head aperture margins concave almost 
coincident {ventral slightly shoner), iwo stout cusps 
at external angles; dorsal plate ornamented wiih 
four prominent rows of tesselattons; ventral plate 
with a few folds and ridges; posterior segment 
tapers to median, truncate projection extending Vi 

lengih of toes; toes paiallel-sulcd, terminal c in 
conical points; no claws, 

Dorsal plate 97-lG0x7X-93 /.in; ventral plate 
114-146x70 <nu; toes 35-40 , ( m. 
Distribution: Cosmopolitan in littoral uf fresh- 
waters. Rare: NT, Qui, S.AusU Tas. (in moderately 
salme stock dams, east coast), Vic. U).2-29.9°C, pH 
5.5-8.1, 44-6600 *S cm' 1 , alkal. 2.6 mg I ', 
Cowmertr. A variant descrihed from Victoria by 
Anderson & Shepherd (1892), Dtstytu ichthyoura 
{Lecvne ichthyoura) (Fig. 13:3) was synonymiscd 
with L ohioensis by Koste (1978). The only 
difference between the two is ihe fishtail form of 
the caudal process in the former, which is variable. 
L. ohioensis ichthyoura apparently is a cosmo- 
politan haiophile Rare: S,Aust. f Vic. southwest 
Literature; Koste 1978; Koste & Shiel 1983. 

Ucane papuanu (M array 1 
FIG. 13:4 

Distyta papuana Murray, 1913, p. 551, Fig. 22:2. 
Lecane pupuarw: Marring & Myers 1926. p" J3fr Ties 

M:3, 4. 

Diagnosis: Head aperture margins not coincident: 
dorsal almost straight, ventral with broad shallow 
V-shaped sinus with undulate sides, founded 
posteriorly; no cusps at external angles, but 
distinctive rounded lobes of ventral lorica project 
well beyond dorsal margin; lateral sulci moderately 
deep; ventral plate slightly narrower Irian dorsal, 
with same circular outline: posterior segment 
rounded, projects slightly; toes >'/i toiaf length, 
slightly dilated distaliy before stout claw, which has 
two basal spicules. 

l>orsal plate 92-120x82-102 urn; ventral plate 
112-115x91-98 ,im; toes 34-50 am, claw 8-12 ,,m. 
Distribution: Between macrnph> tea in tropical and 
subtropical shallow waters. Rare- NT., Qld. S.AusU 
Vic. I7.0-29.8°C, pH 5.3-8.2. DO 6.1-9.7 me I '„ 
23-1000 f& cm ', 40-HX NTL; alkal. 1.9-2.7 mg I ' 
Litetatum: Koste 1978, 1981. 

Lecane pertica Harrine & Myers 
FIG. I3;5 

/^Jmvwr/cwHartinK&Mvcrs, 1920. p, 34u\ pie. 12:1 

Diagnosis: blongalc lorica, dorso-ventrally 
compressed; head aperture margins almost 
coincident: dot sal straight, ventral slightly concave: 
two small spines at external angles; dorsal plate 
truncate posteriorly, indistinctly facetted; ventral 

Fig) 14. I, t <>auie pusiila Barring! u) dorsal; (b) ventral. 2, /. pmhu Haj rinjj &. Myer<: (a) ocus^l; <l>) ventral, 3 
rV rhytato Hamm: & Mwrs; (a) fj&rtali (b) ventral. 4, L mfuruhtkt <OIorY\on): (a)dnisal; (h) vemral, 5, L, rvtlrt&i 
Haurcr: (a) dorsal; <b) venirat. 6, L, si wifera sign tjera Meanings): (a) dorsal; (b) He. M; 1-3, £ arte! Hamrtt 
& Myers f 1 926 J; 5. alter Hauer (1938). Sode lines 50 faxL 




- : ;i 

plate clearly marked (Fig. 13:5b); deep lateral sulci; 
semicircular posterior segment projects well beyond 
dorsal plate; second tool segment projects almost 
all its length beyond posterior segment; toes very 
long, !/j total length, straight, parallel-sided, 
terminate in acute points; no claws. 

Total length to 260 **m; dorsal plate 
97-J40X66- (00 pfl£ ventral plale 115-160x60-88 /tm; 
anterior margin 46-64 urn, toes 60-85 /tin. 
Distribution*. North and South America, Indonesia. 
Acidophil. Rate: billahongs of Magela Creek, NT, 
24.5-29. 9°C, pH 5.5-6.3. DO 5.5-5.8 mg I ', 44-59 
/*S etn ', allal. 2.6 me I '. 
IMeraturr; Kosle 1978. 1981 

Lecane putmlu (Roussclct) 

FIG, 13:6 

\otommufu ftutnifa Roussclci. in Murray. i90ft. p ]$3 S 
Fit. 6:25. 
l.ecane putnila: Haiicr 1936, p. J 54, Figs 1-3. 

Diagnosis', l.orica flexible, although form constant: 
lateral .sulci absent; toes extremely short; eiaw points 
curved backwards. 

Ibtal length 75-170 ,j.m; dorsal plate 60-75 x 90-140 
/irn; ventral plate 80-110 pm, loes 3-5 ;im. 
Distribution: Europe, Indonesia, N America, in 
moss in standing and flowing water. Single record 
from L. St Clair, Tasmania. 17.0°C, pH 7.3, 2J.J 
t& cm ' . 
literature: Koste £ SJuel !9S6a. 

Leeane pusiliu Harring 
FIG. 14:1 

feciwtr pmilta Harring, 1914, p, 541, Hg 20.-4-6. 

Diagnosis; Head aperture margins straight, dorsal 
projects slightly beyond ventral; no corner spinet; 
dorsal plate distinctly facetted, ventral plate le« 
conspicuously patterned; lateral sulci deep; 
posterior segment rounded, projecting well beyond 
dorsal plate margin; toes long, slender, > yi total 
length, tapering io long, recurved, aeuie claw. 

Total length to 75 jtm; dorsal plate 54x52 /*m; 
vvntral plate 60x45 /xm; anterior margin 50 #m; toes 
20-26 pm; elaws 5 //rn. 

Distribution; Central America, F. Furope. Iran. 
Rare: Brom field Swamp, Qld, Vic. No ecological 
information available. 
Literature. Kosie I97S; Green 1981; Begins 1982. 

tjscune pyrrha Hamne. & Mven 
FIC. 14:2 
Levarie pyrrha Harring A Myers. 1926, p. 5.U, Pig. 
12:3 6. 

Diagnosis: Head aperture margins coincident, 

concave; two stout triangular cusps al external 
angles; no patterning of dorsal or ventral loriea; 
posterior segment projects slightly beyond dorsal 
plate; toes long slender, '/i total length, without 

Total length to 280 ptfij dorsal plate 193x145 tun; 
ventral plate 210x125 /un; anterior margin 80 /an; 
toes 75 /irn. 

Distribution: North America in soft acid waters. 
Not recorded in this study. Single report from 
Victoria by Berzins (I9H2) needs confirmation. 

i.ecane rhyhrfa Hnrring & Myers 
FIG. 14:3 ~ 

Ucune rhytuia Harrirw. & Myers. 1926. p. 346, J ig. 2(k3, 


Diagnosis: Head aperture margins coincident, 
slightly concave; two stout triangular tusps al 
external angles, dorsal plate distinctly facetted, 
ventral with prominent markings (Fig. 14:3b); lateral 
sulci indistinct; posterior segment small, projects 
slightly beyond dorsal plate; second foot segment 
robust, projects Vi its length beyond posterior 
margin; toes long, slender, ',-» total length, tapering 
lo very long acute points. 

Total length to 126 /*m; dorsal plate $0x69 iitiv, 
ventral plate 87x65 /*.m; anterior margin. 42 /on, toes 
39 ,,m. 

Distribution: North America, soft acid water. Not 
recorded in this study, Single report Pivhm Vicioria 
by Ber/ins (1982) needs confirmation. 

Lecane rotundata (Olofssoni 

FICi. 14:4 

Caihypna rotundotu Olofsson, 1918, p. 593, Ft*!. S\. 

Lecane rotundata: Runarie 1932, p. 1 10 

?l4*cane latissima Yamamoto, I9.S5, p 33. tig. Ja ? h. 

Diagnosis; Head aperture margins coincident, 
convex; Frontal spines absent; dorsal plate smooth, 
almost circular, much wider than ventral plate; 
lateral sulci absent; posterior plate semicircular, 
projects beyond dorsal margin; toes long; claws 
short, pointed. 

Dorsal plaie 90x106-112 /mi; ventral plate 
103-D3X <I03 unr t toes 37-39 /im; claws 6 ^m. 
Distribution: Northern Europe, Japan. Only known 

Tig. 15. i, L signt/cra ptoenwis <Voigl): (a) dorsal; (b) 2, £, Miehaea Harring (a) dorsal; (b) ventral. 3. 
L. sivhaea tnnasmtwfa (Olofsson): (a) dorsal; <b) ventral. 4, A, saOti/ii Harring & Myers: (a) dorsal; (b) ventral. 
5, L Uismmtensis Koste & Shicl: (a) dorsal; (b) ventral, 6, L, Wriuisvta Harring: (a) dorsal; (In ventral Fig. 15- 
1-4, 6. after Harring & Myetf (1926); f % after Koste el al. (1983). Scale lines 50 Jim. 






from I.Peddcr, Tas, I.V5-l4.3°C; pH 4.6-6.1; 

3J.0-3K.7 tfScm - 

Literature: Koste I97K; Koste W al I9BS. 

Leawe nntneri Hauer 

FJG. 14:5 

Lecane ruttrreri Hauer, I93N, p. 523, Fig 46a. b. 

Diagnosis; Ulrica outline rectangular; head aperture 
margins coincident, weakly convex, dorsal margin 
wider than ventral; corner spines absent; dorsal 
plate narrower than ventral, tapers lo truncate 
posterior margin; both surfaces weakly ornamented 
as figured; lateral sulci absent; posterior segment 
bilaterally constricted, rounded posteriorly; second 
foot segment not projecting beyond caudal margin, 
rocs '/) body length, straight on innui matgin, 
tapering on outer margin \o short , acute claw. 

Dorsal plaic 53x48 >*rn; ventral plate 62x50 am; 
anterioi margins 46 ^m idorsal), 40 /?fl) (ventral); 
toes 17-19 nm; claws & un\. 
Dissrihufum; Indonesia Single record. I .Roort, Vic. 
20.0*0; pH 7.4; DO S.S jttfc l M , 15(H) ^S cm \ 
Literature: Koste 197H. 

Lecane signifeta (Jennings) 
FIG. 14:6 

Distyia sigmfera Jennings, 1S%, p. 92, Ft£* I, JL 
Ltxxtne sigrtifero: Harring 1913, p.62. 

Diagnosis: Head aperture margins coincident, 
straight; two smalt eusplike spines at external angles; 
unusual lorica ornamentation; bcadlikc hemispheres 
closely spaced on slopes of elevated ridges; shallow 
lateral sulci; postctior segment projects slightly 
beyond dorsal plate; toes l A total length, ending in 
acute points without claws. 

Dorsal plale 124 135x90-96 //m; ventral plate 
l3t>|4Hx82-K8 ,<m; toes 52-60 fiin. 
Distribution-. Cosmopolitan, possibly acidophils 
Rare; NX. Old, Tas„ Vic. 20.0°C; pH 7.4; DO 8.8 
mg J ', 1500 cirr'. 

Comment: A subspecies, Lecane xignifero ploen- 
easts (Voigi 1902) (Fig. 15:1) also known from 
(V.S.W.. N.T., Qld. It has larger cusps at the external 
angles than L. sign if era* and may be larger in some 
dimensions, although probably subject to ceotynic 


Dorsal plate S0-IX5x66-JI2 ^m; ventral plate 
90185x55-185 /mi; toes 35-86 ftm. 
Literature. Koste 1978, 1981; Shiel & Koste 1979. 

Levari? sitcltaea Hairing 
FIG. 15:2 

U\unt siithuk-u Harring, lsT|3, p. 397. Fig, 35:4-*. 

Diasnaw. Head apenure margins coincident, 

slightly convex; two stout cusps at external angles; 
intricate surface markings on both dorsal and 
ventral plates as figured; lateral sulci shallow; 
ventral plate parallel-side, considerably narrower 
than dorsal; posterior segment projects well beyond 
truncate dorsal plate; second foot segment extends 
> Yi Its length beyond posterior margin, iocs > W 
total length, ending in acuie claw without basal 

Dorsal plate 85-92x69-76 /un; ventral plate 
75-97x to 75 >im; toes 27-39 ,<m: claws 5.7 m . 
Distribution: Cosmopolitan in standing waters, 
springs. Rare: three records, all flowing waters; 
Magela Ck, NT., R. Murray S.Aust. and Maequarie 
R., Tas. L r stjclwec intraunuata (Olofsson 1917) 
iHg, 15:3) also occurs in the Magela Ck region, It 
may be difficult to distinguish from /.. sttchaca, 
however the dorsal lonca gene-rally is smooth or 
weakly sculpt ured, and most dimensions are larger. 

Dorsal plate 61-105x78-85 fun; ventral plate 
63-1 lOx 41-72 /mi; toes 24-45 /<m; claws 5-7 /mi. 
Literature: Koste 1V7K. 

Lecane suhtifrs Harring & Myers 

PIG, 15:4 " 

Lecanpsubtitis, Harring & Mvm, J92ft. p, 170, Kir. 
30.5. * 

Diagnosis: Anterior lorica almost rectangular; head 
aperture margins slightly convex, coincident; no 
frontal spines; very distinctive ornamentation of 
both surfaces as figured; dorsal plate rounded 
posteriorly, same width as ventral plare, slightly 
shorter; lateral sulci iudislinu; second foot segment 
projects slighrly; toes 6a. '/•* tool length with long 
slender claw. 

Dorsal plare 54-70x50-60 ptft vciUrul plate 
60-75x50-55 j<m, anterior width 56 ^wm, toes 25-32 
pl?t, Claws 5-8 jim. 

Distribution: Probably cosmopolitan. Not recorded 
In this study, Unconfirmed report from Sun-bury, 
Literature: Koste 1978; Ber/ins 1982. 

lecane tastnuniensis Shiel $ Kosic 
FIG. I5;5 
Leeane tusmamrnsis Shiel & Koste. 1985, pp. 7-8, Fig. 3. 

Diagnosis: Head aperture margins straight, 

1 18- I*. I, Ltxvnt tutl/Cftfo Harring A Myers; (a) dorsal; (b) ventral. 2, t , nn&utata (Gosse): (al dorsal; (b) ventral; i ungulate oustralietms Koste,; 3. I. venuxta Haning & Myers: (a) Uor'.al, (h) ventral. 4, L spemwi 
tShephard), ventral, fig. 18: | ( 2o, 3, alter Herring & Mvcr* <J92<S); 2b, c. after Koste (1979). 4. ufier Anderson 
& Shcphard (189:). Scale lines 50 /mi, 


W KOMI- . & R.I. SHin 

coincident; prominent frontal cusps; smooth dorsal 
plate wider than ventral plate, slightly truncate 
posteriorly; ventral plate with transverse told over 
firsi loot joint, with two longitudinal lines running 
anteriorly; toes < Vi body length, parallel-sided to 
short claws with basal spicules. 

lotal length 155-158 jad, dorsal plate to 115x86 
^m. ventral plate to 126x79 ptfi- anterior margin 
5K f\\\, toes 61 /*m, claws 10-12 jtfP- 
Distribution' Apparently endemic to Ihsnianta 
(w»| coast and iasrnan Peninsula), IO-19.0°C\ pH 
J.1-5.K, 26-334 ,1/S cm 1 . 

Lecane temmcta Marring 

MO. 15:6 

Lecane fenuiwia Hairing, t9|4, p, 543, Fig. 22:1-3. 

Oiagnosis: Head aperture margins parallel, slightly 
convex; dorsal plate smooth, rounded posteriorly; 
ventral plate with series of ridges; lateral sulci 
shallow; posterior segment broad, rounded, 
protrudes beyond dorsal plate; second fool segment 
not protruding; I0es long, slender, ca. 66 total 
length, terminating in extremely long spmehke claw. 
Dorsal plate 64-78x56 pOl, v^nrraJ plate 
57-83x56 Mm* iutts 20-33 prn, claws 1348 fiCL 
Distnbuiton: Cosmopolitan, eurytopic. Two 
records, N.T., W.A. 25.0'C, pH 5 9. DO 2 2 fflg I , 
29*Scm ! , 

U'cane lutUvolu Haninji & Myers 
HO. 16:1 
lecane tudicota Harring & Myers. 3926. p. >28. Rfc, 
11:1, 2. 

Diagnosis: Head aperture margins not coincident; 
dorsal straight, ventral with shallow V-shaped sinus; 
two small cusps at external angles; smooth dorsal 
plate narrower Llian ventral both anteriorly and 
posteriorly, similar width medially; ventral plate 
smooth; lateral sulci shallow; posterior plate broad, 
rounded, with two lateral indentations, projects 
beyond dorsal plate; second foot segment does not 
reach lorica rim; iocs ca. V* total length, taper to 
acute points, no claws. 

Dorsal plate 105-120x85-104 /.m, ventral plate 
1 10-140 /*m, anterior width 58-96 m™, toes 37-48 ^m. 
Distribution; Asia, N. and S.Arncrica. Uueonlitmed 
record from Victoria. 
literature: Koste 197K; Berlins I9ifi2. 

Utww ungulate unzulata (Gossct 
HU I6;2a, b 
Cathypna unxuluta Gosse, l-W, p 361. Hg. 8:1 
lecane unguium: (larking 1^1?, p.62. 

Diagnosis: Head aperture margins nut coincident: 
dorsal almost straight, ventral slightly crmcave; two 
large Triangular cusps at external anplcs; smooth 

dorsal plate smaller than ventral, with indistinct 
ametior margin (Fig. 16;2a); ventral plale with single 
indistinct transverse Ibid; lateral sulci deep; 
posterior segment broad, covers loot; toes > l A total 
length, end in long stout claw with basal spicule. 

Doisal plate 140-220x138-180 /u«, ventral plate 
185-255x139-195 »m, toes 73-120 *m. claws 20-45 

Distribution: Cosmopolitan. Rare: NX. Qld. 
24.5°C, pH 5.4-6.3. DO 4.8-6.2, 23-59 /tSan', 
alkal. 2.7-4.1 rng I I 

Comment: A variant, at present considered a 
subspecies (Lectttte ungukitu australtensis Koste, 
1979) (Fig, 15:2c) is known from Magela Ck, NT. 
and Goulburn X., Vic. billabongs. It has n 
distinctive median dome on the dorsal anterior 
lorica margin, and is considerably larger than /.. 

Dorsal plate 2 30-24Ux 184-200 ^m, ventral plate 
268-280x216-240 pin, toes 120-130 ;tm t claws 20-45 

Literature: Koste 1978, 1979, 198 1, 

Urune venusta Harring &. Myers 
FIG. 16:3 
l£<ane venusta Harring & Myers, 1926, p. 328. Fig. 2"*. 

Diagnosis: Head aperture margins not coincident; 
dorsal slightly convex, ventral nearly straight; no 
corner spines; both surfaces with complex 
ornamentation as figured; posterior segment 
broadly rounded, projects beyond dorsal plate; 
second foot segment visible beyond posterior 
segment; toes long and slender, incut ved to acute 
points; no claws. 

DomjI plate S6x 75 /an, vemml pUlc R4x70^m, 
anterior margins 62 nva, Iocs 42 /mt, 
Distribution: N.Amcrica, tl&S.R, Rare. Nov 
recorded In this study. Untonfiiiucd lecord from 


Literature: Kosto 1978; Bcmns N8J 

trivet we sedis 

A lecanid icseivibling L. tuna was described by 
Anderson & Shephard (IK92) from Brighton, Vic, 
but "with some hesitation regarded as new,' It was 
not named, and the figure (redrawn In Fig. 16:4) 
of doubtful quality. Subsequently, Shephard (IK^2) 
gave a brief rcdcseriptiun and nained the rotifer 
Cathypna { -Leame) spentrri, Marring ( 1 4 1.1 ) 
accepted L. spenceri, but in view of the lack of 
laxonomicalty aceuralc figures wc must tcgard it as 
tncertae sedis, even though the description suggests 
it may be a valid species. 

The original description is reproduced below, and 
L. spenceri is included in the Ifixwe key for ready 
identification should it be encountered again. l< is 



notable that other taxa deseiibed as new by 
Anderson & Shephard 1 1892) and Shephard (191 I) 
(eg. Urachionus dtchounnu^ fl ivratus), but 
synonynnsed with norther n hemisphere taxa by later 
reviewers, subsequently were validated B0 distinctive 
Australian endemics tsee Koste & Shlel I'>K7bj. 

Lecane sperieeti Shephard 
.FIG. 16:4 
Cutfoytw tl. lumt Audenon & Sticphaid. 1892, p. 77, 

Caihvfma spenceri Shephard, 1*92, p. 15. 

Sewne vpehiwi. Hwrnng. I U I3. p 62. 
Diagnosis: Resembles fc fawn \ • flic points of 
difference are . . . in the lor lea being broader 
anteriorly and the dorsal occipital edge more deeply 
excavuted. the posterior possessing more of a lobed 
character, having a decided inward curve on either 
side and a rounded termination overhanging the 
toes; the most marked departure being in ibe selling 
of the claws, which, instead of tapering from the 
shoulder ro the end. are recessed so as to form a 
recessed barb; the surlace of the lonca was atso 
.stippled' (Shephard 1K92). 

Assuming Shephard 's ligure is dTawn to scale* the 
given length (1/130* or 192 >im) suggests that the 
approximate measurements of this Jecanid are: 
dorsal plate 1llxl09^m.vential plate 144x109 art!; 

nmerior width 83 #m, toes 43 nn\< claws 13 ^m» i.e. 
comparable in sue to L, tuna. 
Distribution; Recorded from Brighton, Vic. No 
other details given. 


This work was suppatted by Australian Biological 
Resources Study grant* ro collect in Tasmania 
(RJS), and to clefmy graphic costs 1WK). Some 
ecological data were collected during a 2uuplankton 
ecology project funded by an Australian Research 
Grants scheme grant (to R.IS) at the Botany 
Department, University of Adelaide. Our thanks to 
i he then Chairman, George Ganf % and the 
secretarial staff, Bronwyn Burns and Carol 
Robinson, for access lo word-processing and 
photocopying facilities. Final stages of MS 
preparation were at the Wurtay-Darling Froh water 
Research Centre, A I bury, also the source of much 
of our material from the upper Murray over a ten 
year period. Thisni3lcnal, particularly collections 
by John Hawking, Terry Hillrruin and Don Oniond, 
is gratefully acknowledged. Collectors acknow- 
ledged in our earlier papers also contributed further 
material io this work. Their assistance isappiccj. 
died. The Deutschcn t-brschungAgerneinschaft, 
Bonn-Bad Clodesburg, provided microscope and 
photographic facilities to WK. 


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^TOKtiVi A, C". (IX%'I SOinv new lOous •.«! Anioiead 

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byG. K, Jones' 1 ' 


The age composition, natural mortality and growth rates of garfish Hyporhamphus melanochir, 
were investigated in Baird Bay, a shallow embayment in South Australia which has been closed to 
commercial and recreational netting for a number of years. Sampling was by beach seine and gill 
nets of various mesh sizes over four sampling periods in 1984/85. Otoliths were used to estimate 
Von Bertalanffy growth parameters and the growth equations for male and female fish were 
L(t) = 36.7 (i_ e -°- 51(t -° 12) ) and L(t) = 38.7 (i_ e - - 54(t - a3) ) respectively. The instantaneous rates of 
natural mortality were estimated by two methods: the slope of the catch curves determined from the 
age composition data (0.53 for males and 0.36 for females) and using the estimated growth 
parameters, mean environmental temperature and Pauly's (1981) equation (0.57 for males and 0.56 
for females). The results are discussed in relation to fishing strategies for this species and the use of 
the population in Baird Bay to model the garfish fishery in other parts of State waters. 
KEY WORDS: Growth, natural mortality, garfish, Hyporhamphus melanochir ? fisheries biology. 

rmnx&yiumi OJ the KOMl -Stuwtv </; -- %lOfr 4 MWm, lUfl). 17-4S 


by G K. Joses* 


JoMES, G. K. i'J990) Ctowlh and muruilUy in u lightly fished population of garfish i/lyporJwmpkus 
meiarwchir) in Hajrd Bay, South Ausrralu. Tro.»s. tf Jite .V. Aw., 1140> 37-45, 31 May, 15%; 

The age composition, natural molality and «iowth fates <>t garfish Hyporhcfruphut- tftefty$0$fa\ wrur 
■ ■- .i ■ l' led in Bail J I3ay r a shallow cmbaymem in South Australia which has been clo\cd to commercial 
and rccreauunal netting for a number of years. Sampling ttaj tiy beach seine and &ill nets of various mesh 
sizes over four sampling periods iri 1984/85. Otolith* weie uxed in cMuuMe Vmii Bertatiinff\ ->r.»wih paniineler* 
:*nd [tic growth etriiHiiuns fan male and female lift wvrc L(i) - 36.7 tl-e" 51 " " i;, 'l and Lft) = 3S.7 
{l-e" IJ -- 4U ' (1 3l ) respectively. The instantaneous rates of natural martolhv were estimated b> r two mnhods. 
the slope of the catch curves determined from the aye composition data fO.53 Rji males and 0.36 fot female*) 
*nd using the estimated giowlh paiameters, tneun environmental temperature and Pauls'* (I9K1J equation 
|0.57 for males and 0.50 for females). I he results are discussed in relation to fishing strategies for this 
.species and the use of the population m Baud fifty to model ihcsarlisli fishery in silher purls ol Slate waters 

Kev Wok us. Growth, natural mortality girfisru fiyporftamphus wth/nocb'tr, fisheries biology. 


Gai iivh {Hyfjorhampkas mrlanochir) is a 
commercially iLing 1958; Jones 1979') and 
reereationally (Jones, 1981, 1983) important species 
taken in inshore waters or South Australia. Jn 
1987/88 the commercial catch was 433 tonnes and 
this was mainly taken in Spencer Gulf and Gulf Si 
Vincent (Fig. I). Although the catch by recreational 
fishermen is not known, a large proportion of the 
total catclt is taken by commercial net fishermen 
using three centimetre mesh ring nets. Some areas 
of the inshore waters of the Slate have been closed 
to netting for a number of years, but hand dab 
netting and handiining for the species has 
continued. Baird Bay, S. Ausl. (33°06'S, I34°IR'E) 
{Fig. 1) wax partially closed to netting since 1950 
and fully closed in 1979, however, fishing by 
handltJie and dannetttng is permitted. 

The Bay has an average depth of two metres and 
a Kmestonc/sand substrate, the southern areas 
dominated by .stands of the seagrasses Posidoniu 
uuxiniiis and Zoslera tnucronata, and the northern 
areas by Z mucronaia and the brown alga 
Hortrtosira banksii. The bay totalling 3,800 hectares 
has;! narrow entrance to the Great Australian Btghl 
at its southern end. Because of the high surface area 
10 depth ratio and the small entrance, waters of the 
Bay are subject to relatively large ranges in water 
temperature and salinity; dependent on the season 

* Department of Fisheries, 135 Pine Street. Adelaide. S. 
Awsi 5000 

1 Jones, C.K, (1979) BiOlugkft] iiltCbtisal&tti uu ilte 

marine scale fishery in South Aiultalta. S.A. Depl. Ax. 
& Fi.di. Unpubl. Rep. 72 pp. 

and location. High temperatures (21 - 23° O and 
salinities 07.6 - 50.3 Wn>) occur in the northern 
regions during the months October • March, and 
in (he southern pan, conditions ate close 10 those 
of the Great Australian Bight (19 - 23°C, 37.0 - 

Until 1979. a small fishery for garfish existed in 
this Bay, producing annual catches of up to 4000 
kgs. In 1950, the bay was partially closed to netting, 
with the exception ol Dunn's Bay (Fig, 2); however, 
the fishery continued in the latter area until 1979 
when the whole of Baird Bay was closed to netting. 
Since then, catches of only I - 10 leg by handline 
have been reported. Recreational catches are also 
believed to be of the same magnitude. With the large 
decline in fishing effort and landings in this Bay, 
most of the mortality of garfish can now be 
considered to be due to natural causes. 

The natural mortality rate (M) is one of a number 
of parameters used to model the dynamics of /ish 
populations. For most fished populations, it is often 
difficult to separate natural mortality from that of 
fishing mortality (F), if fishing effort or catches are 
not known (Gulland 1983). However, in the case ol 
populations which are subject to little or no fishing. 
information on the age composition of the 
population can be used to determine the natural 
moiialily rate by estimating the rate of decline in 
the number of fish in consecutive age groups 
(Hughes 1974; Vboren 1977). This method of 
estimating the natural mortality rare on the 
population oi garfish m Baird Bay is used in this 
paper, as well as another independent method 
iPauly 1981). The second method assumes (hat the 
size of the fish (length ur weight), growth rate of 
the fish (expressed as the growth constant, k) and 




K 134"E 




2.6 t 

?1 3.- fl © 





h c '- j 



1 . , 



iLulfc Nm) 

f ig. 1. Annual commercial catches (kg, live wi) of garfish m west coast, Spencer Gulf and Gulf St Vincent in 1987/88, 
showing the relative importance of hauling and dab netting in each area* 

the meau environmental temperature significantly 
affect the natural mortality rate of the fish, A 
relationship in the form of a multiple linear 
regression has been determined between these 
factors and the known natural mortality rates for 
175 fish stocks. 

There are two assumptions underlying the 
estimation of natural mortality rate for any species 
of fish, These are that: 1) the entire stock is 
investigated, i.e. there is no emigration nor 
immigration, and 2) the sampling method 
representatively samples the whole population. 
Although the natural mortality rate is stock specific, 
the- parameter can be used as a guide for other 
heavily fished populations of garfish in State waters, 
as an aid in determining management options. 

In addition to thccslimalion of natural mortality, 
knowledge of the growth parameters for this speeies 
is beneficial because of their importance in 
determining of the Beverton - Holt yield per recruit 
relationship and other population dynamic models. 
Line (1958), who studied the growth and spawning 
cycle of garfish in S. Aust. waters, included data 

on growth from a number of areas in the State. 
These are compared with the present results for 
Baird Bay. Growth was estimated from the aging 
of otoliths* a technique validated by ling (195H) 
from the seasonal change in the proportion of 
hyaline rings at the edge of the otolith. 

Materials and Methods 

Garfish were sampled four times in northern and 
southern Baird Bay between July 1984 and March 
1985 (fig, 2), using a beach seine (120 metres length, 
3cm mesh wings and 0.5cm mesh centre bunt) and 
four floating gill nets (each of 50 metres length, 2 
metres depth and mesh si*es 3.0, 3.8, 4.8 and 5.0cm 
respectively) in each area. Beach seine shots were 
undertaken during daylight hours at low tide, and 
gill nets shot at dusk, parallel to the tidal current 
and hauled at dawn the following day. 

Garfish were measured from the tip of the upper 
jaw to the extremity of the caudal fin, sexed, gonad 
stages recorded and pairs of otoliths extracted and 
placed in paper envelopes for subsequent aging. 



13$. 2. l/icalum ot Raird Bay. South Australia and thr 
stations where beach \eining and gill netting were 

Jn the laboratory; one of each pair ol oiolirhs wits 
cleaned in a weak solution ol' detergent and water, 
broken in half, and one of the halves ground 
smooth with an electric grinder (5.000 tevs./min,). 
I'he orolith was then lightly burnt using, a medical 
spirit burner for lo - 15 sees, and mourned in 
plaMieme. The ground edge was painied with a 
small drop ot* glycerine and observed under a 25 
x binocular microscope. Burning blackened the 
hyaline /ones (or aanuli) and these were ennmed. 

Although the age composition of male and 
female garfish was determined for each sampling 
period, there was little difference between the foui 
sampling periods and lie Two areas and SO tlic data 
were therefore combined. To determine growth 
curves for the two sexes, mean lengths at aee were 
calculated and the data incorporated in 
"FISHPARM" program (SaiJa, Recksiek & Pragci 
1988) which gave the von Bertalanffy growth 

parameters (L. L*u & i„>. <_ a ieb curves for sexes 
separately and combined were calculaled by plotting 
the log t ,of the total numbers of fish caughi in the 
idll nets for each age class of the captured fish. The 
^lopc of the regression is the mortality rate (Gullaud 
1983). Lines of best fit and their .standard errors 
were calculated using a linear i egression software 
package (Hill pers eomm). 

Natural mortalily rate (M) was also calculated 
try using the estimated growl h parameters, the 
average water temperatutc (20°C) in Raird Bay. and 
(he following equation developed by Pauly (1981): 

0.654 3Log,„ K 


t 0,4634Log tu I 

0.279Loft„, Loo + 

where M = natural mortalhy rale, 

l.oo =c von Bertalanffy theoretical 

maximum length, 
K = von Bertalanffy growth constant, 
T = rneancnvuorunenlat temperature. 


Size composition of garfish. The size composition 
of garfish taken by beach .seine and different sized 
gill nets (Fig. 3). indicate major differences for the 
type of net used. The relatively small lislt taken in 
the beach seines might have been related 10 
differences in the areas sampled, or differences in 
the sampling time (day v's night sampling), or a 
combination ol both factors. Data for the gill nets 
Show that they were si/c selective, with rnajoi 
differences between 3,0, 3.8 and 4.8cm mesh nets 
(Fig. 3). There was little diitercnee in the selectivity 
between che 4.8 and 5.0 cm mesh nets; but this was 
possibly because no larger garfish were available in 
the sampling areas. 

Seasonal differences in caich rule and size 
composition of garfish and their spawning time. As 
the same level of fishing effort was expended durine. 
each sampling period, the icsulis for i he four mesh 
sizes were combined. Catch rates (Fig. 4) were 
greatest in Del. 1984 with the main size group being 
30 - 39cm S.l... The catch rates for smaller fish (20 

- 25em.) were also the greatest during this period. 

At this time, also, both male and female fish 
greater than 28 cm length were found to be in 
spawning condition, with eggs coating the meshes 
nf the gill nets as they were being hauled. For fish 
in the length range of 20-25 cm, the gonads were 
found in an advanced stage of development, with 
Ci»gs visible and testes coloured white, but no 
evidence of sperm discharge. 

During January, the fish sampled at lengths 23 

- 27 cm were found in running ripe condition, 
however, all those greater than 27 cm wcie tn spent 
condition. During the other .sampling periods, (Juty 





15 20 25 30 

Standard Length (cm.) 
ESS 3.2cm. ^2 3.8cm. ■ 

4.8cm. 1X23 5.0cm, 

Fig. 3. Cumulative size composition of garfish in Haird Bay according to fishing melhod and mesh si2e of gill nels. 

1984 and March 1985), the gonads of all fish greater 
than 20 cm were threadlike and in resting condition. 

Relationship between sex ratio and fish length. 
Immature fish were found at lengths ranging from 
9 - 20 cm, and at greater than the length of 20 cm 
both sexes were able to be determined (Fig. 5). Al 
lengths 20 - 26 cm females predominated in the 
catches, whereas at lengths greater than 27 cm males 
were more numerous than females. 
Growth rates and growth curves. Otoliths from 210 
fish were examined for aging, with a success rate 
of 93.4%, Table 1 shows the calculated growth 
parameters and standard errors using the 
'TISHPARM" software package. The calculated 
mean lengths at age and those predicted from the 
von Bertalanffy growth parameters are shown in 
Fig. 6 and show good agreement. 

The ,C FISHFAKM" software package was used 
to obtain growth parameters on H. melanochir from 
other areas of the State, using raw data of Ling 
(1958). These data show similarities between the two 
studies, for one and two year old fish, but there were 
higher growth rates for older fish from this study. 
This was true for both sexes (Fig. 7), wliere both 

the present data and that of Ling (1958) show that 
growth rates for female H. melanochir were higher 
than for males. 

Estimation of natural mortality rate. The log r of 
the number of fish at each age group was plotted 
for both sexes individually and combined (Fig. S). 
Full recruitment into the sampling year was 
assumed to occur at that age group which had the 
peak in abundance. For both sexes this occurred at 
the age of four years. 

The instantaneous rates of natural mortality were 
the slopes of the regression equations for the 
respective sets of data for fish of four years and 
over and these were 0,53 (± 0.13), 0.36 (+ 0.10) and 
0.55 (+ 0.13). These were converted to annual 
survival rates of 50.7%, 65.7% and 48.2^n, using 
the formula S * e \ where x - instantaneous 
mortality rate. 

Using the growth parameters determined (Table 
1) and a mean water temperature of 20°C and 
equation (1), the estimated of M for male and 
female H. melanochir were 0.93 and 0.95 
respectively. Pauly (1981) mentions that for some 
species which show schooling behaviour, (e.g. 



clupeids), i\ conversion factor of 0.6 should be used 
to convert iVI TO a more likely estimate This would 
give for H. metanoefvr (also -an intensively 
schooling species), new estimates of U.56 for males- 
arid 0.57 lor females. 


I his inipoi lance of ttaird Kay to garfish is 
probably related to the extensive stands of 
In the Bay, which aie used fife feeding (Klumpp & 
Nichols I9§3>, and spawning (Ling I958K The 
observations on the reproductive status are similar 
to I how lor olhei parts of Ihe Slate <Ling 1958), 
in which spawning took place in October and the 
sure ai rim maturity was at 21 22cm standard 
length. Also, at this lime, catch rates of all sizes of 
fish were 1'neber than ar other times of the year, 
suggesting an increase in catchability due to 
spawning aggregations. 

The only published data on ihe growth 
parameters of other species of llic same family 
lliemirharnphiduc) are for H. lHuztttms<s. Pauly 
(1984) estimated the parameters for 1 he latter species 
at Lqo =■ 32.6cm,, k = 0.581 and i t) = -UHyrs. 
The data for both species indicate thin they arc 
relatively fast giowing. with most linear growth 
oecui ring in the first five years of life. Comparison 
between the growth daia from Ling (N5H) from 
other parts of the State grid ihc present daia show 
good agreement for two year old tt-di. However, 
after this age the mean lengths at age were higher 
for fish from Baird Ka> than lor other waters. The 
reasons for ihe differences are unknown, hut may 
be due to biological differences, or errors in aging 
of otoliths. Ling <I958) used a slightly different 
method for aging otoliths (counting the annuli on 
cleaned whole otoliths wjrh ;hc aid of a hand lens), 
■and relinernent of rhe aging technique needs to be 
undertaken hy comparing the twu method ; on the 
same pair of otoliths. 

In spite of the problems in aging them, otoliths 
must be used because I) scales are not easy lo 
sample because or" their ease in shedding when the 
tlsh is handled, 21 the lack of prominent modes in 
length frequency distributions in older year classes 
(Fig. 41. and 3) theunsuilability of tagging because 
pf high mortality during handling and the lack oi 
any substantial fishery by whieh large numbers of 

tags can be returned. Therefore, because- of the 
present inability to differentiate between biological 
and technical reasons for differences in growth 
estimation, if mortality rates are to be estimated Tor 
other areas and compared with the present results, 
age-length keys should be calculated using the same 
aging technique as that described above. 

An assumption of ihe mortality estimates given 
here is (hat neither immigration nor emigration 
occurs, The present survey demonstrates (hat ihe 
Baird Bay population is probably a unit stock. 
because spawning occurs within the Bay, surne 
juvenile fish were taken from beach seine shots, and 
the similarity in si*r nf fish from the two largest 
mesh gill nets shows thai the lull si<cc rafigc was 
sampled. It is likely thai there is no emigration ol 
older fish to waters outside the bay. because of their 
absence in fhe landings from adjacent fisheries at 
Mniiis, .Scealesand Streaky Rays mnpubf. data). 
The two sets of estimates of natural mortality rate 
|M) are very similar for male fish, however, using 
PawVs equation (1981) to calculate M for female 
fish Ihe estimate ol 0.57 is somewhat higher and 
inconsistent with the mean and standard error (0.35 
± 0,10) estimated from ihe age composition data. 
It is concluded that the method of Pauly may be 
useful as an initial crude estimate, because of the 
quantified assumption of the effect of schooling 
on ihe estimation of mortality. 

Few estimates of natural mortality arc available 
fOT comparison with those reported here. Bcrkely 
& Koude (\91H) estimated an annual survival rate 
nf 14% for the heavily fished species // bwzitiensis 
from I - 2 years of age, and Hughes (1974) estimated 
survival rates for the lightly fished Pacific saury <(Z 
soira) irorn 28.7% to 10.5%. Low annual survival 
rates are believed to be typical for fish of the Order 
Belonifonnes as they are important prey for a 
number of predators .such as pelagic teleosts and 
seabirds (Ayling & Cox ls)82). Although relatively 
large Australian salmon {Amptx inula c*prr) were 
captured during the present investigation, analysis 
of stomach contents revealed that this species was 
not feeding on H. metanaehir (iinpobl. data). 

The relatively high growth constant (fc) and a htgJi 
natural mortality rate (M) is important for 
determining fishing strategies. The importance of 
knowing the ratio M/k has been highlighted by 

IA1II I I t:sjtm<trcs oj van tiL'ththwffy i?/r.M.//,- piftumaers (with standard errant for Hvnarhamphus melnnochir 
/*//■ Hmnl Hay, South AHsthttht. 




tnnwih C/r>n*iant (k) 
Asyinpioiic Length i\.a>) 

\£t oi zero length (t () ) 

0507 \± 0.D32J 

M\7 |-» D4iLm. 
^ f »2 G 0.U8) vr 

0.540 {£ 1.1.044) 
38L7 |+~U.6)em. 

ri)J0 (iUn8)yi 


5 - 
4 - 
1 - 


July 1984 

n = 46 

T" r 

■ ■ I 

T—i — I — i — I — r 


\ \ 

I, J.TO.B 







r r i — i — | — r 



5 - 


1 - 

Jan. 1985 

n = 40 





! ! ■ ' 

T— I— I— I— |- 








I ' ' i l I 
45 50 

4 - 




n = 44 


-|— i — i— i — r— |— i — i— i — i— j— i — i i i t i — i ■!■ i — | — i — i i i | i — l—i — r— ] — i— i — i — r— |—| — r- 1 — i | I — r— i— r 
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 

Standard length (cm.) 
Ml Beach seine l\M Set nets 





30 - 



"5 20 " 

15 - 

10 - 

n = 234 

| I — i — r— i — I — i — i — r " r- 


i i — i — i — | — r— i — i — r 

45 50 

15 20 25 30 35 

Standard Length (cm.) 
ZZl Males ■■ Females EZ3 Immature 

meth^ comb/^df^ Composilion of male> fema,c and ^mature garfish in Baird Bay. (seasonal data and fishing 


£ J6 


t» to • 

■a Jtj 


B 28 H 

l" H 




L' =36.7(1-e-°- 5D7<, -°- ,2) ) 

7 a S 10 IT 12 

Aga (No.of annull) 
Actual l«ngih +■ Predicted length 

° Actual length 

Age (No. of annul!) 

+ Predicted length 

Fig. 6. 


Actual and predicted growth curves for male (A) and female (B) garfish in Baird Bav. (Predicted mean lengths 
obtained from von Bertalanffy growth parameters calculated from aging of otoliths.) 

Fig. 4. Seasonal changes in size composition of garfish in Baird Bay, usine; beach seine and gill nets (mesh sizes and 
areas combined). 



~~ K 1 

Ba'fd Bbv He.7 

Spencer Gulf 3ft. 

Gulf Sl.Vmr.prtl 37.3 



Age IHoM anmilO 
O G.ST.V. 

* 9.B. 

+ S.G. 



Baud Bay 



Spanc*r Gull 



Gull Bt.Vincani 



& a -i * * 



M . 

Ag« IN a. ol annul!) 

O G.9T.V. 

a 8.B. 

Fig. 7. Growth curves For male (A) and female (B) garfish from South Australian waters, (Growth parameters for 
Spencer Gulf and Gulf St Vincent determined from raw data in Ling (1958).) 

v— Malas M(4-9>=D.53 

Combined *e*»s M(4-9)=0-65 

"~ s x J I 

Abo (No.of annuli) 

* Males 


Combined sexes 

Fig. 8, Catch curves and estimated natmal mortality rates 
for male, female and combined sexes of garfish in Baial 
Bay. determined fiom age composition data. 

Beverton (1963). The ratio for mute ft. tnelanochir 
is 1.05, and for females 0.65 using the age 
composition data. These ratios are relatively tow in 
comparison with some species, such as gadoids 
(Cuiland 1983), and indicate chat garfish 
populations will attain most of their potential 
growth before being greatly reduced through natural 
mortality. In the absence of fishing, (as is virtually 
the case in Baird Bay), this means that the stock 
contaius many large fish, and in terms of 

maximising the yield per recruit, it would be 
necessary to fish relatively lightly with a relatively 
high minimum length. In other areas of State 
waters, where fishing mortality is higher, the 
strategy may need to be different. To determine 
these strategies, however, yield per recruit 
relationships need to be generated for each area. 
Another method for determining the best strategy 
in the fished populations is to experimentally 
manipulate the harvesting rates, as suggested by 
Walters & llilbom (1976). Here, Baird Bay lends 
itself as a suitable research area where fishing effort 
could be manipulated and the resultant effects on 
the stock of garfish monitored. 


1 am grateful for the field assistance of K. Burrell, 
A. Dalgetty, M. Retallick and G. Wright, to K. 
Burrell for preparation of otoliths for aging and M. 
Retallick and G. Wright for preparation of 
illustrations 1 am also grateful to Dr M. Prager of 
Department of Oceanography, Old Dominion 
University, Norfolk, Virginia and to K. Hill of S. 
Aust. Dept. of Fishcnes respectively for making 
available the software packages •TISHPARM" and 
"LINGREG ?? available for analysis of the data, and 
to my colleagues, R. Uvvts, S. Shepherd and G 
Inglis for their constructive comments on the 

Re Cere nces 

Avi inc., T. & Cox, G. 1 (1982) "Collins guide to the .sea 
fishes of New Zealand." (Collins, Auckland). 

Bprkh**; S. A. & HotJDt. fc. I). (1978) Biology of two 
exploited species of halfbeaks, Hemirhamphus 
hraz'Hensh and H. hohw from south east Florida. 
Hull Mar. Sci 28(4), 624-44. 

Brvnony R. J. H. (1963) Maturation, growth and 
moitalhy of clupeid and engraulid stocks in relation 
to fishing. Rctpp. Pmces-Vtrh. Cons. Inter, Exptor. Mer, 
154, 44-67. 

Guu.aVD, J, A, (W83) "Fish stock assessment. A manual 
of basic methods." (J. Wiley & Sons. Chichester). 



Hughes, S. E. (1974) Stock composition, growth, 
mortality, and availability of Pacific saury, Cololabis 
saira y of the north eastern Pacific Ocean. Fish Bud. 
U.S. Dept. Comm t 72(1), 121-31. 

Jones, G. K. (1981) The recreational fishery in 
metropolitan coastal waters. SAF/Q 5(6), 9-11. 

— _ — (1983) Species composition and catch rates by 
recreational and commercial fishermen in southern Eyre 
Peninsula waters. SAFIQ 7(4), 9-18. 

Klumpp. D. W. & Nichols, P. D. (1983) Nutrition of the 
southern sea garfish, Hyporhamphus melanochir: gut 
passage rate and daily consumption of two food types 
and assimilation of scagrass components. Mar. EcoL 
Prog. Sec. 12, 207-16. 

Lincu J. K. (1958) The sea garfish, Reporhamphus 
melanochir (Cuvicr & Valenciennes) (Hemirhamphidae) 
in South Australia: Breeding, age determination and 
growth rates. Aust. ./. Mar & Freshwat. Res. 9(1), 

Pauly. D. (1981) On the interrelationships between 
natural mortality, growth parameters, and mean 
environmental temperature in 175 fish stocks. J. Cons, 
int. Explor. Mer. 39(2), 175-92. 

(1984) Fish population dynamics in tropical 

waters: A manual for use with programmable 
calculators. JCLARM, 8, 325pp. (Int. Centre for living 
aquatic resources management., Manila, Philippines). 

Saila, S. B., Recksiek, C. W. & Prager, M. H. (1988) 
Basic Fishery Science Programs: A compendium of 
microcomputer programs and manual of operation. 
Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science, IS. 
(Elsevier, Amsterdam). 

Vooren, C. M. (1977) Growth and mortality of tarakihi 
(Pisces: Cheilodactylidae) in lightly exploited 
populations. N.Z. J, Mar. & Freshwat. Res. 11(1), 1-22. 

Walters, C. J. & Hilborn, R. (1976) Adaptive control 
of fishing systems. ./. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 33, 145-59. 





by A. Z). Austin & V. Burnyoczky* 


A catalogue of the type material of insects and other invertebrates held in the collections of the 
Waite Agricultural Research Institute (WARI) and the South Australian Department of Agriculture 
(SADA) is presented. Only paratypes are held in these collections; all primary types previously held 
have been transferred to the Australian National Insect Collection, Canberra. For each species the 
primary reference, location of the holotype, and the number of paratypes in WARI and SADA is 
provided. An account of the history, scope and importance of the collections is given. 
KEY WORDS: catalogue, type specimens, Insecta, Arachnids 

T.'umcAWWJi nt iHt tt'Jiet SrKuV.. c f / A. ,!i.-..\ M*«0), 1H(U -it J& 






A.'Siin, A. D. & Bo»n*o< vky, V. (1990) Catalogue of invertebrate type specimen* held in rite collections 
of tivc Wairc Agricultural Research Institute om1 the South Australian nepariincnl of A&ricolUnc falW*- 
fl Stot: *V. 4«tf 114(1). 47-53. 31 VUy, J990. 

A catalogue CiJ" the type material ol' insects and othet invertebrates Field in the collection* of ihe W'hUv 
•\gricuUural Research insthutc (WARD W)d the South Ausuahan Department of Agriculture tSAUA) is 
picscuted. Only paiaryncs me held in these collections; ail pommy t>|)08 previously held have been transferred 
to The Australian National Insect r.illeciiom L'ttnbcrrn Tor each specie* the primary reference, location 
oT the holotype, -and the number of paratvpes in WARI and SADA is provided. An account of (he hiM°r>. 
scope and importance ol' the collections is given. 

Ki v Wok us* catalogue, type specimens, Inseeia. Arachnida 


In South Australia identification of arthropods 
relevant to agriculture antl forestry and relalcd 
ra.sotiomic research arc serviced by specialized 
collections at the Waite Agricultural Research 
Institute. University of Adelaide, and ihe South 
Australian Depart mem of Agriculture. Th«c 
collections include over 250,000 specimens niany 
being authoritatively identified to species. Included 
are lypc .specimens ol more than 110 species, in 25 
families, a large proportion ol' vvhicli an? ol 
agricultural iclevance. To date there has not been 
t» catalogue published of the type holdings u\ these 
collections. As a result few systematise realist the 
scope and imporiance of these collections, whilst 
recent reorganisation and rationalisation of ihe 
Wake Institute's collection has invoked the transfer 
of some type material to (he Ausiialian National 
Insect Collection, Canberra. Mere we document Ihe 
location, number and primary reference of the type 
material, and present a brief account of the history, 
scope and significance of the two collections. 

History of lite collections 

The collection at I lie Wake Institute Started soon 
afier the appointment of the first enlomoto£ist, J. 
Davidson, in 1928, Under the terms of special State 
Government funding, Davidson was required to 
provide an advisory service in entomology to the 
Department of Agriculture znd, later, lo the Woods 
& troves! Service (Andrewartha l$45;Edgeloc 1984). 
Accordingly. Davidson reentered lhai sampler of 
agricultural pests be sent to him from South 

Department ol immmology, Waite Agricultural 
Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Glen 
CKmond, S. Aust 5064, 

Australia and adjacent States for the purpuse of 
making identification*; this material formed the 
basis of the present collection. 

Up to 1945 research on locusts- and inseeu 
associated with crops, pastures and orchards 
Ichiefly by Davidson, D, S. Swan and H. C». 
Andrcwartha) added significantly (o the collection. 
In 1950 J-t. S. F Lower was appointed as the first 
systematic entomologist and curator ol the 
collection. Although his interest in aeaiyptratc 
Diptera and cicadellid bugs ts not reflected in the 
collection's meagre holdings of these groups, his 
curatorship to the early J960\ saw further additions 
to the collection, mainly as a result of Swan's 
interest ha Aearina and aculeate Hymenoptera, work 
on pest species of I epuioptera by several workers 
and studies on the biology of pollination by K. M. 

In 1959, P. R Burks, appointed as the 
Department of Agriculture's first entomologist. 
started a separate collection, resulting in a decrease 
of reliance on the advisory service provided by the 
Waite Institute. Subsequently the two collection* 
have developed in parallel: that at the Department 
of Agriculture primarily as a synoptic collection of 
invertebrates developed from material submitted for 
ideniilicahon, and that ar the Waite Institute from 
material originating from research work within (he 
Department of I-momology. 

From the early 1960\s the Waite Institute 
collection developed significantly in two major 
areas: insects associated with native and planted 
forests because of the work of F\ D. Morgan, and 
scale insects (Coceoidea) from taxonomic research 
b> H. M. llrooVes, who was curator from 1964 to 
1982. In 1985 one of us (A.D.A.), with research 
interests in the systematies Of hynienoptcran 
parasitosis and biological control, was appointed 
lecturer in Systematic Entomology and been me the 


A. D. Al IS I IN <& V DVRNYOC/.kY 

ihi/d curator of the Waite Institute collection. In 
1966, af'lLT the collection was transferred to a 
refurbished, air-conditioned room and was 
ttor^anized into new standard 10-drawer cabinets 
employing a unil-Uay system, it was dedicated as 
the Duncan Swan Insect Collection, in honour of 
the contribution of Swan, who provided the major 
inspiration for expansion of the collection to its 
present size and importance. 

In 1982 the Department of Agriculture using irs 
Dec minicomputer, set up a data-base for storage 
and easy retrieval of taxonomic and biological 
information on arthropods relevant to agriculture 
and veterinary science (Caon ct al. 1984). This 
system stores primary information from collections 
and/or card files at the Department Of Agriculture, 
the Waite Institute, the Institute ol Medical & 
Veterinary Science and the South Australian 
Museum. It enables rapid retrieval of information 
on taxonomic status, distribution, host association, 
abundance and damage assessment, and will 
undoubtedly be of great assistance in future 
extension work and entomological research in South 

Notable holdings of importance to taxonomic 
research at the Dcpanment of Agriculture and 
Waite Institute include collections of acridid 
grasshoppers, scarabaeid beetles and larvae and 
other immature stages of groups injurious to plants, 
In addition the Waite Institute houses .significant 
collections of Acarina. Araneae, Thysanoptcra, 
Hnmoprcra (chiefly Psylloidea and Coccoidca), 
l£p*doptera 3nd parasitic Hymenoptera. 

Catalogue of type material 

The catalogue lists species published prior to 1989 
for which type material is held in the two 
collections. For each species the primary reference, 
location ol lite holotypc and number of paratypes 
is given Holotypes reported in primary references 
lo be located at the Watte Institute, have been 
transferred to the Australian National Insect 
Collection. Many paratypes have also been 
transferred, particularly for species ef Coccoidca. 
as a large proportion of H, M Brookes' collection 
was donated to ANIC in 1986 to aid with the 
centralization of coccoid research in Australia. 
Abbreviations of institutions are: AM, Australian 
Museum, Sydney; ANIC, Australian National 
JnsecL Collection, CSIRO, Canberra; RMNH, 
British Museum (Natural History'), London; NZAC, 
New Zealand Arthropod Collection, DSIR, 
Auckland; QM, Queensland Museum* Brisbane; 
SADA, South Australian Department of 
Agriculture Collection, Adelaide; SAM, South 

Australian Museum, Adelaide: USNM, United 
States National Museum (Natural History), 
Washington; WARI, Waite Agricultural Research 
Institute Collection, Adelaide. 



Amblyomnw trtgutwtam ornaussimum Roberts, !*>62, 

Aust.'l Zool. 10: 376. 

Holotypc, Q, QM; Paratypes. 19 V. WARI. 




Aiaxigumia tatei Tepper, 1893. Tranv R. Soc. § Aiiv. l& 


Holoiype, c, SAM; Paniiype, lev WART. 



G/ythiitts .suintisier C\\>w\riL WS1, Ret S. Aust. Mils. 9: 


Holoiype. or, .SAM; Paratypes, 30-0-, 29 Q. WARI, 



Zviutorh Ondtxiet < ilCWRi !%2, Rec. S. AtiSL Mus. |4i 381. 

Holotypc, cr, SAM; Paralype, K\ WARI. 


Mt'nchamia huhbanlat GroiS, 1976, Plant feeding, and 

Other Dugs fHcrmptera/ of South Australia, Heieroptrra 

— Pari //, Govt Printer, S. Aust., p.4l?. 

Holoiype, cr, SAM: Paralype. I ?, WAR!. 



tmnoasra delta Wheeler, 1939, J. Wa>h. Auid. Sci. 3$ 


Holoiypt, '\ USNM; Paralypes, 2o*c/, I 9, WARI. 

Ewpoowdoloms Oman, 1936, J. Wash. Acwl Sci. 2(>: »* 
Holoiype. », I..SNM; Paratypes, lefc, 1 V\ WARI. 

Etrtpouscu en\tfortuis Oman & Wheeler, 1^38. Proc. cnl. 

Soc. Wash. 40: 142. 

Holoiype, o\ USNM; Paratypes, 2ef o\ 2'? Q % WAKI. 


PlatvobrftittunkieniTJi\\o\\ [W, J. Aim. enl. Soc. 26: 256. 
Holoiype, 0\ AMC; ParAlypcs, I ff, » V, WARI". 

Pbtyottria tmtuatu Taylor, 1987, J. Ausi. ertl. Soc. 26: 261 
Holoiype, it, ANIC; Paratypes St***, ?V ? . WARI. 




Anoeconeossa communis Ta\\ot, 1987, .]. Aust. em. Sac 
26: !13. 

Holoiype, ct v ANIC; Paraiypes la, |o, WARI. 

A noeconeossacoptdt/ormi\ Taylor, 1987, J. Aust, em Soc 

26: 118. 

Holotype: a, ANIC; Paraiypes 5 era. 10 9 9, WARJ. 

AnvecuneoAsu vespcrritniTa^oi, 1987. J. Ausr. ent. Soc 

26: 118. 

Holotype, cr, ANIC; Paraiypes, la a, 2 9 9. WAR!. 

Bfastopsydu adnaiahac Tavlor, 1985, J. Aust em Soc 


Holotype, v r ANIC; Paraiypes, 2a a, 3 7 9. WARI. 

Btastopsytta ocademafi* Taylor. 198.5, J. Aust. ent. Soc 

24: 22. 

Holotype, a, ANIC; Paraiypes. 3a a. 2 9 9, WARI, 

B/astopsy/la ociosendae Ta\iot t 1985, I. Aust. ent. Soc 

24: 24. 

Holotype. <?> ANIC, Para types, 2crcf, 209, WARI. 

Cardiaspina aWitexiura Taylor. 1962, Aust. J. Zooi. 10; 


Holotype, y t ANIC: Paraiypes, la, 19, WART. 

Cardiaspina densitexni Taylor, 1962. Aust. 1 Zool. 10: 334. 
Holotype, o. ANIC; Paraiypes, 30 £ 9, WARI. 

Cardiaspina relator 'laylor, 1962, Aust. J. Zool. 10: 317. 
Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paraiypes, I a, 19, WARI 

Glycaspis {(dycaspis) fuscavena Moore. 1970, Aust. Zool 

15: 288. 

Holotype, a, ANIC; Paraiypes, 6a a, WARI. 

Glycaspis {AUo°tyeaspis) repenrina Moore, 1964, Proa 

Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 89: 14S. 

Holotype, a, AM; Paraiypes, 7a a. I 9. WARI. 

G/ycaspis (Aflogiycasprs/ wanhiensis Moore, 1964, Proc. 

Linn, Soc. N.SW. 89: 148. 

Holotype a. AM; Pararypcs, 4a a, 3 9 9, WAR! 


Sehedotrivza marg'mata Tavlor, 1987, J. Ausi. cm. Soc. 

26: 233. 

Holotype, o\ ANJC, Paraiypes, 31 a a, 1H 9 9 . WARI. 


Fwnchia banksiae I .ambden &. Kovtarob, 1981. Pit**. EDL 

Soc, Wash. 83:109. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paraiypes. 8 Juv., WARI. 


Symonkvccus aberrant Koteja <& Biuokes, 19X1, Polskie 

Pismo ent. 51: 384. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratype, iy, WARI. 

Symonicocrus chorizandrae Koteja & Brookes. 1981. 

Polskie Pismo ent. 51: 387. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paraiypes, 29 9, WARJ. 

Symonicoccus stipac Koteja & Brookes, 1981 ♦ Polskie 

Pismo em. 51: 383. 

Holotype, <?, ANIC; Paratypc, 1 9. WARI. 


Odt)na\pis australiensis Ben-Dov, 19SK, U r S. Nat. Mus. 

Tech. Bull. 1723: 37, 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paraiypes, 39 9, WARI. 


Brookeiteitti tuberans I ambden &. Ko>/tarah, J 9/4, Ann 

ent. Soc. Am. 67; 409. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; ParatypeS, 299. WARI. 

l.ecanodiasph erenwcifriihywcW & Kos/tarab, 1974, Virg 
Pulyiech. Inst. & State Univ. Div. Bull. 70: 41 
Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paraiypes, 29 9, WARI. 


Acmicotvus stipac Williams, 1985, Australian Mealybugs, 

BMNH, p.42, 

Holotype, 9, ANIC: Paraiypes, 20 9, WARI. 

Acinicoccus triodiae Williams, 19X5, Australian 

Mealybugs, BMNH, p.42. 

Holotype, 9, AMC; Paratype.s, $9 9, WARI. 

Apodastocovcus onor Williams. I98S V Australian 

Mealybugs, BMNH, p.48- 

Hototype. 9. ANIC; Paraiypes, 3 9 9, WARI. 

Australiputo eucalypti Williams, 1985, Australian 

mealybugs, BMNH, p.63- 

Holotypc, 9, ANIC; Paraiypes, 3 9 9, WARI. 

Cftaetotrionymus murnpeowiensis Williams, 1985, 
Australian Mealybugs, BMN1I, p.72. 
Holotype. 9, ANIC; Paraiypes, 29 9, WARI. 

Chavtatnoiiymus pachylus Williams, 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs, BMNH, p.72. 

Holoiype, o, ANIC; Paraiypes, 4 c 9, WAK1. 

Chorizococcus eriachms Williams, 1985. Australian 

Mealybugs, BMNH, p.79. 

Holotype, 9. ANIC; Paraiypes, 3y 9- WARI 

Chonzococcus ///Brookes, 1977, J, Ausuoii. Soc. 15:422. 
= Crypioripersia hi (Brookes) vide Williams, 1985, 
Australian Mealybugs, BMNH, p.102. 
Holotype, O, ANIC: Paratypes, 29 9, WAR I 

Chorizocoixits peritus Brookes, 1977, J, Aust. ent. Soc. 

15: 425. 

= Jfumococcus petttux (Brookes) vide Williams, 1985, 

Australian Mealybugs, BMNH, p,178. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratype, I 9, WARI, 



Chorizococcus radicalis Brookes, 1977, J. Aust. ent. Soc. 

15: 427. 

Holotype, 9 , ANIC; Paratype, 1 9, WAR!. 

= Vryhurgia hrevicruris (McKenrie) *yn, Williams, 1985, 

Australian mealybugs, BMNH, p.387. 

CiwrKococeussuhatpinus Brookes 197ft, J. Ausr. cm. Sou 

15: 429. 

Holotypc, fr, ANIC; Paratype, IV, WARI 

Caorvrtpia pafw toe WiWiums, 1985, Australian Mealybugs, 

BMNH. p.92, 

Holotypc 9. ANIC; Paratype, 19, WARI. 

Cmicaccus avavim: Williams, 1985, Australian Mealybugs. 

BMNH, p.95. 

Holoryp^ 9. ANIC; Paraiypc, 19, WARI 

Cvpencnccus muhipori Williams t$B& Australian 

Mealybius BMNH, pAQL 

Holotype, g. ANIC: Paratype, 1 9< WARI 

Dvsmicovcm aggens Williams, 19S5, Austialian 

Mealybugs BMNH, p.IH. 

Holotype, 9. ANIC; Paratype, 19- WARI. 

Dysmicoccus itnicus Williams, 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs BMNII. p.lll. 

Holotype, v. ANIC; Paratype, 19, WARI. 

Dvsmicoccitf lapaneae Williams 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs, BMNH. pJ33. 

Holotype, 9. ANIC; Paratype, 19, WARI. 

Ovhtntcaeats moundi Williams, 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs. BMNH, p.137. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratype ; 19. WARI. 

Dyamicoecas vtviortanus Williams 19H5, Australian 

Mealybugs BMNH, p.149. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC: Paratypes 2V v, WARI. 

Eucatvpfocaccus hroofcesav Williams 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs BMNH, p.I55, 

Holotype, o, ANIC; Paratype, 1 9. WARI 

Eu/ycoa'us antLscius Williams, 19K5, Australian 

Mealybugs BMNH, p.161. 

Holotype, 9, HMNH; Paratypes 29 9, WARI. 

kurycoccus vanchepae Brookes 1972. J, Aii$t. ent. Soc. 

II: 132. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratypes 29 9, WARI. 

■ Muconellicoccus lamgerus : (Puller) s>v/. Williams, 1985, 

Australian Mealybugs BMNH, p.19h. 

Hadrocovcus nmircanac Williams, 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs, BMNH, p,IC>9. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paiatype, 19. WARI. 

Hadrococcus puitrrwetje Williams, 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs BMNH, p.169. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratypes -9 9. WARI 

HrliQcoeeus ; summerviliei Brookes, 1978, I. Ausl. cm. Soc. 

17: 241. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paraiypes, 29 9. WARI 

Itvococcus beardslevi Williams, 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs BMNH, p.180. 

Holotypc, 9, ANIC; Paratype, 1 9, WARI. 

Ityococcu.s fremocitri Williams, 1485, Australian 

Mealybugs BMNH, p. Iti. 

Holotypc, 9. AMC; PaTatypes 20 9, WARi. 

Ityocnccus milparinka<c William s 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs, BMNH, P.1S5. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC: Paratype. I 9, WARI. 

Lumimcoccus flotrdetsi Williams 19X5, Australian 

Mealybugs, BMNH, p.190. 

Holotype. 9, ANIC; Paratype, IV, WARI. 

Melunococats cobartcits Williams, 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs HMNH, p209. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paraiypc 19. WARI. 

Meftwococctt* riarwimensis Williams, 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs BMNH. p.209. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC: Paratypes 5 9 V, WARI. 

Melanoeoccus morgaru Williams 1985* Austialian 

Mealybugs BMNH, p.2P. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratype, 1 9, WARI. 

Xje/anocnccus phylodti William:,. 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs BMNH, p.2t9. 

Holotype. 9, ANIC: Paratype. I 9. WARI. 

MvlutwcovcHS senlkoufh Williams 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs BMNH. p.22i. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratypes 2V 9, WARi. 

MelanoaKcus iusmunkie Williams 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs BMNH, p.223. 

Holotype, 9. AMC; Paratype, I T \ WARI 

Nipoecoccus exocotpi Williams 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs, BMNH. p.23". 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratype, IV, WARI. 

NipuecXKXUS ntat'reanaF William*, 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs, BMNH, p.24(). 

Holotype, 9, AMC; Paratype, I ?. WARI. 

Peliocaccu? subconicicolu Williams 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs, BMNH, p.257. 

Holotype, 9- ANIC; Paratype, 19, WARI 

Phenacaccui hakcue Williams, 1985. Australian 

Mealybugs, BMNH, p.270. 

Holotype. 9, ANIC; Paratype, 19, WARI. 

Poefitococcus tonx'tlobus Brookes, 1981, .1. Atisl. ent.Soe 

20: 127. 

Holotypc. V, ANIC; Paratypes 69 9. WAR!, 



Pseudococcus atalesfus Williams, 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs, BMNH, p.287. 

Holotype, 9. ANIC; Paratypes 2^9, WARI. 

Pseudococcus thenopodu Williams, 1985, Australian 

.Mealybugs, BMNH. p.294. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratypes, 3 9 9, WARI. 

Pseudococcus eremophdae Williams 19S5, Australian 

Mealybugs. BMNH, p.306. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratype, 19 WAR], 

Pieudocacew; eucalypticm Williams, 19S5, Australian 

Mealybugs, BMNH, p.3U>. 

Holotype, 9v ANIC; Paratypes, 39 9, WARI. 

Pseudococcus goodeniae Williams, 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs, BMNH, p.313. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratypes, 2 9 9, WARI. 

Pseudocotrus hyper^oeu^ Williams, 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs, BMNH, pJl5. 

Hotmype, 9, ANIC; Paratypes, 2 9 9, WARI. 

Pseudococcus minfaroicus Williams, 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs, BMNH, p.320. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratypes 29 9, WARI. 

Pseudococcus onustus Williams, 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs, BMNH, -p.320. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paralype, I9 t WARI. 

Pseudocotrus symoni Williams, 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs, BMNH, p33>3, 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratype, I 9, WARI. 

Rhostroetnvw melaleucae Williams, 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs, BMNH, p.345. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratypes, 39 9. WARI. 

Rhizoecus.spha^m Williams, 1985, Australian Mealybugs 

BMNH, p.357. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratype, 10, WARI. 

Trionymus ascripticius Williams. 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs BMNH, p.368. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratypes, 49 ft, WARI, 

Trionymus gyrus Williams, 1985, Australian Mealvbugs 

BMNH, p.371. 

Holotype, 9» ANIC; Paratype, 19. WAR I. 

Trionymus zovsiae Williams, 1985. Australian Mealvbugs, 

BMNH, p.377. 

Holotype. 9, ANIC; Paratype, 19, WARI. 

V'entrispmu epigueu Williams, 1985, Australian Mealybugs, 

BMNH, p.378. 

Holotype. 9, ANIC: Paratype, I 9, WART 

Venirispina latheticu Williams, 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs, BMNJI, p.378. 

Holotype, 9, ANiC; Paratype, I 9, WARI. 

Ventnspinu woodi Williams. 1985, Australian Mealvbugs 

BMNH, p.38l, 

Holotype, 9, ANIC, Paratype, I 9, WARI. 

Vryhurgia sutrulentarum Williams, 1985. Australian 

Mealybugs BMNH, pJSR. 

Holotype, o f ANIC; Paratype, 1 9, WARI. 

Yudnapitma radicalis Williams, 1985, Australian 

Mealybugs. BMNH, p. 390. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratype. 19, WARL 



Cranoihrips sitttor Mound, 1972, J. Aust. ent. Soc. U: 44. 
Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratypes lor, 2y 9, WARI, 

Cramthrips vesper Mound, 1972, J. Aust. ent. Soc. 11: 
46. Holotype. 9, ANIC; Paratypes. 6crcr„6\> V, WARI. 

Desmothrips davidsom Monson. 1931, Bull. ent. Res. 21: 


Holotype, 9, BMNH; Paratype, 19, WARI. 

= Destnathrips fenuicornis (Bagnall) Syn. Mound, 

1967, Bull. Br. Mus nat. Hist. Ent. 20: 68. 

Desmothrips elegitm Morison, 1931, Bull, em. Res. 21: 
451. Holotype. 9, BMNH; Paratypes 29 9, WARI. 
= Desmothrips propinqum (Bagnalt).vvff. Mound, 1967, 
Bull. Br. Mus nat. Hist. Hnl. 20: 65. 


Csinxhrips watsani Mound, 197!, Bull. Bt, Mus nat. Hist. 

Em. 25: 399, 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratype, 19, WARI. 

Omchothrips aroirum Mound, 1971, Bull. Br. Mus nat. 

Hist, Ent. 25: 447. 

Holotype, 9, AMC; Paratypes, 29 Q, WARI. 

H'arithrips maefrjeh Mound, 1971, Bull. Br. Mus. rial. Hist. 

Put. 25: 456. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Pararype. 19. WARI. 


Odottiothripielia ondrewurthae Pitkin, 1972. J. Aust. ent. 

Soc. 11: 271 

Holotype, o\ AMC; Paratype. lcr, WARI. 

OdordothripieUa compm Pitkin, 1972, .1. Aust. ent. Soc. 

11; 275. 

Holotype. o\ ANIC; Paratypes, I 0% 1 9, WARI. 

Odontot-hripiella eoncolorata Pitkin, 1972, J. Aust. cut. 

Soc. II: 278. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratypes, 49 9. WARI. 



Odonloihripiefla hopei Pitkin, 1972, J. Aust. em. Soc. 11: 


Holotype, cr t ANIC; Paratypes* la, 25 9, WARI. 

Odofirotfiripiefla passaiaina Pitkin, 1972, J, Aust. ent. Soc. 

U: 28. 

Holotype, o* 5 ANIC; Paratypes, 1^,299, WARt. 

Physothrips simplex Murisou, 1930, Bull. ent. Res. 21: 
12. = Thnps simplex (Morison) vide BhaU, I960. Oritfiii- 
Insect* .3: 380. 
Holotype 9, BMNH; Paratype, 1 9, WARl 



Chrvsopa australisNtw, 1980, Aust. J. Znol. SuppL Ser. 

77: 42. 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratypes, lo\ 2 9 9. WARl. 



Uracanthus cupressianus RonUimuwu & Austin, 1988, 

Trans, R. Soc. S. Aust. 112: 110. 

Holotype, o% SAM; Paratypes, 2lo*o\ 20 9 9 - WARl, 


Calpochita kulambi Britton, 1986, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. 

Ser. 118; 54. 

Holotype, o*, ANIC; Paratypes K?, 19- SADA. 

TeJura petiotaia Briuon, 1987, lnvertehr. Taxon. 1: 702, 
Holotype, o\ ANIC; Paratype, 1 o*, SADA. 



Apiocera helenue Paramonov, 1953, Aust. J. ZooL 1 : 4K3. 
Holotype, o\ ANIC; Paratypes, 29 9, &£*«• WARI. 


Dumammyta interrupra James, 1950, Pioc. ent. Soe. 

Wash. 52; 313, 

Holotype, 9. BMNH: Paratype, 1 cr, WARI, 



A pa aides u ij ul/ae Nixon, I960, Ann., Mag. iiat. Hist. 03) 

2: 303. 

f Iconella alfaljae (Nixon) vide Mason, 19S0. Mem. ent. 

Soe. Can. 115: 7?. 

Holotype, 9, BMNH; Paratypes, 50»or, 29 9, WARI. 

Apanreles penthocrama Austin, 1987, In M. J. W. Cock 
el uL (Eds) Slug and Nettle Caterpillars, CAB 
International, p.148. 
Holotype, 9, BMNH; Paratypes. la, 29 9\ WARI. 

Fonuctit mutuensis Austin, 1987, In M. J. W. Cock el af. 

(lids) Slug and Neule Caterpillais, CAB Jntcrnational, 


Holotype, 9. BMNH; Paratypes, 4crcy, 1 9, WARI. 


Temelucha evenea tserrich, 1959, Ann, Mag. nai. Hist 

(13) 2; 53. 

Holotype, y. BMNH; Paratypes, 3a a, 29 9, WARI. 


Cenuohaeiis dubiomts Austin, 1983, Int. J, Insect Morph. 
Embryol. 12: 151; types designated Austin, 1984, Trans. 
R. Soc. S. Aust. 108: 23. 
Holotype, y, ANIC; Paratypes, Io\ 4 9 V, WARI. 

CetQtahaeus euspicormttus Austin, 1983, Int. J. Insect 
Morph, Fmbryol. 12: 151; types designated Austin, 19X4, 
Trans. R. Soc, S. Aust. 108: 25. 
Holotype. 9, ANIC: Paratypes, la, 29 9. WARI. 

Ceratobaeus masneri Austin, 1983, Int. J. Insect Morph, 
Embryal. 12: 143; types designated Austin, 1984, Trans. 
R. Soe. S. Aust. 108: 29. 
Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratypes, \y, 49 9, WARI. 

Ceralabc/etts platycornutits Austin, 1984, Trans R Soc. 

S. Aust, t<>8: 30/ 

Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratypes, lo*, 49 9, WARI. 

Hkkmatwlla hotoptatysu Austin, 1981, .1. Aust. em, Soe. 

20: 306. 

Holotype. 9, ANIC; Paratypes, 29 9. WARI, 

Mirobacaides ehngams Austin, 1986, Aivsl- J. ZooL 34: 


Hoioiype, 9, ANIC; Paratype, l9t WARL 

Mirobueoides kerryi Austin, 1986, Aus(. J. Zool. 34: 325. 
Holotype, 9, ANIC; Paratype, 19. WARL 

Mirobueoides scuteitttris Austin, 1986, Au>t. J. Zool. 34: 


Holotype. 9, ANIC; Paratype, 19. WARL 

Mirobueoides serosa* .Austin, 1986, Aust. J. Zool. 34:. 322. 
Holotype, 9, ANIC: Paratype. 19, WARI. 

Neabaeus twvazeuhindensis Austin, 1988, N.Z. J. Zool. 

15: 176. 

Holotype, 9, NZAC; Paratypes, I o\ $?'?) WARL 

Psyilobaeus pecki Austin, 1984, Syst. tint. 9: 123. 
Holotype, 9. ANIC; Paratypes, 1 o\ 1 7, WARI. 


Acknowledgments Mr Dennis Hopkins, Mr Greg Baker, Dr Peter Allen 

and Dr Peter Bailey for comments on the catalogue, 
We thank Dr Peter Miles and Helen Brookes for and for information on the collection at the South 
reading the introductory sections of this work, and Australian Department of Agriculture. 


Andrewartha, H. G. (1945) Obituary notice, James "Proceedings 4th Australian Applied Entomological 

Davidson. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 69, 313-317. Research Conference, Adelaide". (Govt Printer, South 

Caon, G., Gehlring, W. & Henry, K. (1984) Use of a Australia). 

data base management package to catalogue insect Edgeloe, V. A. (1984) 'The Waite Agricultural Research 

occurrences and host data on a minicomputer. Institute. The First Fifty Years 1924-1974". (Waite 

pp.437-441, In Bailey, P. & Swincer, D. (Eds) Agricultural Research Institute, Adelaide.) 




VOL. 114, PART 2 


by Ivor Lansbury* 


The two known species of Australian Hebridae are redescribed. Keys to genera and species are 


Three new species, Hebrus woodwardi sp. Nov., H. monteithi sp. Nov. and H. nourlangiei sp. Nov. 

are described from Queensland and the Northern Territory. Lectotypes are designated from Hebrus 

axillaries Horvath and Naeogeus latensis Hale. Distributional and field notes are given for all the 


IftotStt&ffffBS Qj tho Ruvut Surii'ty t'J S. Atisl,. UMU). HM2), $J-fifi 


by Ivor Lansblry* 


I .ansburv, I (1990) Notes on the Uebridae (Insects, Hemiptera-Heteroptera) of Australia with descilpnoas 
of three new speWes. Trans, ft Sot:. £ 4hsr. 114(2). 55-66, 31 May, 1990. 

The I wo known species ol Australian Uebridae are rcde&cribcd. Keys to genet a and species are provided. 
I hrce new species, ih'hrus woariwardi s\x nov.. H Mitnteithi sp. nov. and ll nourlan^ei 5p. nov. aredesetibed 
from Queensland and the Northern Territory. Uciotypes are designated for Hebrus uxilluris Horvath and 
\aeageas tutettm Hale. Distributional and field notes aie gjvsn lot all the vpeci*s 

Kev Words Hebridae, Hebrus, Mvrra^JU7 t distribution. 


The described Australian hybrid fauna is small 
with two species , Hebrus axillaris H or v<j t h 
(-Nwogeusfate.nsi.s Hale) and Merragata hacken 
Hungerford Helms \% a cosmopolitan genu;, which 
has been split into a number of subgenera of 
disputed validity. The most recent comprehensive 
account of thcHcbridac is that of Andersen (1982) 
whn estimates thai there are ftbout 110 species. 
Liuidbt3d I1V33) gives An overview ol the family 
lisiing twelve species from the Indn-Austrahan 
Pacific region, two (pedes being listed from New 
Guinea. At present there arc 18 Hebrus species 
recorded from the Oriental region, additional 
Species being described from the Philippines (Porter 
1954, 1959) and Formosa [Taiwan | (Miyamoto 1964, 
1965). The related Onental genera, Tttmistus 
Distant, Neotimasius Andersen and Hynanus 
Distani have been revised by Andersen (I9HI). These 
genets are known from ihe Indian sub-continent, 
Sri Lanka, Thailand, Malaya, Sumatra, Java and 
a smgle record from China. All the species appear 
to be hygiopetiic occurring on wet rock faces or 
in the splash zone of flowing water. The absence 
o\' records from New Guinea and ^northern' 
Australia may reflect lack of collecting rather than 
the absence of suitable habitats. 

The genus Hebrus was split into six. subgenera 
by Andersen (1981). Cobbcn (1982) suggested that 
the use of stibgeneric groupings should be 
abandoned and no attempt has been made here in 
assign Australian Hebrus to subgenera. The 
Australian Hebrus species so far known form a 
diverse group which is difficult to characterise in 
species group descriptions. 

The Hebridac are characterised within ihc 
Gcrromoipha by the presence of a pair of 
prominent plates ov bucculae on the ventral sut face 
of the head which cover the base of the rostrum. 

* Hope Entomological Collections. University Museum 
Oxrwd t UK. OX! 3PW 

The tarsi of all legs are two-segmented, the Jtrst is 
always very short. 

Andeisen (1982) comments that the male 
cjeiuialia of bebrids arc always hidden from view 
when viewed dorsal ly. One new species described 
from Queensland differs in that the parameres 
(clampers of Andersen 1982) are clearly visible from 
the dorsal aspect. 

Mebnds are small (1.5-2.0 mm long) sioul hodicd 
bugs. Hebrus is covered dorsally with a velvety 
bydrofugc-like pile. Depending upon the angle of 
viewing, the dorsal surface is variously iridescent. 
The underside is not so densely velvety pilose; 
sternites are usually shining with adpressed white 
or golden hairs. The hind legs are always slightly 
longer than the front and middle pairs and legs arc 
usually equally spaced. All tarsal claws are apical. 
The ocelli and scutellum (meianotaJ elevaiion of 
Andersen 1982) are well developed in winged forms. 
Merragata is much like Hebrus but the dorsal 
pilosity, especially of the head being longer and not 

Key to Australian genera ol* Henri da* 

Antennae Mihilapcllilbrm. fourth segment subdivided by 
a coil-like or membranous. *one, Anteimal length suhequal 
or longer than ihc gicmest width of the pmnotniu 

fiebmt. Curtis. 1833 

Antennal segments alien and club-like. Fourth segmem 
nor subdivided. Antenna! length distinctly shorter than 

the crealeu width or iHr prouoium - . 

Merraxata Buchanan-White, 1877 

Ke> lo the Australian species ol' Hrbttta 

1 Apex ot scutellum acuminate, not bifurcate (Fig. 02 
Apex of scutellum hot acuminate but slightly bifurcate 
(Fig. 18) ,H ttvuriangiei sp. nov. 

2 hlytral membrane clearly not reaching the end of the 
abdomen especially In the male (Fig. 13). Patouiercs 
proier.tint beyond the end of tha ahdnmeu (Fig. 14) 

- - - ft tvonleilhi sp. nov. 

Elytral uiunbrane almuw reaching or surpassing rhe^ruf 
of the abdomen (Klg. 7), Parameres not projecting 
beyond pcnital capMife. 3 



Figs 1-fv Hebtus axillaris Horvath; 1, dorsum Lcctoiype Q ; 2, ventral aspect of head and thorax; 3, antennae; 4, 
far* ks; 5, middle leg; (\ hind leg. Sundown N.P., Qld f. 

I Elytral membrane almost reaching the end of the 
-abdomen (Fig, 1). Third aniermal segment I.Sx length 

ot ihe 2nd segment If axillaris Honath 

Elvira! membrane just surpassing the end of the 
abdomen (Fis. 7). Third antennal segment 2x length 
ot the 2nd segment H. woodward! sp, nov. 

Hehrus axillaris Horvath 
FIGS 1-6, 25, 30 

Hebrus axiltaris llorxdiK 1902, p, 606; Lundbtad, m?\ 
p, 263 (synonymv ot" Noeogeus larensis Hale. 1926 with 
tntlfortsj; Himgerford, 1934, p. 70, (distribution Qld.). 

Naeogt-us fatensis Hale, 1926, pp. 196-WS. 

Types: Lectotype female and 2 9 9 paralectotypes, 
New South Wales, Tweed River, A. M Lea in the 
Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, 

Distribution: S. AuM., N.S.W,, Vic, Tas. and Qld. 

Size: era, 9 9 1.7-2 mm long, width across 
widest pari of pronotum .75 - .85 mm 

Colour, Variable, head and anterior K A of pronotum 
pale orange brown to black. Margins round eyes 
silvery tomentose, Antennae dark brown. Pronotum 
reddish brown with two (1+1) black areas medianly. 
Mesoscutellar lobe and seulellum dark brown. 
Head, pronotum and seiitellum with short fine 
iridescent spicules. Forewincs dark brown with long 
golden hairs and with greyish white patches 
proximally adjacent to seutellum and hind margin 
of pronotum. Membrane dark smokey brown with 
paler areas. Underside of head and bueeulae pale 
yellow. Pteurites mostly black with posterior margin 
of propleura reddish brown. Legs yellowish brown, 
Sternitcs shining black with short silvery 
pubescence. 'Dark form' head black, medianly 
reddish brown. PronoLuni anteriorly narrowly 
black, remainder reddish brown. Scutellum and 
forcwings including membrane black. Fore-wings 
wilh iwo (1 + 1) white patches and long golden 




1 Tm* K 1 ^ * VOdmr(ii Sp * ,K>V ' ^^P* ^ $Plb R <*k, Old. 7, dorsum; S t amenoae; 9, foreleg, 10. middle 

pubescence. Underside black with sparse silvery 

Fresh ot very recently collected materia! lend* jo 
be daiker ihan old specimens. 
Structure: Interocular space about 2x maximum 
eye width. Median head length about .66 median 
bead width. Tubercles adjacent to antcnnal 
insertions small (Fig. 1). Antennae 1:2:3:4: - 
7-5-7.5-13.5. First and 3rd antennal segments 
subcxiual, 2nd clearly shorter, 4th more or less 
subequal to combined lengths of 2nd and 3rd 
segments and subdivided by coil-like section (Fig. 
3). Vertex with pair of median longitudinal furrows 
converging posteriorly. Bucculae short just reaching 
pronolum with two shallow depressions (Fig. 25). 
Lower margin straight with caudal or free end 
slightly curved. 

Pronotal width 2x its median length and head 
head width across eyes. Posterior margin with two 
(l + l) lobes either side of scutcllum. Pronolum at 
its broadest slightly elevated and rugose. Median 
lateral angles depressed. Mesoscutellar lobe and 
scutcllum half median length of promnum. 
Seutelluin ridged longitudinally and laterally 
forming two shallow depressions cither side ol mid 
line, Connexivum visible around membrane. 
Rostrum reaching hind co\ae. 

From rcmur slightly more robust than middle 
femur (Figs 4 A 5). Hind femur slightly longer than 
median pronotal length. No significant dilfeienees 
in ratios of ftunt and middle legs between males 

and females. Hind legs l,3x longei than front and 
middle legs, 

Male genital capsule (Fig, 30). 

Leaotype Designation: Horvalh's original 
description does not slate on how many specimens 
from the type locality he based the description, In 
the Hungarian National Museum (here are three 
specimens, originally mounted on a piece of card; 
labelled - N.S.W. Tweed R.; Lea; 3-92. A printed red 
label *TYPU5\ A label in Morvath's handwriting 
- ftebrus axillaris Horv, and a hand written label 
( 75 IIV WF"? The Types arc all females, they have 
been remounted individually on card points on ona 
pin. One 'point' has been marked with a red spot, 
this leniate is designated and labelled Uetotype, the 
remaining two females are designated 

Nates on the type series of Naeogcus latertsis 

The type series' is in the South Australian 
Museum, Adelaide. Hale (1926: 197) gives "Adelaide* 
a< the type locality. Mounted on a piece of card 
labelled FY PL, Torrcns Rivet; Adelaide, Herbert M. 
Hale are a w & 9. The CT is almost certainly the 
specimen figured by Hale 0926: W7; Fig. 81), This 
C is designated and labelled Lectotype, the 
accompanying 9 is labelled and designated 

There is some ambiguity about the remainder tit 
Hale's type series as he did not give a precipe locality 
other than Adelaide. There are four series of carded 

IVOR LAttSttlllkY 


f jj, g i2,|4. tfekrux MMRfetfM *p. nov RiT£<Vpe Er, WaltamMii Falls. QUI 12. anlennae; f$i Jormtn; 11, vemcr. 

specimens. The ihsl Wj* Ipr A. 79 c bcariny. a 
red prinled Type label with Nwogeus teftrwris Hale 
in what k presumably Hale's hand* riling. The 
locality label (tarTwdflrtiotOgrapbcd tnui reduced) 
reads Rivet Tbnens, Adelaide, H,M Hale Vhe 
second curd wuh 4orcr & 4^v bear's a red 
ParaLype label; the other labels are identical with 
die OrM. A third card with Ltf * I 9 labelled 
Pararypc is labelled It) the same manner. The 
specimens on these iltree cards aie all regarded as 
Paraicetot^pe* and labelled accordingly. 

rhc lo-urth card has 49 r V labelled Paralype from 
the Murray River. F.R 7eh? 1 'Scsc may not be pari 
of Hate's original type scries as the collecun's nainc 
k not menuttned and Hale always noted collCv'.ors 

-when describing <tf listing material not collected by 


Amongst additional material ivom Adelaide 
coflccied by Kale bm nol labelled Pararype arc two 
small \eries or' carded specimens with a typed label 
Tussocks of |hit* reeds growing in wet mud on 
b<mU n1 River Torrens 28.iii,l^r. 
Manual esvtwntd- Type series oi -axillaris and tet&igtt, 
Kara Creek near Jtmlabv fit, N 5W„ *tO m. Ibiii J979; The 
I Mn Creek near lindabyne. N.S.W. 1)60 m.; 
Phillip Island, Vie pool compleltly covered with float tff£ 
vegcrarion, M.iiU965; Moggltt Furm Darn near Brisbane, 
Qu\, tSvi.iy^-, Sundown National Park near Sumharpe, 
farm dam, 26 iv I9R5 Qld - 1 Ldriahurv Coll. M&Catfftttrr 
Thnmson Jtfvte JuueticA Vic, t9.n.i977, Nai. Mus 
Victor (0 Sarocv, VI Malinwil - N'l. Museum full. 


fr-V"i-*^'->i-riii" ,* 

Figs 15-17. Hehrus monteithi sp. nov. Paratype o\ Wallamar. Falls, Qld. 15, fore leg: 16, middle leg: 17, hind leg. 

Devonport & laimccston, 
AasiA Glenricld, N.S.W. - 

Tas, Myponga Swamps, S. 
South Australian Museum. 

Hebrus woodwardi sp. nov. 
FIGS 7-11, 27, 31 & 32 
Holoiype: Female, Paraiypes 6 9 and 1 a\ 
Queensland, Split Rock» 14 km S. of Laura,, G,B. Monteirh in the Queensland 
Museum^ Brisbane. 

Distribution: Queensland and the Northern 

Size: or, 9 Q 1.68 - 1.88 mm long, width across 
widest part of pronotum .82 - .94 mm.. 
Colour. Head and pronotum reddish brown, lateral 
margins of vertex along inner margin of eyes and 
pits silvery tomentose. Antennae dark brown. Head 
and pronotum covered with golden spicules, some 
iridescent, Mesoscutellar lobe and scutellum very 
dark brown. Forewings; clavus and corium varying 
between rich reddish brown and dark brown, apical 
part of clavus greyish white. Apex of scutellum, 
clavus and corium covered with long golden hairs. 
Membrane smokey brown with lour paler areas 
(Fig. 7). Lateral margins of head, bucculac, rostrum 
and femora pale yellow. Tibiae and iarsi slightly- 
darker distally. Coxal insertions dark reddish brown. 

Thoracic venter dark brown, sternites darker 
covered with fine silvery pubescence. 

Structure: Interocular space about 2x maximum 
eye width. Median head length .66x greatest head 
width. Tubercles adjacent to antennal insertion 
small (Fig. 7). Antennae 1;2:3:4: - 7-5-10-14.5. 
Fourth segment subdivided by coil-like section (Fig. 
8). Third segment 2x length of 2nd, 4ih segment 
subequal to 2nd and 3rd combined. Total antennal 
length about half body length. Vertex with faint 
longitudinal furrow becoming obsolescent 
anteriorly. Bucculae short, usually just reaching 
pronotum with two depressions (Fig. 27), lower 
margin curved. Pronota! widlh 2x median length 
and head width across eyes. Posterior margin with 
two (1 + 1) lobes either side of scutellum. Anterior 
collar of pronoium sharply depressed with regular 
transverse row of pits. Immediately behind anterior 
collar, two (1 + 1) depressions either side of a broad 
longitudinal ridge which have two rows of shallow 
pits. Median lateral angles slightly depressed. 
Mesoscutellar lobe and scutellum .6x median 
pronotal length. Scutellum with median 
longitudinal ridge and lateral margins slightly raised 
forming two shallow depressions, Apex of scutellum 
truncated with minute median projections (Fig, 7). 



Figs 18—23. Hebtus riourbngiei sp. nov. Paralype Q, Nourlangie Kock area, NT., 18, dorsum; 19> side view of head 
and pronotum; 20, fore leg; 2), middle leg; 22, hind leg; 23, antennae. 


l* obscuring abdomen, membrane reaching 
01 overlapping end of abdomen, Rostrum with tip 
iu.^ reaching metasicrnal sutuie. 

Front and middle femora moderately robust (Fig* 
9 & Id). Hind femur slightly longer than median 
tronntal length. Male hind legs l_15x longer tjian 
front and middle legs, female hind legs l.32x 


Male genital capsule {Vi&s 31 & 32). 
Referred Material: Pat Creek, llkra N. of Archer 
Crossing via Coen. QW, 28-2y.viJ975, G.B. 
Montcith, QIU Museum, Brisbane. This 9 differs 
from I he type series in thai tjb£ pale area* of the 
membrane are almost obsolescent, ked LiW Lagoon 
near Daly River, NX (1345*5 \3Q 42'' E), 
MIUN0, MB. Mahpalil, l#\ Manton R^ervoir 
on Stuart Highway, NT, in Hood debris near water 
cdec, 9..MI.I979, MR MaJipatil, 2cro\ ?o } : 
Cioeudile Creek, l429"S-ni 22 "E neat Dorisvale 
N.T., r7.J8jti.l984, M.B. Malipaiil, lo-; Lake 
Bennett area c. 25 km SE or Manton Dam, NT, 
29-30-\ii I979. at M.V. light, M.B. Matipatd, ic ; 
LJ.D.p FaJIs. N.T.,, at M.V. light, M.R. 
Manpatil, I 9 Northern Territory Miheurn Coll. 

Hebrus woodwurdi is very similar to H. axillaris; 
the slightly longer membrane reaching or 
overlapping (he end ol the abdomen, the reJatiwly 
longer 3rd amenoal segment of H. modwardi and 
differences m the male genitalia distinguish H. 
voodM'ardi from H. axillaris, 

Hehrus moatnthii sp. now 
FIGS 12-17, 26, 3*-35 
Holatype. Male. Paratypcs 7 a a (] <Jidc mounted) 
and 13 Q Q. qw, Waliaman Falls (ft* Inobam, 
l.s.1980, rainforest 500 m Collected from rainforest 
floor by brushing twi^s, G.DL Mumcith in the Qld 
Museum, Brisbane. 
Distribution: N.E. Qld, 

S/ze: 7cr, 95 1.9 - 2 mm long, width across 
widest part of prnnantm .77 - .54 mm. 
Colour; Head anteriorly black, posteriorly datk 
reddish brown, margins round eyes silvery 
tomemose. Pronotum dark reddish brown, humeral 
angles and median raised area of disc with iridescent 
bluish areas. Pronotum with sparse golden 
pubescence. Mesoscutellai lobe and scutellum black 
with sparse golden hairs slightly longer than those 
on pronotum. fbrewings, elftVUS with eloeate greyish 
white patches either side of suilellum. Curium and 
eonnexivum teddrsh brown. Clavu> and corium with 
layer of gulden pubescence slightly shorter than on 
visihle area of connexivum. Membrane dark brown 
with faint brownish white blotches. 1 atenal margins 
of head, hucc-iilae, rostrum, legs other than distal 
apices of femora, pale yellow. Antennae dark brown. 
Underside of thorax dark brown 10 black. Stcrnites 


shining black covered with line silvery pubescence. 
Structure; fmeroeular space about 2x maximum 
eye width Median head length subequal 10 greatest 
bead width. Tubercles adjacent top antconjfefous 
ruherdes prominent (Fig. 13). Antennae T:2;3;4: - 
8.3-6-1H6.25. Fourth segment subdivided by coil- 
like section (Fig. Ml Third segment almost 2x 
length of 2nd and 4th subequal to 2nd <fc 3rd 
combined. Total antennal length slightly moie than 
half length of body 1.57-.5R). Vertex with single 
median longitudinal furrow, difficult 10 sec as this 
part of vertex densely pilose. Bucculne prominent. 
almust or reaching pronotum with two conspicuous 
circular depressions, free end rounded, ventral 
margin slightly sinuate (Fig. 26). Pronotal width 
varying between 1 .7-1. 96 x median pronotal length 
and width of head across eyes. Anterior collar of 
pronotum narrow with transverse row or small 
circular pits. Anterior lateral margins straight, 
medially with prominent depressions. Pronntaldtsc 
elevated posterior ot parallel anterior part of disc, 
Humeral lateral angles depressed. Posterior lateral 
margins emarginate. hind margin evenly curved. 
Mesoscucellar lobe and scutellum about half median 
pronotal leng<h. Scutellum with two shallow 
depressions either sUle or median rid^e. Intern | 
margins not conspicuously raised. Lateral margins 
and apex with minute iridescent spicules. Forewings 
small, much of connexivum exposed, membrane not 
reaching end uf abdomen, membrane of male 
shorter than that of female. Connexivum snuiiue.. 
Rostral groove very conspicuous, rosuum almost 
reaching posterior margin of meiastcrnum. 

Front and middle legs simitar (Figs 15 A t6) hind 
lc*s longer (Fig. 17). Hind femur 1.4 - !.5x Jonger 
Ihan median pronotal length. Male hind legs l.27x 
longer rhan front and middle le£S and l.37x longer 
in females. 

Male genitalia; Viewed donsally. tips of 
symmetrical parameter extending beyond end of 
abdomen. Prociiger hairy. Paramerev elongate, very 
pilose and much longer than nygophore <£etiital 
capsule) at rest and clearly visible in situ in 
undissccted malo (Fig. 33) Female genitalia <F»^s 
34 A 35) conforms to general hefcrid pattern. 

This specks differs from all know Australian 
hebrids; the short membrane, large tubercles 
adjacent toantenniferous luterctea ajid prominent 
parameres clearly distinguish H, wontettht fmm 
oihc-r species. There is some similarity beiween H. 
monteithi and two species from the Philippine 
Islands, Hebrus drakei and H, harrtst Porter both 
described from Montalban. Rizal Province. Both 
Of these species have prominent elongate paramcics 
extending beyond genual capsule. Porter does no! 
state if the paramercs are visible dorsally. 



-A. ■•'':', .:-:■ ■'-.-• ■;-*i,..^v;i|ji- ■; /^Sr V $ 

rig> ^4-27 Merftyata and Wefrio *de view 24, Merragdtu hacker) Hungerford, Sundown N.P,» Qld; Hehrn<n?_%tiit#L\ 
Horvath. Phillip Is. Vic: 26, flebru* mtuttrithi sp« nov.; 27, JfdtW \oo0i1warfji sp. nov. 

Hchnts tiMtbmtlfcl sp- nov. 

FIGS 18-23 
Ihhtvpe: Female. Paratopes 1 or and 1 9. Northern 
Territory, Kakadu National Park, Nourlangie Rock 
area, from water seepage, 27.tii.t9B0, M.B. 
Mali pat iK N.T. Museum Coll. 
Distribution; Northern Territory. 
Size: cr Q i.7-1.8 mm long, width across wideM 
part of pronotum .7 mm. 

Colour: Head dark velvety reddish brown. Margins 
round eyes broadly siiveiy tomentose. Eyes and 
ocelli paler than dark areas o\ vertex. Antennae 
dark yellowish brown. Inner anterior margin of 
pronotum with pale orange brown trilobed zone 
Outer margins and remainder of prnnuiuin dark 
veTvrt? reddish biown. Head and pronotum with 
minute iridescent spicules, louder hairs also 
iridescent. Mesoseutcllar lobe and scuteilum same 
colour as posterior margin of pTOnoturn. Scuteilum 
kinged with short golden hairs. Clavus with large 
greyish white are a reaching apex of scuteilum. 
Corial cell slightly paler ameunrly with long yellow 
hairs. Membrane smokey brown with tour faint 
greyish while blotches. Connexivum yellowish 
brown. Underside of head and huceulae pale yellow, 
Pro, mesoand metasternum reddish brown. Coxal 
insertion* pale yellow. Rostrum and legs pale yellow 
with upper distal apices of femora darker, Sternites 
dark reddish brown shinmc with adpresscd golden 

Structure: Interocubr space slightly less than 2x 
maKirnum eye width. Median head length just over 
.66x greatest head width, vertex strongly raised 
jibove eyes. Two U-*-l) line longitudinal ftuKW 
which converge posterior of line through ocelli. 
Margins of vertex converging in front of eyes, lip 
acuminate. Antennifcrous tubercles each with 
truncate projection. Antennae 1*2:3:4-7-5-10-15-5- 
Fuurth segment subdivided by coil-like section (Fig. 
23>. Third segment 2x length 2nd, 4th equal to 
combined lengths of 2nd & 3rd segments. Antennae 
just over half length of body. Huceulae short nol 
reaching pronotum, with two depressions, free end 
bluntly acuminate. Lower margin with 'step' (Kg. 
19), Anterior margin of pronotum Hat and lateral 
margins raised. Pronotum divided by broad 
longitudinal depression lined with circular pits. Fore 
margin of raised areas deeply emannnaie. Anteiioi 
lateral margins straight, humeral angles sharply 
produced. Posterior margin with false suture with 
minute shining golden brown spicule*, fcdgcs of 
raised lobes fringed with small pits, Lateral margins 
of hind margin deeply emargmate, remainder of 
posterior margin evenly rounded- Dense pilosity of 
prunutuin niake^ circular *$\\%* rather difficult to 
see. Ptonoial width 2.1 x greater than median 
length, 1 Hx width of head across eyes. 
Mesoseutcllar lobe and scuteilum .66x median 
pronotal length. Scuteilum depressed with lateral 
margins and faint median keel forming two shallow 



gS n~ J ^ Cbn< ? ff 4, * Senitalia, 28 & 29 Mermefc haekert, 28, genital capsule; 29, ffl«J side view; 30 Hebrus 
axillaris Horvaih genital capsule side view; 31 & 32 Jftftna woodwardt sp. nov. 31, dorsal view; 31 ibid side view 
33, Hebrus monteuhi sp. nov. a genital capsule, side view; 34 & 35 9 genitalia H. momeithisp. nov. Terminology 
?-o P ^?n mC u C ; a sonangulum; Ool, Go2 first and second gonapophyses; Gxl, Gx2 first and second gonoeoxac; 
T9 T!0 abdominal terga 9 & 10. -*vw**, 


depressions, apes at scutellum hlfurcale (Fig 18) 
Forcwlngs well developed, membrane almost 
reaching end of abdomen. Rostrum almost reaching 
posterior margin of Tncta*iernu>i). 

Front and middle tegs simitar <Fip 20 & 21). Hind 
legs l.3Sx longer than front and middle legs. Mind 
femur l,68x longer than median pronotal length 
fF'g. 22). 

Single male specimen too damaged to figure 
genitalia. Hctid and thorax detached from remnants 
of abdomen. 

Referred Material: A female collected from 
Koongara Creek, (a few Km from Nourlangie Kock) 
8-10.V.I979 Coll. I. LansbuTy appear*. 10 be identical 
with //. nourtongiet. Koongara Creek is a scries of 
sluggish rocky pools joined b> a shaded narrow 

Hehnts nourfongiei is immediately recognisable 
f™%m other Australian species by the bifurcate apc.v 
of the scutelhiin and narrow uneroculiir distance. 

Xterraxittu httvken Mungerfnrd 

FIGS 24, 28-29, 36-44 

Merrazaia hackeri Hungerfurd, 1$34, pp. 70-71 

type specimmr Holotype or, allotype 9 and some 

Paralypes, Qld, RrisbanCt Dcccmhet, 1932. H. 

Hacker; Snow Entomological Collection*. 

University of Kansas. Additional Paratypes (same 

data), British Museum (Natural History) and South 

Australian Museum, Adelaide. 

Distribution: Vic., QW and NX 

Size; cfo\ 9 9 J,47 - 1.8 mm long, width across 

widest pan of pronotum .77 - .9 mm. 

Codyur. Dorsally pale yellowish brown, elytra milky 

white adjacent to scutellum. sometimes slightly 

darker across membrane. Mesoscutellai lobe and 

sculcHiim dark brown, ridges on scutetlum same 

colour as pronotum. Head, pronotum and Lateral 

margins of elytra with long pale yellowish hairs. 

Underside of head and buoculae same colour as 

dorsal aspect. Pro.stcrnum dark yellowish brown. 

Meso and metasternum varying between reddish 

brown and black distally. Stemitcs black covered 

with long pale golden hairs. Legs pale yellow, distal 

apices of tibiae and tarsi narrowly annulated dark 

brown. Antennae yellowish brown, 4th segment 

hlack, 3rd segment sometimes also black. 

Structure; (met ocular space Jx or more maximum 

eye width. Median head length .64 - .7$* median 

head width. Vertex with two (1 + 1) faiw longitudinal 

furrows converging between ocelli. Posterior margin 

of head raised with ocelli strongly piotuberanc and 

black. Head coveted with fine whitish pubescence. 

shorter ventrally. Antennae 1:2:3:4: - 4.6-4,75 

-3.5-5.5, ail segments covered with fine hairs tFig. 

3$j. Bucculae short, not reaching pronotum, lower 

htargin appearing slightly curved/sinuate, free end 

IVOR! ansbURY 

angular, rncdianly with large depression (Fig. 24), 
Pronotal width 2x median length and head width 
across eyes. Anterior collar narrow wilh transverse 
row of pits. Anterior lobe wiih iwo (1+1) deeply 
slightly diverging depressions with a median 
longitudinal depression consisting of coalescing 
pits, each with fine silvery romeiuose margins 
between. Anterior lareral margins more or less 
straight, shining without depressions. Pronotal 
humeral .ingles depressed, remainder of disc slightly 
raised wiih scattered pus. Posterior margin convex* 
medianly slightly emarginare around ntesoscutellar 
lobe fRg. 36). Scutcllum and mesoscutellar lohe less 
than half median pronotal length (.41). Scutellum 
slightly widei tlian mesoscutellar lobe. Basal lateral 
margins raUed curving towatds apex with two (l-f 1) 
pits basally. median carina shou. Hemelyiral 
venation typical hebrid. Connextvum visible 
laterally, membrane overlapping end of abdomen. 
Venation heavily chitintsed^ usually same colour as 
pronotum. Anterior part of elytra covered with Ions 
fine hairs same colour as background. Abdominal 
ridges curved, converging slightly disially. Tergiie* 
black and shining. Rostrum short not reaching 
distal margin of meiasicrnutn. 

Fore coxae close together. Pros centum and collar 
with scattered large pits. Middle coxae wider apart, 
mesosternuni with two (1 4 1) longitudinal ridges 
covered with dense bans distally. Hind coxue slightly 
wider apart, mesnsternal ridge continued onto 
melasremum diverging posteriorly. Stern ite* covered 
in uniform white hairs. Pio and mesopleura with 
scattered large pits (Fig, 37). from and middle legs 
only differing slightly between sexes (Figs 39 & 40 
Cf;42&43 0). Hind legs longer, hind femora 1.25 
-I 3x longer than median pronotal length. Male 
hind legs 1.33* longer than front and middle legs 
(Fir. 41) and 1.22 - L3x in females (Fig. 44). 

Male genital capsule (Figs 28 & 29). 

Maienat exatnmed: Brisbane, Moggitl Farm T\tm, 
6,vi. 197*9, Qld; Sundown National P-iTk, in marginal 
g{n$$GB around farm dam. 6.iv.l985 Qld; Sundown 
National park. Severn River. <uv.|s>85, Qtd; Phillip |slrt|Ul. 
3l.Iil.)9$5, Vic. found on densely overgrown pool with 
tfebrus oxcarts; Htery Gorge ne.ii Alice Spring, N.T. 
28 iv.1979. 1. Lansbury Coll. Tallaoiloou Lagoon. Nahonal 
Mmeurn Victoria, Dartmouth Invertebrate Survey Vic 
vii jy?5, M.D. Malipatii: N MV Survey, M a* n Ulster 
'thontson River Junction Swamn Vic. 3.vii 1^7*3. M,R 
Malipalil; Red I ity Lagoon near CXily River NX. 
13 4VS-I30 42"E, 5.vm.i9K0, MR Malipalil: Limeswiw 
Gorge, NT. IrV n2^S-J30 23 *E,<^ (Operation 
Raleigh) M.& Malipatii. NT. Museum Coll, 


This work, was commenced dui Ins the tenure of 
a grant from the 1 cverhnlme Trust (London) and 
Btejtia Irdfti the ABkS and CSIRO, Canberra, t 




Figs 36-44. Merragaia hacker i Hungerford, Sundown N.P., QUI. 36, dorsum; 37, ventral; 38: antennae; 39-41 cr. 
39 t fore leg; 40, middle leg; 41. hind leg; 42-44 9, 42, lore Ice; 43, middle leg; 44, hind leg. 



wish to thank Dr Gordon Gross, South Australia 
Museum, Adelaide: Dr G. Monteith, Queensland 
Museum, Brisbane; Dr M,B. Malipatil, Northern 
Territory Museum, Darwin and Dr T. Vasarhelyi, 
Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest for 
the loan of critical types and other material. 


Anderson, N. M. (1981) Semiaquatic bugs; phytogeny 
and classification of the Hebridae (Heteroptera: 
Oerromorpha) with a revision of Timasius, Neotimasius 
and Hyrcanus. Systematic Entomology 6, 377-412. 

(1982) The Semiaquatic Bugs (Hemiptera, 
Gerromorpha). E n torn o nog rap h 3, 1-455. 

Cobben, R. H, (1982) The Hebrid fauna of the Ethiopian 
Kaffa Province with consideration on species grouping. 
Hebridae Heteroptera. Jijdschr. Enl. 125. 1-24 

Hale. H. M. (1926) Studies in Australian Hemiptera No 
VII Rec, S. Aust. Mus. 3, 195-217, 

Horvath, G. (1902) Descriptions of a new Hemiptera 

from New South Wales. Terme'szetr. Fuz. 25, 601-612. 

[Amils hist.-nat. Mus. natn. hung.] 
Hungerford, H. B. (1934) Concerning some aquatic and 

semi-aquatic Hemiptera from Australia. Bull. Brooklyn 

ent. Soc. 29, 68-73. 
Tundblao, O. (1933) 2ur kenntnis der aquatilcn und 

semi-aquatilen Hemipteren von Sumatra, Java und Bali. 

Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. 12 (Tropische Binnengewasser 

IV), 1-489. 
Miyamoto, S. (1964) Semiaquatic Heteroptera of the 

south west islands lying between Kyushu and Formosa. 

Sieboldia 3, 193-219. 
(1965) Hebridae in Formosa (Hemiptera) Ibid 3, 

Porter, T. W. (1954) A new species of Hebrus Curtis 

from the Philippine Islands (Hemiptera, Hebridae), / 

Kans. ent. Soc. 27, 78-79. 
(1959) Three new species of Hebrus Curtis from 

the Philippine Islands. Ibid 32, 31-35. 



byN. A. Locket* 


Australobuthus xerolimniorum gen. et sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The scorpion, recorded 
from dry salt lakes in South Australia, is uniformly pale fawn except for eye pigment, lacks keels on 
the carapace, and has long pectines with 30-36 teeth. Metasomal segments are squat and keeled. 
The vesicle is small and lacks a definite subaculear tooth. The taxon is compared with Isornetroides 
vescus and Lychas alexandrinus, which it resembles but from which it differs in features of the 
metasoma, pectine length, trichobothrial pattern, hemispermatophores and colour. 
KEY WORDS: Australobuthus xerolimniorum gen. et. sp. nov., new species, scorpion, Australia, 

rwrtsuaitw of the 1 Koyai iVMI^V *>/*.¥. Au.\i„ (1090). lUfJ), ^Tf-jgjjt, 



by N A. locket* 


l_orKn\ N A . <W0) A new genu* and species of scorpion from South Australia (Buthidae: Buihino*). 
Tnins. H. Soc. S. Aust., 114(2). 67-80, 31 Mav. 1990. 

Ami ruiahu thus wrohniruo/vm gen. ct sp. nov. is described &od iUi»*irate<f The *c0ipion, recorded fro*i^ 
dry sail takes in Sourh Australia, i* uniformly pale lawn except tot eye pigment lacks keels on tin- carapace, 
an<l has long pectities with 30-36 leclh. Metiwomal segmerus are squat and keeled. 1 he vesicle is small 
.iiid lacks a definite >ubaculear tooth, the taxon is compared with IsomMtotdes veteus and Lyehas 
afcxandnmtr^ which it resembles but from winch it differs in fculuro* ol the metasoma. peuine length. 
ti'K'hohOtlnkd puUeirt, hemispermatophores and colour. 

Kpv Words, Australohitthus xerolitmiiorwn gen. et. sp. nov., new species, .scorpion, Australia, taxonomy. 


The early work on Australian scorpions, and 
notably that of Keyserling (1885), was consolidated 
by Kraepelin (J899). This work was reviewed by 
Gtyuerl (1925), the paper serving as a basis for the 
Buthidae for the monograph of Koch (1977) un all 
Australo- Papuan scorpions. Koch reduced to three 
thetcn species ot Lychus, and synonymised the two 
teornelro'tdcs described by Glauert 0925), 

Examination of buthid scorpions in the collection 
of the South Australian Museum and the author \s 
collect ion has revealed some specimens which do 
not fit the published descriptions. Living examples 
ol this tiew taxon have since been obtained* allowing 
the following description to be supplemented by 
information on habitat and behaviour. 

Materials and Methods 

The Holotype, allotype and ten paratypes are in 
the collection of the South Australian Museum, 
Adelaide (SAM), Referred material includes eight 
specimens in the South Australian Museum and 
nine in the author's collection. Terminology follows 
Hjellc (in press); that lor irichobofhria follows 
Vachon (1973). Measurements were made with an 
eyepiece micrometer, and are expressed as mean ± 
standard deviation. Figures were drawn using a 
camera htcida, with details added freehand, except 
lor Jig. 3. Jti this composite figure (he posture was 
drawn from a negative of a photographed living 
specimen, projected onto a baseboard, and detail 
added freehand from preserved specimens. 
Measurements of width of lamina and length of 

Dept of Anatomy and Histology, University of Adelaide, 
G.RO. Box 498, Adelaide, S AuSl. .S'XH. 

tooth of pectuies were made as in Fig. 7c. The right 
hcinispenmatophurcs were drawn, following Koch 
(I977j, except that each was drawn from two 
positions, with the lamina perpendicular to the 
page, and related 90° to the right. Live specimens 
have been observed by U.V. light, in the field 
(Stannke 1972), and later kept for several months 
in the laboratory in containers ol' slightly damp sand 
containing a t'lai stone as shelter; the animals were 
led mealworms at intervals. 


Family: Buthidae Simon, 1879 
Subfamily: Burhinae Kraepelin, 1899 

Australobuthiis gen, et sp. nov 

Type .species- Austrahbuthm xerohtnniorvm sp. 


Diagnostic definition: Carapace without definite 
keels. Median eyes in anterior half of carapace. 
Three subequal lateral eyes, Tergites J-Vl with poorly 
developed median keel, no lat.eraJ keels. Pretergites 
of 1-V1 with distinctly wavy posterior margin. 
Pectines long, reaching to or beyond uoehantero- 
femoral joint of fourth leg, 30-36 teeth. Metasomal 
segments stout, squat, of almost equal width, all 
keeled. Vesicle small, somewhat elongate, not 
keeled. Aculeus stout, clearly distinct from vesicle, 
definite subaculear tooth absent, but rudimentary 
subacitlcar tubercle in some specimens (mostly 
juveniles). Chelicerae with single ventral tooth on 
fixed finger, Pedipalp: Femoral trichobothria, lour 
dorsal and five internal. /3 pattern, d4 close to 
antcrosuperior keel, dl, d3 and d4 forming a right 
angle, Patella with 13 trichobotfma. Hand small, 
rounded, keels absent. Fixed fingers with six, 
movable with seven slightly imbricated rows ol line 


n.a (Acker 

even denticles, extending lull length ol' fingers, 
Hanked by internal ant) external accessory teeth. 
One or two aecciSQry teeth proximal 10 terminal 
tooth *nd medial lotfi-stal rowofdenl ides. Twelve 

Eiywoiogy: The geneiic name. Aitsnatobuihus, 
refers lo the sutuherly distribution of this buthid 

Comparison wilh ulher genera 
The new genus shares a number of characters 
with homHroides and Lyvhas, bul differs Irani both 
iu significant features. The metasomal segments arc 
all keeled like those of Lychas, though the 
arrangement of the keels is different. The fifth 
merasomal segment of isomerrvides is not keeled, 
but smooth and markedly punctate. The presence 
of a definite subaculear tooth* lacking in the new 
genus, is a diagnostic character of Lychas. 
Jsorneiroides lacks a subacitlcar tooth; the vesicle 
and acuJeus in thai genus merge without clear 
distinction and ate more elongated than m (He new 
genus. The ve>icte of Austrafabuihus is markedly 
smaller than in Lychas. The pectines are 
substantially longer, and with more teeth, than m 
either Lychas or homctroides. These differences 
justify the erection of a new genus. 

A-ustrnhhuihus xewtimwontai sp. now 
Halotype: SAM NIW856H. Adult male. Under log. 
Lake Hart shore, S. Aust. \il. iy»4. a Cuenn. 
Allotype: SAM NI9X8569 Adult female. On surface. 
Lake Gilies, S. Ausr. 32° 41* & 136° 54 H. 
Ilx.1980. P. Hudson. 

Paratypes: {All paratope* are adult. Several 
luveniles are included in the tefet red material.) SAM 
NI98S 570-72. Under stones on salt, Pnec 
Prainsubu Lake Eyre. 7.\i.l955 HX Giles 29 ?. 
lo;SAM N1988 573 Evetard Ranges. v-\i 1970. 
G.F. Gross, E.G. Matthews. 9 ! SAM NI9S8 574 in 
lycosid burrow, I akc Gilics. (32° 43 06" \ 19& 
48' 14" E), 26am. 19S0. P. Hudson •;*•; SAM N19S8 
575. i.yeosid burrow; Lake GiJIev, P. 
Hudson a; SAM NI988 576. Lake Gairdner. 
surface, viii.1987. P. Hudson 9; SAM 1MX 
577-57* lake Gairdner, surface. 5J.19R9. P. 
Hudson ^ y . 

Diagnosis: As for the genus wirh the following 
additions, Small (35-42 mm total length, adult). 
Pale lawn, due (o lack of subcuticular pigment 
except around eyes. Carapace and tergites f-VI finely 
granular oi shagreened. Median eyes large, diameter 
i lUil, < i <1IK. n 21). x inietoeutaf diManci. 

Pectme tooth count 30-36, i ~ 33, a |.8m-4lf, 
pecoual teeth uniform. 

Description: Measurements ul holotypc am! 
allotype in Table It 

Length. 40.5 mm. Colout. Metasonia and 
extremities very pale lawn, transilluminate freely 
(Fig. It. Black pigment in and around median and 
lateral eyes, othctwisc no subcuticular pigmentation 
(Fig. 2). Dorsal surface of mesosoma appears 
striped, due to pale borders of tergites showing up 
against dark coloured viscera. Extremities show 
little dark sclerotisation, but cheliceral teeth and 
teeth along the fingers dark. Aculeus and pedal 
claws, but not tibial nor pedal spurs, darkly 

Carapace (Figs 3, 4). Almost straight finely 
granular anterior border bearing a few small setae 
frontal notch hardly distinguishable, anterolateral 
angles rounded. Posterior margin almost straight, 
without setae. Surface finely granular or 
shagrecned, granularity most prominent in anterior 
half. Definite keels absent. Jntcrocular area smooth 
Median groove continues over ocular tubercle, 
which rises about (tall one median eye diamelcr 
above carapace line. Supnaciltary ridges finely 
granular, but nor continued as keels. Median eyes 
large, 0.12 x carapace length, diameter 0,84 x 
inlcrocular distance. Posterior border of eye in front 
of midpoint ol carapace. Three lateral eyes 
subequal, corneas contiguous, half their own 
diameter from carapace margin. Pigment deep to 
eyes continuous.. 

Tergites of first six mesosomal segments almost 
smooth or I'inel) shaereened, posterior edges 
smooth, with fine granules. Poorly developed 
smooth median keel but no lateral keels. Smooth 
pretergife bounded posteriorly by distinctly wavy 
margin (Fig. 5). 

Seventh mesosomal tergile shagreened, with low- 
central ridge only in anterior two thirds of segment, 
but two well-developed lateral pairs of finely 
denticulate keels present in posterior two thirds 
Posterior border smooth, with fine granules, dorsai 
and ventral lateral borders rounded, with fine 

Siernites (Fig. 6). Smooth, shiny, with fine setae 
along posteriot border Spiracles small, slightly 
concave posteriorly. Seventh mesosomal stcrrtire 
smooth, shiny, with rounded posterior border. 
Lateral keels finely granular, prominent in posterior 
two thirds of segment, median keels less developed, 
in poster ior half. 

Sternum trig. 4b). Suhtriangular, small median 
eminence anteriorly with pit with densely selerolivcd 
but pale walls directly posterior to it. and deep pit 
in posterior part of sternum. Genital operculum 
divided in all specimens. 


'^aU^'scai^' "^ u r°' im " 0rUm Ben - e ' SP - n " V - adU " " lak ' * kt! Ga " dncf ' ™°»- •** *«* Lake 



Fig. 2. Australobuthus xerolimniorum gen. et sp. nov. f male. Scale bar = 5mm, 



Peetines (Fig, 7). Very long, 32, 33 teeth, 
extending well beyond trochantero-fcmoral joint of 
fourth leg and close to rear border of sternite III, 
covering the spiracle of that sternite. 




Fig. 4. Au&ratobuthm xerolimnhrum gen. et sp. nov. A. 
Carapace. R Sternum and genital operculum. Scale bars 
= 1mm. 

Hi. 3. Carapace, lateral view. A, Amwalukuthus 
xeroiimnmrum sp. nov. B, Lyehas aiexandrinus. C, 
fsometroides vescus. Scute bar = 1mm. 

Mctasoma (Fig. 8a). Length of rnetasoma, 0,55 
x total length. First and fifth segments equally 
wide, slightly wider lhan second, third and fourth, 
which are themselves of equal width. Dorsal 
surfaces of metasomai segments smooth, lateral 
surfaces mostly smooth, not shiny, with few fine 
granules. First four segments squat, intercarpal 
surfaces smooth, not shiny First segment with ten 
granular keels., terminal tooth of these hardly 
enlarged. Ventromedial keels entire, equidistant 
from each other as from ventrolateral. Lateral keel 

Table I. Measurements in mm. of Australobuthus xerohmniorum, gen. et sp. tjov. Holotype mule, allotype femah: 




Total length 
Metasoma I 
Ac ulcus 
Petlipalp; femur 

Pare I la 


Movable finger 

Fixed finger 

Movable finger 

Fixed finger 
Pec tine 

Teeth (max.) 
Pec tine tooth count 


L 4.6 

L 12.0 

L 3.0 

L 3.3 

h 3-4 

L 4.1 










I. 1.0 

1 6.8 
I 1.0 


















W 4,5 

W 2.6 

W 2.6 

W 2.6 


W 1.4 







1 1 

H 2.3 

H 2.3 

H 2.3 

H 2.2 

H 2.1 

H 1.3 

H 0.7 

H 1.1 

H 1.4 









prevent on posterior 2/3 of Segment. Second and 
third segments similar. Fourth segment wnh eight 
keels, lacking lateral keel Fifth segment sterol, with 
lour definite keels and coarsely granular, poorly 
defined, complete, not bifurcating ventromedial 
keel. Ventrolateral keel denticulate, dorsolateral 
granular, less prominent. Few intercarpal granules. 
Median dorsal furrow smooth, somewhat shiny. 

Teison. Vesicle small, rather elongate. (Width of 
vesicle/width of merasomaJ segment V; 0.55). 
Smooth and shiny with few scattered small granules, 
no keels. No subaculear spur but minimal 
subaculear tubercle in small specimens. Aculeus 
stout, sharply curved, terminal half dark due lo 
scleral isauon. 

ChclicLTac (Fig. ^)- Manus and fingers smooth. 
pale; teeth dark (due to scterotisation, not subjacent 
pigment), without secondary serrations, single 
ventral tooth on fixed finger, pattern as shown in 

Pcdipalp (Fig. 10). Femur; dorsal and posterior 
surfaces finely granular, not shiny. Anterior surface 
smooth with scattered fine granules and irregular 
line of large granules and denticles, some bearing 
strong setae. Anteroveniral keel of small regular 
granules, anterodorsal keel of small regular granules 
without setae. Posterodorsal and posterovemral 
keels of small, less regular granules, some bearing 
tetae, particularly at the ends. 

Patella; smoothly curved posterior border, 
smooth or finely shagreened surfaces, not shiny. 
Keels on dorsal surface weakly granular, Anterior 
border coarsely denticulate and granular, some teeth 
and granules bearing setae Ventral surface smooth, 

Hand; small, rounded, no keels, smooth and 
shiny, bearing scattered setae. Fingers long, slender, 
0.64 x length of whole hand. Straight in lateral 
view, gently curved in dorsal view Movable finger 
with eight external accessory teeth, seven internal 
and one. terminal. Seven oblique rows of fine even 
teeth. Fixed finger with six-seven external accessory 
teeth, six internal and one terminal. Six oblique 
rows of fine teeth. Fixed finger with scattered f\nz 
setae, movable finger with more, particularly 
vcntraJly and at tip. THchobothrlal pattern as shown 
in Fig. 11. 

Legs (Fig. 12). Smooth or finely shagreened on 
don3l surfaces, shiny ventral I y, keels low and 
rounded, barely granular. Single pale tibial spur on 
third and fourth legs, iwo equal pale spurs on 
lanomere II of all legs. Terminal claws eoual on 
all legs. Few stout setae on femora, stout setae on 

Fie. 6. Austratobuthus xentlitnrtiorum gen. et sp. nov. 
Outlines ot swiniiex showing sexuaJ dimorphism. A, 
mate, B ( female. Scale bar = 1mm. 


Fig. 1. Australctbnthns xerolimniorum gen. et sp. nov, 
Pectines, A male, D, female, C, Measurement site for 
width ot lamina, W, and length of rooth. L. Scale bar 

= Imm, 

Fig. 5. Ventral views to show proportions 01 pectines, lateral views of niutasoma ami dorsal V1 ew of carapace ami 
rcrgrtev h Isometmtdes p#ptf, 6\ Austrulabuihus xerotwwiorum, C, Ivchas ulmmdrirtus, Scale bar common 
to each sencs - tmrn. ' 




^M / / 


^.-r— r- 




Jtfd _=^& 





1 ^ /??^aW*f 

\ \ 



anterior and posterior borders of patella, especially 
along anterior. Setae evenly distributed on tibia, and 
tarsometes I and II, Those on (arsomere J mostly 
in two rows, on tarsomere II scattered irregularly 
and closely packed, not forming a comb. 


No specimens show any trace of pattern; all arc pale 
eAcepi for the eye pigmentation. The median eyes 
appear large in all, Iheir diameter =0.09-0.14 x 
carapace lenat h (n- 21,. % - 0.125> ± 0.015). Their 
diameter is 0.59-1.08 >: interocular distance, (n=21, 
x - 0.81, +0.18). All but one have three lateral eyes 
on each side; one specimen has four on one side 
and three on the other. The posterior borders of 
the stcrrriles are markedly convex in juveniles (and 
in adult females, see sexual dimorphism, below). 
The pectines arc long in ail, with tooth count 30-36 
(n-41 ( x =0.56 m + 0.04). None have a definite 
subacular tooth, bur a minimal subaculear tubercle 
is present in some specimens, mainly juveniles. The 
fingers are long in all, 0.63-0.6R * hand lenyth 
(n = 20, x - 0.65, ± 0.02), 

FtymoIoRy: The specific name, xerohmniorum, 
is from Greek xeros. dry and limne, lake. 

Sexual dimorphism; In some scorpions the sexes 
may be distinguished easily by differences in bodily 
proportions, females lending to have larger and 
stouter mesosomas with respect to the mctasoma 
than males. Pectine tooth counts also may vary 
between sexes, males tending to have more teeth 
than females. Neither criierion applies in the present 

Hg. 9. Auslralobuihus xerolirrtniurum gen. ei *.p. nav. 
Chelirera showing dentition, dense veniuil patch of s«ae 
omiued. A., ventral. R dorsal. Scale bar = Imm. 


Fig. 10. Australobuthus xerotimrjtorum gen. et sp. nov. 
Pedipalp. A, femur, dorsal. B, patella, dorsal. C, hand, 
lateral. l\ dentition, fixed finger. E, dentition, movable 
finger. Scale bar = Imnu 

case. Some specimens appear to have siout 
mesosomas, but this is due to distension. 
Comparisons of the widths of tcrgite III with 
mctasomat seyrncnl V show no significant 
difference: nor is (here a significant difference in 
pectine tooth counts. 

The presence of hemtspcrmatophores or embryos 
within the body would be clear evidence of sex, but 
entail dissection of the specimen and are not 
applicable xo immature examples. Only one male 
of four opened contained hemispermatophores, 
(Fig. 13). Males have genital papillae beneath the 
plates of the genital operculum, but these are not 
visible in life, Other characters have therefore been 
sought which will enable the sexes to be told apart 
in the intact or living animal. 

Though the pectine tooth counts arc very similar 
in the two sexes, there are distinct differences in the 
lengths of the pectines relative to the uochaniero- 
femoral joint of the fourth leg. In males the pectine 
extends well past this joint (Fig. 5), but in females 
ir extends little if at all past the joint. There is also 
a difference in the proportion, width of 

rig. 8. Au.uwhbuihti\\miilhpnhnim gen. e i <c r . nuv. Lateral, dorsal and vemral views of metasoma. \. male R 
Icittalc. Scale nar = [mm. ' ' 



lamina/tooth length. (Fig. 7c). The mean of Ihis 
ratio is 0.40, ±0.03 (n=9,) in males and 0.50, ±0.06 
(n=6) in females. 

Another character which appears to be useful is 
the shape ol" the posterior borders of sternites 3 and 
4. In males these arc straight or concave, but in 
females they are convex (Fig. 6), This character, 
however, is probably unreliable in juveniles; in those 
examined the border of all sternites are strongly 


Specimens have been recorded from Lake Eyre, 
Lake Hart, Lake Gairdncr and Lake dilles in South 
Australia. One specimen is labelled Everard Ranges; 
the exact locality is not specified, but was probably 
close to Victory Well (G.F. Cross pers. comm.). All 
known localities are shown in Fig. 14. 

lakes in S. Aust. (B. Guenn, P. Hudson pers. comm,; 
pers. obs.) Some have been taken by day under logs 
on the salty lake surface, sometimes up to 100 m 
from the shore. Some of these have been in a 
shallow scrape under the log, but others have been 
dug from vertical or oblique cylindrical burrows up 
to 15 cm deep, Scorpions may be inhabiting a pre- 
existing burrow, but they are certainly capable of 
vigorous digging themselves, and have constructed 
similar burrows in captivity. Four specimens from 
Lake Hart were captured by the use of U.V. light 
at night. One of these was on the surface of the lake 
near a line of partly fallen fence posts, the others 
among sand and low vegetation on the shore. Those 
seen on the surface at night were walking slowly 
about, with the tail held over the back, but when 
they were allowed to move about on sand by day 
they ran with the tail extended behind, proving very 

Hahifat and behaviour 

All but one of the thirty specimens known to date 
have been found on the shores or surfaces of dry 

Comparison with other species 

Glauen (1925) described ten species of Lychas and 
two of Isametroides, but Koch (1977) reduced these 

Fig. II. Trichobothrial patterns. A, Ausirahbuthus xeroiimntorum sp, now B, Lychas alexandrine. C, 
Isomefroides vescus. Scale bar = 1mm. 



Fig. 12. Australohuthus xerolimniorum gen, et sp. nov; Walking legs. A-D = I-IV. Note tibial spurs on lit and 
IV, tarsal spurs on all. Scale bar = 1mm. 

To three Lychas and one Isome/roides. Glauert's 
work is not illustrated, but it Is clear from the 
descriptions given, particularly the pectirte tooth 
counts and attention given to the subacu(ear tooth, 
that neither author had before him examples of the 
taxon now described. 

The new taxon, Lychas alexandrinus and 
Isometroides vescus are sympatric at Lake Hart and 
possibly elsewhere, and the three are now compared. 

Of comparable size to £. alexandrinus, but 
smaller than a mature /. vesci4s. live specimens of 
-4. xewlimniorum sp. nov. are markedly paler than 
both of these species. L. alexandrinus is usually a 
reddish sandy colour, with some patterning on the 
mesosoma, and the proximal two thirds of the fifth 
metasomal segment is darkly pigmented, /. vescus 
varies in colour, some specimens being variegated 
like L. alexandrinus, and others showing a 
uniformly dark body but pale legs. In all, however, 
the fifth metasomal segment and the entire telson 
are black or nearly so. The metasomal segments and 
telson of A xerolimniorum sp. nov. are 
un pigmented. 

The carapace of A xerolimniorum sp- nov. is less 
sculptured than that of the other two species. That 
of /. vescus and L. alexandrinus is markedly 
granular, though without keels, but the carapace of 

A xeroiimmorum sp. nov. is finely granular, 
particularly on the posterior half, or merely 
shagreened. The median eyes of A xerolimniorum 
are usually larger than those of the other two (Fie. 

Though not previously used as a character in 
scorpion taxonomy, the shape of the border between 
the pre- and post-tergites shows a difference between 
the three species. This border is markedly more 
sinuous in A xerolimniorum sp. nov, than in L. 
alexandrinus; that of /. vescus is intermediate in 
form (Fig. 5). 

The pectines of A xeroiimmorum sp, nov, are 
much longer than those of either /. vescus or U 
alexandrinus. In A. xerolimniorum sp. nov. they 
extend as far as, in females, or in males well beyond, 
the trochantero-femora! joint of the fourth leg, but 
in the other two they fall short of or barely reach 
thai joint (Fig. 5). The tooth count reflects this 
greater length, being 30-36 in A. xeroiimmorum sp. 
now compared with 17-29 in L, alexandrinus and 
20-28 in I vescus (Koch 1977; pers. obs.). 

The form of the telson is different in the three, 
(Fig. 5) and, with the colour differences, enables 
them to be distinguished easily in the field. The 
vesicle of A. xerolimniorum sp. nov. is noticeably 
small, without a definile subaculear tooth. The 



genus Lychas is characterised by a prominent 
subaculear tooth, and this is well shown by I. 
alexandrini4s. h vescus has a long telson in which 
the aculeus and vesicle appear continuous and there 
is no trace of a subaculear tooth or tubercle. 

The fifth metasomal segment also differs between 
the three. That of A. xerolimmorum sp. nov. is 
squat, with well marked granular keels and scattered 
granules on the intercarpal surfaces. In L. 
alexandrinus the keels are less pronounced and the 
whole segment is markedly smoother than in A 
xeroUmniorum sp. nov., though it has some fine 
granulation, particularly on the ventral surface. /. 
vescus however shows no trace of granulation nor 
of keels. Rather there are numerous pits over the 
otherwise smooth and shiny surface. The fourth 
metasomal segment in A, xeroUmniorum sp. nov. 
Is considerably more granular than that of L. 
alexandrinus (Fig. 5) and the dorsal keel terminates 
in a prominent denticle. 

The tnehobothrial patterns of the three are shown 
in Fig, 11, and a small but constant difference is 
apparent. In .4. xeroUmniorum sp. nov. femoral 
trichobothria d\ d' and d 4 (filled circles in figure) 

J-— — 










Fig. 14, Sites from which Aitstralohuthus xeroUmniorum 
gen. et sp. nov, has been collected. Scale bar = 1 00km. 


ir, vf%f7 rat 

A & - m 

■ % 

hie 13. Hemispermatophores. A, Lvchas alexandrinus. B, IsometroideS vescus. C, Ausirahbuthu-ssvrolnmiwrum 
sp. nov. Each pair shows the hemispermatophore with the lamina seen edge on, lett, and rotated to the ngni by 


90°, right, 


form a right angle, whereas in the other* Iwo ihey 
foim an obtuse ancle open anteriorly, 

Differences arc also sTiuwn in 
hemispcnnatophores(Fig, 13) The&e m ruu uns are 
glfott&Iy curved in thiee dimensions, and the 
appearance of the various features thus changes. 
markedly with direction of view. The* 
hemispcrrnatophores of the three species are all of 
simple form with a curled flagellar^ unlike that uf 
hometrus ttwhtnoductylus illustrated by Koch 
(1977) or the north African buihids illustrated by 
Vavhon (1952). The degree of flagellar curling b 
simpler in the example of Australobuttttisvxwwneci 
lhan in the other two. This may be a reliable 
eharnetcr, but it is also possible that it reflects the 
Mate of maturity of the hemispermatophore. The 
proportions of the basal lobe and lamina do, 
however, distinguish the three distinctly. 

Hc/ctrc(/ truiterktl; South Australian Museum; Sulphur 
f'eninsula, Madigan Gulf, f Me byre North. 4,si.l%6 Ci.F 
Gross. Molourhia Station, Sulphur PeiXrisuta. take Lyre 
Nonli, 2AK>W7l. S end of Lake Cuirdner. fU.IVHfS P 
Hudson- Lake (ialrdner. 25.xi.I959. a Masou Lake 
Gairdner. vil 1987. P. Hudson. (2 specimens) Lake 
(iandoei 5.1.1989. P„ Hudson. (} specimens*. AmhorV 
Collation: Lake Han shore, xi.1984. B. Giienii- [2 
vpeumenv. Lak*- Hail shore. 27.1.1987. JSLA. 1 oekcl. Lake 
Bart sltoie 25-26. i.1988, N.A_ Uicket. Lake Hart shore 
5.U989. N.A. Lo-Aeu 

Kej ttr Australian Genera of ihc SunfQmiiy 
Birihinnc. iSec Also Figs 5, 11, 131 

1 nt>,*| spur ob^ni on third and fourth Ice*. .... 

. . - - . foometrus 

tibial .spur present on ihhd and fourth logs... 2 

2 Vesick with definite Mibaeulcar tooth or i ubcivtc 

- Lycfju^ 

VeMcle without definite Mihaculear tooth or mbeicle 


-i 5th meuiMinjal segment smooth, pitted, without keels. 
Kninh and fifth meiasornat segments and vesicle dark. 
Vesicle and aeutcus mcrg^.jumma-shaped IVctiucs with 

20-:k teeth fsomctnvde.s 

All metasomal segment keeled. Vehicle miall but 

distinct. Ffcetines with 3(K)6 teeth . , , 

• • • 'U«/#///ih/i^ cen. nov. 

Almost all rhe known specimens have been taken 
on the shores of surfaces of dry lakes, where they 
find cover by bun owing or by living beneath 
delntus. The borrowing habit appears to be unusual 
for a bin hid species. The burrows, which the 
scorpion readily digs for itself in captivity, aie \\?ry 
different from I he spiral burrows of the scorpiohid 
genus UnnJaens (Koch 1978; Shorthousc & Marples 
1980). In some cases the burrows in which A, 
xerolminiwum sp, nov. has been found may have 
been taken over from spiders or oilier burrowing 
animals: P. Hudson (pcrs. comm.) has recorded at 
least one from a lycosid burrow. Among Australian 
buihids, Isomeiroides, a specialised predator of 
burrowing spiders, has frequently been found in 
spider burrvjws. identified as such by the spider or 
remains of it being found In the burrow, or the 
presence ol a trapdoor or silk lining. (Main 1956; 
Kuch 1977). The latter mentions /., ulexandrinub 
being found in spider burrows on occasion, but L 
marmorvus and I . \artuias are usually found under 
stones or bark. 

1 dedicate this work to mv lather, George 
Ha/.elwood Locket, in his ninetieth year, and 
seventy-eighth as an nradinologisi. 


I wish to thank Oi Bernard Cuerin fur his gift 
uf specimens amongst which [ first recognised the 
new scorpion. Mr and Mis Jan JtanTfor their 
hospitality and lor permission to look lor scorpions 
on their property, Mr Peter Hudson for access to 
live specimens from Lake Gairdner. Dr David 
for access to specimens in the South Australian 
Museum, Deirdre Locket for assistance ill the field. 
Or Gary Polis and Dr David Sissorn lor valuable 
discussions on problems of scoipion taxonomy arid 
biology and Dr Sissom Jbr access to his key to 
buthid genera Mr G.R. Johnston gave valuable 
comments on the manuscript and Professor koberi 
Ussher gave ad vice on deriving the specific name. 


(ft Atom*, L. J1V2SJ Australian Scorpionidta J Pmc. X. 

50C. H't'st, Ausi. II, Ky-H8. 
IIUiii. J.T. (In picsst Anatomy and Morphology. In; 

Pol is, <r.A (L'd.t "The biology of scorpions" (Stan ford 

UmveiMty Pros.v Stantord). 
Kf vsL-to,iM (t T. (1KS5) Die Aiaehniden Ausridlicto nach 

da N.nui Ix-selnicben und abgebiuicr. Pi 52. 1-39. 
Koch 1 p., <I<J77> The taxonomv, ucographie distribution 

and evolutionary radiation of Austrato Papuan 

viMpions. Kite msi Am. \Ju$. 5, 83-V.7. 

- (l u 78> A compaialive srudv ol the struaure 

lunction and adapu-tiion to diflerent habiuts ot bin lows 
of the scoipion eenus Urodacw; (Sempionida, 
Scorpionidael. ibid 6, [fiHMfi. 

KiMrprtis-. K. Omq Da5 Tienvich K. 1-265. 

Mmn. U.V. (I')5f>) Taxonomy and biology ot Hie ecnus 
isomcinmies Keyserling (SeorpionidaM'/*/. X ZqoL 
•*, 158-164. 

SHOKTrtoost, UL A Mari', T.G. (1980) Observations 
on t he but row and assoeiared behaviour of rite ai id /one 

80 N. A. LOCKET 

scorpion Urodacus yaschenkoi Birula. Ibid, 28, (1973) Etude des caracteres utilises pour classer 

581-590 ' les famines et les genres de Scorpions (Arachnides). 1. 

Stahnke H (1972) UV light, a useful field tool. La trichobothriotaxie en arachnologie. Sigles 

Bioscience 11 604-607. trichobothriaux et types de tnchobothnotaxie chez les 

Vachon M (1952) "Etudes sur les scorpions". Institut scorpions. Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, ser 3, 140 

Pasteur Algerie. (Algiers). pp482. (Zoologie 104), 857-958. 




by Michael J. Tyler 


Published maps of the distribution of Cyclorana platycephala (Giinther) differ markedly, and it has 
been evident that the latitudinal and longitudinal limits of the species require clarification. An 
investigation of all specimens in institutional collections in Australia demonstrates a continuous 
range from east to west, but with tenuous contact in central Australia. The distribution records are 
documented and attention is focussed upon an apparent isolate on the Stuart Highway at Dunmarra, 
N.T. The majority of specimens in collections are too poorly preserved for any meaningful analysis 
of morphometric divergence to be undertaken. Measurements obtained from small samples of the 
best-preserved specimens do not indicate any geographic trends. The types of C slevini Loveridge 
have been examined and the opinion that this species is a junior synonym of C. platycephala is 
KEY WORDS: Cyclorana platycephala, Cyclorana slevini, distribution, taxonomy. 

rftPuta [foes *»/ r//o *&•>«/ i'ocisv.v 07 & 4usr, M'JVO) i\4(Z\, ai-fii. 



by Michael J, Tyler* 


r\Lt : K, VI I. (I9S*0) Geogiaphie distribution of ihe fosturial hylitl frog t'yclorurm pluiyccphulc |Ciumher| 
arid the taxonomic status of C stevmi I overidee- Trans. R, Sac. S. Aust. t 114*2), 81-85. 3] May. 1 490. 

Published map* ol the distribution t>f Cyclorarta phtycephala (Gmuher) differ markedly, and il has 
born evident that the latitudinal and lonP.imdina! limits of the species require clarification. An investigation 
of at) specimens in institutional collection;, in Australia demonstrate*; a continuous range from east 10 west, 
but will) tenuous contact m central Australia. The distribution records ate documented and attention is 
focussed upon an apparent isolate on the Stuart Highway at Dunmarra, NX 

The niajoiity of specimens in collections are too poorly preserved for any meaningful analysis uf 
nititphomctric divergence to be undertaken. Measurements obtained from small samples of the best-preserved 
ipeeimens do not indicate any geographic trends. 

The types or C slevwi ] ^rveridge have been examined and the opinion that this species is a junior syuonyra 
o| C. [)fo(yceitfittfn i* supported. 

Ki ; y Words Cycivranu pianwphate, Cyctorvrta stewnti distribution* taxonomy. 


The accuracy of published distribution maps of 
species of Australian frogs reflects the effort of the 
compiler, the geographic detail available ar the time, 
and the taxonomk expertise ul identifiers. A broad- 
brush approach exaggerates and distorts the actual 
cli'stTibucion. Given thai published distribution maps 
arc now being used by those assembling data 
relevant to conservation proposals* National Park 
proposals and other faunal documentation, 
accuracy is vital, 

The existence of shared patterns of distribution 
amongst Australian frog species was first reported 
in a series of studies by Fletcher (1890, 1891, 1892, 
IR94, IS98), but analysis awaited the attention of 
Moore (1961), and most recently Tyler, Watson & 
Martin (1981) and Uulejohn (1981). Moore (1961) 
was a self-confessed taxonomic lutnpct and so it is 
Jto surprise that he failed ro recognise the existence 
o I several cryptic species. Thus the peripheral, and 
supposedly continuous, northern attd eastern 
coastal pattern lhat he named the 'northeast 
crescent' in reality was largely the combined 
dislributions of groups of closely related species. 
(•or example the distribution attributed to Utoria 
pvrvrti't was that of L. perortti, L. roth'ti and L. tyieri 
combined, with L, roth'ti the sole species in Ibe 
north and northeast of the crescent. Similarly, 
assumed patterns of allopairy beiween (hesoutheasi 
and southwest of the continent have been 
demonstrated to be based on distinct species 
(Uulejohn 1959), 

* Department of Aiology, University of Adelaide, 
G.P.O. Box 493, Adelaide, S. Aust. 5001. 

As information improves, the overail trend is lhat 
fewer species are shown to have broad longitudinal 
distributions. An exception to that generalization 
is the fossorial hyltd frog Cyciorana ptatycephalu 
(Gunther). But despite the fact that it is a well- 
known .species because of its capacity to store large 
quantities of water prior to burrowing, and the 
ability of some aborigines to locate the frog to drink 
that water < Waite 1931), Its geographic distribution 
is unc tear- 
Two recently published distribution maps (Fig, 
I) differ in concepts of continuity and latitudinal 
and longitudinal limits (Cogger 1975; Tyler 1978), 
whilst Tylet. Davics & Martin (1983) reported a 
northward extension of the range of C 
platycepha/a, through its occurrence on rhe Barkly 
Tableland of the Northern Terrilory. 

Materials and Methods 

To clarify the nature and extent of the 
distribution of C. plaiyvephala 1 have examined 
specimens in all Australian natural history 
collections. The specimens examined are listed 
below. The acronyms used are as follows: A.M. 
(Australian Maseum> Sydney): A.N.W.C. (Australian 
National Wildlife Collection, CSIRO, Canberra); 
C. A.S. 1 C" . 1 i .■; . ■ j :> Academy of Science, San 
Francisco); N.MV, (Museum of Victoria, 
Melbourne); N.T.M. (Nor! hern Territory Museum 
& Art Gallery, Darwin); Q.M, (Queensland 
Museum. Brisbane); S.A.M. (South Australian 
Museum, Adelaide); W.A.M, (Western Australian 
Museum, Perth). Letters preceding registration 
numbers ate departmental idenr.ificairctu within (be 




f-jji. I, PiiWhlKd |"U(>n of the BeegWlpta« vlisnibmion of 
\ \<tor<ttta pUitvm^vUi. A. from T>ler U97$t; tf. pool 
cogger (1975). 

The bulk o!' rhc material is pooi ly preserved ami 
distorted due 10 dehydration. 
HVA/mi Ausiratia: Milly Mitly Sin, WAM R907-O9; I , 
Moimei, WAM RH46; l.averlon. WAV! RI44I-94; Landor 
Sin, WAM ^1*35, 1659-71, 1890. 2682-88; Mt lames Sin, 
*N of landor Sin, WAM R2693-95; Clwalia. WAM 
K/774-80: I km IS of jen of Gasmync R. and Aurillia 
( "k, WAV) R1635; between Karagullen iV Hiekerimr Brook. 
WAV! R347X4: Prairie Downs Stn, WAM R191K7-90; 3 
km SW ol Wilgie Mia. WAM R19I6U-65; Malcolm Dam, 
10 km T of LcoiK'in, WAM R50044; 20 km N of Leonora- 
!*vciMon Rd iuneiion, WAM R28973-*'; 12 km C of 
I avemtnu WAM R489W); iJiam'iidah Ck. MillLmllihoSin, 

ANWC AII45, 1150-51, 1185-87; North Tool, Wiltuna, 
ANWC AHS3: Warriedar, WAM RI406-I6; Well 2(5, 
Camiiim Stock Route, WAM R4079; Wlndieh Spring, 
Canning Stock Rome, WAM R4I35, SAM R517J2-16; 
Vlileura", WAM R13978; 15 km S ot Meekathurra, WAM 
R20547-49; Warbunon Mission, WAM U21320; Jigalong, 
WAM K2K5SO-54; JT? km S of Mew Mimdiwindi. WAM 
K2S972; 54 km S of Leonora, WAM R29K80-8I; m Mt 
lorn Price Mint-Nile, WAM R3I026, S of Winning, WAM 
R332D8; 16 km S of Minitya River, WAM K 33 209; 
Morasva, WAM 833306-14; (iarrovv Island, WAM R40076, 
45736-38, 52640-50; 19 km FSH of Wydgee Hsid, WAM 
R492SR Durba Springs. WAM R51945; Meekaiharra, 
WAM R543S6: 4 kin S ot Mt Narryer Hstd; 33 km NNt 
Kumarina, WAM R63103-05; 15 km H NulJagine, WAM 
R631I3; Condesoon Pool, WAM R63834-3S; 21 km SSI', 
ol Mt Keith. WAM R64969, 22 kmSE of Mt Keith, WAM 
R64970; 11.5 km N ol' fcrtiMtvun, WAM R64971-72. 
\orfhern Jerntory: No. 26 Bore. Alroy Downs.. NTV! 
R97U-16. Charlonc Waters, NMV D3263, 5703, 5708, 
5723-20, 5728-32, SAM RJ692IA-D, ftlVJWi Dumnarra, 
AM R60331-36, N I'M R8609; 8 km b of Dunmnna, M M 
9598-604. 9674; Elathakinna Ck, N I M S925; Palm Valley, 
WAM R21535. 96360-68, 

South Austruha; Oodmuiaita. NMV Dl 2694-97; kite 
Dam, 8 km E of Parma, SAM 893(R Dtudunna Stn,SAM 
U1S5; Jfa* Hole Ck. 77 km MW ol Cuobei Pedy, SAM 
13279; 60km NNfc of Oodnadatta. SAM 16314, 26939~m; 
Coonyic Lakes. SAM R30992-93, R3242J-45. 33381-82; 
Uidgcalpa W.H.. SAM R27358. 

Oiftrrltfon/J: Rocklands Sin, NTM 13177-79; WilkieCk, 
24 km SW ol Dalby. QM 31235S, 12367, 12369; Dalby, 
QM JI7W-94; Warrawee, QM J173V5, Warntah Stn, 
Cunnamtilla. QM 117396, 17398, Ooondiwindi. QM 
,117397; 0.5 km W of Windorah, QM J28590-93: WeM 
Wyatone, QM .139247-48; Cuddapanna Hmstd, W of 
Wmdoiah, QM J2K541-42; Mornuv Stn, Windorali, QM 
.I2K>43; Adria Downs, 55 km NW of Kirdsvitle, AM 
U113230: 5 km bol Pulo, AM R7941f 1 -l8;.StOeoiyc, AM 
RS9775-7«, SAM R3719; Cnnnamitllo, AM R18305. 
20490-91; Tarrars Creek CiosMug QM J440*'4; near 
DiniHbaiidi. QM J46585-fi8: Durham Downs, 260 km W 
of Thargomindah, QM 146589; Uynevor Downs. 60 km 
f- of Thargomindah, QM J46591, 46593-95. 4oM2; 
46617-18: Naiyileo Stn, Warn Ck. QM 146596-6611. 
46613-15; Nappa Metrie Sin, QM 14(>f>16, 46619-23; 
Bullnwarra Stn, 40 km W oi Thargomindah. QM J46592: 
Noomlou- AM R 11816(0. A/mm panUype), CAS K20S2 
(C sfcvtm holoiype). 

VtMv Stnttfi H-ahs: Halls Ck, WMandra N.P.. 1 1MNum, AM 
R54896-97-. VaiKanmn Sm, NMV DU)69K-99 f SAM 
R5473A, 5473B; 2 km \\ <»t Mmrloo Downs Hstd, AM 
K102MN7; 20 km W of Byioek. AM R5S163-77.; The 
Plains. Myngan. AM R117S2, 11789, 58173; Dooligal AM 
R719I2-22; 2 km I: of Thurloo Downs Hstd, AM 
RI02S87; Namoi K., Narrabri. AM R4638: OertngJ'ft HT 
Wutgeti. AM R7343;;Mti\land, Mungindi, AM RI4918; 
20 km W or Bvroek, AM RI523y; Rrcwarinna, AM 
RLVPI. 15775, I60S8-93; 10 km W ol* 13yrock. AM 
RIS33S-53; Qttamhone, AM R187I0; Merri Merri Ck, tn 
Canada, AM R2K196; Sfun N.P. Iihooburra, SAM 
R140K0, AM R42142-I3: 16-3? km R ot Condobolin nt\ 
West Wyalong Rd. AM R5122I-3I; Koeolechc Nattirr RCSi 



ANWC A1633; 40 km S of Walgett, ANWC AI266; Sandy 
Camp, Macquarie Marshes, ANWC A1326; Boolka L., 
via Torrowangic via Broken Hill, SAM R2063; 80 km N 
of Broken Hill, SAM RI2534-40; 22 km E of Hay, SAM 
R1350IA-B, 16 km W or Hay, SAM R13502, 50 km E of 
Hay, SAM R13503; Fowlers Gap Stn, 1 10 km N of Broken 
[IiJ], SAM R24J50-5I. 

Methods of measurements and abbreviations 
used in Table 1 follow Tyler (1968). 


The distribution map prepared from the 
preceding records is presented as Fig. 2. It reveals 
that, contrary to the suggestion of Tyler (1978), there 
is probably no geographic discontinuity between the 
southwestern and the southeastern populations, but 
that the area of contact is tenuous. In addition it 
shows that the longitudinal and latitudinal 
assumptions of Cogger (1975) are exaggerated (Fig. 
1). Morphometric data of various samples are 
presented in Table 1. 

The western component of the species extends 
from the Harnmersley Ranges south and east to the 
Great Victorian Desert.. The eastern component 
clearly is associated with the Lake Eyre Basin and 
with the Darling and Murrumbidgce drainage 
systems, except for extreme southeast Queensland 
where the species extends to the east of the Great 
Dividing Range. 

Three NT. records extend far beyond the overall 
range: No. 26 Bore at Ahoy Downs on the BarkJy 
Tablelands, Dunmarra and 8 km S of Dunmarra 
on the Stuart Highway (Fig. 1). The drainage of 
Alroy Downs is linked to the Ranken River to the 
west, a tributary of ihe Georgina River which flows 
into the Lake Eyre Basin. There has been very little 
collecting along the Georgina River (access is 
difficult, particularly in the wet season) and it is 
quite possible that C.phrycephala occurs along its 

Cydorana sievini Loveridge (1950) was described 
from (wo specimens from Noondoo (Fig. 2) in 









• • 


D • ■ 

I * 

[ New South Wales 

■- \ 


v - / —— _ 


**l*n Gco ^ a P h ^ distribution of Cydorana plaiyeephalu based on specimens in Australian museums. A = No 
AQ Uore. Alroy Downs; B = Dunmarra; C = Noondoo (type locality of C. s/evirti): D = Fort Bourke (type locality 
ot G ptatycephaia). 



scwtheasi Queensland A photograph of the 
pieservcd Koloiype, a diagnosis and r\o\e± on the 
collection of the specimens weie provided by Slevin 
(1955). In his paper 1.overidge stated that, in 
accordance with Austiaban law, the holotypes of 
(his and two other species v.cre being presented to 
the Australian Museum. A footnote, evidently 
added In galley proof, indicated that, whereas the 
holotypes of two other species had been transferred, 
the paratype of C .v/cW/f/had been substituted for 
rhe holotypc. Why this action was taken 3 unclear. 
Moore (1961), presumably with access ro the 
paratype considered C. stevini a valid species, and 
included it in a series of species known only from 
southeast Queensland, bill which he considered 
would also be found in northeast New South Wales. 
Dr H.G. Cogger showed rneihe paratype in 196S, 
and I ngreed with his opinion thai it was a junior 
synonym of G pfaiyrephuht. Hence I omitted C, 
sfcWff/ from a list of the frog fauna of Queensland 
(Tyler 19751. 

Cogger, Cameron $ Cogger (1683) listed C 
$lewiiw.\ junior synonym of C plat^r/j/tahi. but 
the action was not supported by Rwt <1985) 
because it had not been substantiated by dala. 
Accordingly I nave re-examined both types to 
provide data and to formalise the suppression of 
C sievini because ihat action appears to be required, 
The types of C slevim ate dehydrated, sub-aduli 
specimens. In both specimens the broad, flattened 
l»cad, small eyes, extensively webbed loes and grey 
coloration arc features characteristic of C. 

The type locality of C s/ewwns close to the type 
locality of C plutycephala (Fort Hourkc, N.S.W.). 
I have no hesitation in confirming that C . sievini 
should be referred 10 the synonymy- of C. 


The data indicate that C piuiycephfffa docs 

indeed have an extensive gei.^aphic distribution, 

involving a pattern that is unlike that of any other 

Australian anuran- Historically nnc significant 

factor is that the process oi speciation in southern 
Australia has been a consequence of the separation 
of former transcontinental distributions into eastern 
and western isolates. The. distribution of C 
pfotycephala presented by TVler (1978) tiuesiioncd 
whether geographic separation had occurred. l( 
would seem ihar thai is not the case, but that 
continuity is maintained. 

Several interpretations of the distribution pattern 
could be postulated, and 1 suggest that an 
understanding of the history Of the species in the 
northern portion of the NT. Is particularly relevant 
in that regard. 

The records at and near Dunmarra appear to be 
geographically isolated. With my colleagues 
M. DavJes, G R Watson, A. A. Martin and D. J. 
Williams I have visited these sites on several 
occasions without locating the species; but our vimIS 
have not coincided with favourable wet conditions, 
We nave noted that the area from Dunmarra to 
about 15 km south is a plain of cracking clays 
isolated from the adjacent area and from similar 
soils on Alroy Downs and other sites on the Barkly 
Tableland to the east where the species amirs. That 
area is virtually unexplored zoologically but our 
observations at its- periphery indicate that C 
ptaiycephala does not occur there, Thus the 
distribution o\ the species may have been more 
extensive in I he past. Further biochemical and 
biological data are required to determine whether 
significant tntraspecific divergence can be detected 
within the current geographic range. 


For information upon and the loan of specimens 
[ thank H.G. Cogger, J. Coventry, A. tdwanu\ I* 
Horner. G J. Ingram. A. Uviton, M King, K.R. 
McDonald, R.A. Sadlicr, L.A Smith. G.M. SlOfl 
and J. Wnrnbey. 

1 he investigation was supported by the University 
of Adelaide. 1 thank Veronica Ward for technical 
assistance and lor preparing the figures, and l.onta 
Lucas for typing the manuscript. 

TMiLt I: Dimensions <md proportions of setected swnplps Qj t adult Cydoraria plaiyeephala. 


Dunmarra, N.l. 
4lrov Downs, NT. 
Charlotte Water*, VI. 
nr Cotulobotin, N.SVV. 
Booligiil, N.S.W. 
Prairie Dowiia Stn, V..A. 
leonora area. W.A, 
Wilkie Ck, Qld 
SVindorah, Old 
llynevor Downs Sm, QM 
Nappa Merric Sin, Qld 

a 2~\' 5-V ll./S-V Hl'HW HL/S-V E-N/IN 



SI -55 





& -*« 





















.37- 3-> 

,95-1 ! 2 

1. 10-1.29 
1.10-1 29 
1. Otf- 1 .13 
1 19-138 




Cogger, H. G. (1975) "Reptiles and amphibians of 
Australia." (A.H. & A.W. Reed, Svdney«) 

, Cameron, E.E. & Cogger, H. M. (1983) 

"Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Vol. J. Amphibia 
and Reptilia." (Aust. Govt Publ. Serv., Canberra.) 

Fletcher, JJ. (1890) Contributions to a more exact 
knowledge of the geographical distribution Of 
Australian Balrachia. No. f, Proc, Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 
ser. 2, 5, 667-676. 

(1891) Contributions to a more exact knowledge 

of the geographical distribution of Australian Batrachia. 
No. 2. Ibid., ser. 2, 6, 263-274. 

(1892) Contributions to a more exact knowledge 

of the geographical distribution of Australian Batrachia. 
No. 3. Ibid., ser. 2, 7, 7-19. 

(1894) Contributions to a more exact knowledge 

of the geographical distribution of Australian Batrachia. 
No. 4. Ibid., ser. 2, 8, 524-533. 

_ (1898) Contributions to a more exact knowledge 

of the geographical distribution of Australian Batrachia. 

No. 5. a. Batrachia of Tasmania, b. Batrachia of West 

Australia. Ibid., ser. 2, 12, 660-684. 
Frost, D.R. (Ed.) (1985) "Amphibian species of the 

World," (Allen Press & Association of Systematic 

Collections, Lawrence, Kansas.) 
LlTTLEJOHN, M..1. (1959) Call differentiation in a complex 

of seven species of Cr'tnia (Anura, Leptodactylidae). 
Evolution 13, 452-468. 

(1981) The Amphibia of mesic southern Australia; 

a zoogeographie perspective. In A, Keast (Ed.) 

"Ecological biogcography of Australia", (W. Junk, The 

Loveridgl, A. (1950) New frogs of the genera Cyclorana 

and Hvla from southeastern Australia. Proc. biot. Soc. 

Hash. 63, 131-138. 
Moorf, J.A. (1961) The frogs of eastern New South 

Wales. Bull. Amen Mus. Sat. Hist. 121(3), 149-386. 
Slevin, J.R. (1955) Notes on Australian amphibians. 

Proc, Ca(. Acad. Sci. 4th Ser., 28(8), 355-392. 
Tyler, M.J. (1968) Papuan hylid frogs of the genus Hvla. 

Zooi Verhand., Leiden (96), 1-203. 

, (1976) "Frogs." (Collins, Sydney,) 

, (I97S) "Amphibians of South Australia.*' 

(Handbooks Committee, Govt Printer, Adelaide.) 
, Davies, M. & Martin, A.A. (1983) The frog fauna 

of the Barkly Tableland, Northern Territory. Trans. R. 
Soc. S. Aust. 107. 237-242. 

Watson, G.F. & Martin, A.A. (1981) The 

Amphibia: diversity and distribution. In A. Keast (Ed.) 
"Ecological biogeography of Australia". (W. Junk, The 
Waite, E.R. (1931) 'The reptiles and amphibians of 
South Australia." (British Science Guild, Adelaide.) 



by Thomas C. Burton 


Copiula Mehely possesses a unique condition of the deltoid musculature. The nature of the throat 
musculature of Copiula suggests a phylogenetic affinity to Sphenophryne. Copiula tyleri sp. nov. a 
widespread species, occurring in the north of the New Guinea mainland, is characterized by an 
unpigmented tympanum, strong contrast between the mid-dorsal and latero-dorsal ground colour, a 
broad, short truncate snout, and nostrils that open laterally rather than anterolaterally. There remains 
a number of specimens of Copiula that cannot be associated confidently with any of the named 
KEY WORDS: frog, microhylid, Copiula, pectoral muscles, deltoid, new species, morphology. 

fammtiw hi '•>>• «ywi teite* <,f s 4M, ttswctTi iffW «7 HI 


by Thomas C, BURTON - 


HdkTON, 1. C. (J 990) The Now Guinea genus Copiulu MehetV (Anura: Microhylidae ): a new diagnostic 
character and a new species. Trans. R. Soc. S. Atist. 114(2), H7-93, 31 May, 1990. 

Copiula Mehely possess a unique condition or the deltoid muscularure. I lie nature of the (most 
musculature of Copw/ff suggests a phylogenelic affinity to Sphenophtyw-'- Copiula jylert sp. nov. a widespread 
species, occurring in the oOUU of the New Guinea mainland, is characterized by an unpigmemed rympanum, 
won* com rail between ihe mid-dorsal and latero-dorsal ground colour, a broad, .short truncate snout, 
and nostrils thai open laterally rather than amerolaterally. There remains a number of specimen? of Copiula 
that cannot be associated eunfidently with any ot the named species. 

Kcy Words; frog, microhylid, Copivla, pectoral muscles, deltoid, dew species morphology. 


Copiula Mchcly (1901) was erected lo accom- 
modate S'hryn'uittu* oxyrhirtus Boulenger (1898). 
Parker 1 1934) referred Copiula to lite synonymy of 
Cophixafas. where ir remained until Meuzies & Tyler 
<1977'i. with access to newly available specimens, 
resurrected it for C. oxyrhtna and iwo new speciev 
C fmidaas and C minor Burton $ Snicks (1986) 
described 3 fourth species (C ptpwns) from 
specimens collected in J9R3 In then account of the 
3>>*iernaucs of Copiula, Mcnzics fig Tyler (19771 
emphasized three features thai disringuish it from 
Cophixalus Boetlgcr, the other genyopluynme 
genus then consisting of frogs lacking clavicles and 
procoraeoids; (a) rostral glands and an associated 
translucent white tip to the snout; <b) pnemaxillae 
with hroad-based alarv processes; and (e) finger 
discs less expanded than toe discs. 

There are problems with the above diagnosis. R. 
G Zweir'el {in UtL) points out that CophtxaUc* 
p&HsQZ&nA C sphugmcola lack expanded finger 
discs so that the toe discs arc broader at their lips 
than the fingers iZweifel & Allison \%2) Moreover, 
Zweifcl points out ihal some species ol Sphrtto 
phryrte [among them S sch login hat ijh n i tpers. obs.)| 
possess translucent, glandular tips to their snouts. 
Finally, I have been unable to confirm the difference 
in the morphology of the prcmaxillae: the alary 
processes of specimens of Cophixatus tiptwius and 
C, orrwius examined in this study are broad-based 
and appear similar in structure to those of Copiula 
fistulous. Paradoxically, species of Copiula arc 
probably easier to assign tn genus than any oiher 
ceriyophrynine species, but neither external mor- 
phology nor skeletal structures yield unequivocal 
chaiucierx to NUpporl the genus. 

Ocpt of Biological & Chemical Sciences, Rendigo 
C.A.F., P.O. Hc\ 19*3, Uendieu. Vic, 3550. 

It is clear, however, that characters of the 
musculature aie useful at all levels, including 
genetic, in the systemat'cs o\' microhylid frogs. 
Burton (19S6) based much of his revision of the 
Asterophryinac on characters of the musculature. 
In (he present study, muscles of the throat, pectoral 
girdle and loot provide useful information and are 
introduced here. 

Frogs possess three transversely directed muscles 
between the mandibles: the M submenhrlis (the 
most anterior), the A/, inwnmmdibularis and the 
M. inferhyoideus. In addition, the microhylid*^ 
possess- o\-\t or more supplementary slips to the M 
miermundihuturis {Tyler, 1974'; hmerson 1976). 
All of the genyophry nines possess one 
supplementary slip (Burton 1986), but exhibr. 
diversity In its origin and orieniation. This diversity 
has proven laxonomieally useful at various levels 
(Tyler 1974 1 ; Burton 1984, 1986). 

burton (1983a > showed chat the condition 
shared by some raembcTs of all of the microhylid 
subfamilies Lhal he examined was a single nutans 
supplementary slip ariving via a tension from 
posteriorly on the mandible and passing 
anteioniedially; parallel with the mandible, lo insert 
on a median tendinous mass underlying the 
junction of the uientomeckeitajts. I his condition 
is figured (en Cophixulu.s ortiufus by Hurion (19S4) 
and C kawdiensia (Burton 1986). lis distribution 
through seveial subfamilies (Asterophtyinae, 
Brevicipilinae. Dyseophmae v Gcnyophryninac and 
Microhylinae) suggests that it is the primitive 
condition, using the criterion of Kluge (1976) thai 
a character state widespread among taxa related at 

"Tyler, \1 1 (1974) Superficial mandibular musculature 
and vocal sac structure of die Anura. M.Sc. thesis. 
University ot Adelaide. Unptibl. 
Hmioti, I C U9*Oa) The phytogeny or the Papuan 
subfamily Asietvphryinac (Anura: Microhvlldac I. F*h.L>. 
iVteds, University ol Adelaide. Unpubi. 



the next higher taxonomic level thai otherwise have 
little in common is pleseiomorphic. 

The deltoid muscle of frogs usually convisls of 
two or three slips Inserting on the humerus, the 
number of slips depending in parr on the 
completeness of the pectoral girdle (Jones 193$). 
The ML episternohiimeruHs, sj ising from medially 
on the ventral surface of the sternum and/or 1 
epHtemurn (depending on the presence of an 
eplstcrnuiti), and theM actwniohumeratis, aristae, 
from the scapula, are apparently always present, 
however much the pectoral girdle may be reduced 
i. Jones 1933; Burton 1983a). Frogs with a 
Complete* pectoral girdle, i.e., including a Fully 
developed clavicle, usually possess a small slip, the 
M deidvhumeraks, arising from the ventral surface 
ol the clavicle. No genyophrynine, even if it 
possesses a clavicle, possesses this slip (Burlon 

The M. acromiohumeraUs is generally te.g., Raw 
tem(w&ria n Eckei 1889; personal observations) a 
broad muscle consisting, nf (aj short fibres from the 
anterior margin of the scapula which insert along 
the ventral sui face of the humerus, and [\y) a long 
supei flcial strap-like portion which consists of 
parallel sets of fibre* arising from two origins. The 
more medial fibres arise from laterally on the 
anterior margin of the acromion; ihe more lateral 
fibre* arise Troin the medial surface of the scapula, 
pass laterally, curving around Ihe dorsal surface of 
the acromion, and run alongside the more lateral 
fibres from the anterior margin of the acromion. 
This strap-like component of the deltoid mus- 
culature runs the length of the humerus, and inserts 
on ihe ulnar epieottdyte of the humerus. In 
genyuphryumes of the genera Cophixalus and 
Sphenophryrw examined in this study, these fibres 
arise distally on the posterior suifecc of the 
coracoid instead of the medial margin of the 

Burton (l98tp-> demonstrated that the foot and 
hard musculature of the New Guinea microhylids 
is very conservative and, therefore, useful taxo- 
nomically. In genyophry nines a foot muscle* the M 
favor ossis digiii IK typically arises from the 
fibular? and Insert* along the whole length of the 
kUeroplantar surface of metatarsus IV. 

When Meiuacs & Tyler (1977) resurrected Copiula 
they dealt only with species from eastern New 
Guinea, while acknowledging the existence of 
specimens from the Cyclops Range in Irian Jaya, 
800 km west of their most westerly site for C 
Jhiitfatts. Copiula pipien\ was subsequently 
described from Wcwak, 500 km north-west ol the 
species discussed b> Menzies & Tyler (Burton ft 
Stocks 1986). In the course Of a broader study of 
Copiula, a series of morphologically distinctive 

frogs, was found to h.ive been collected from a 
number of sites ranging fiom the Cyclop* Range 
eastwards tn within about 200 km north. west of ihe 
known range of C ftstuians. 

Materials and Methods 

The following specimens were examined for 
comparison with the new species, and are lodged 
in collections abbreviated as follows: AMNH - 
American Museum of Natural History, New York; 
AU? - Department of Zoology. University of 
Adelaide (unregistered*; BMNH - British Museum 
(Natural History. Icndun); RMNH - Rijksmuseum 
van Naiuurltjke Historic Letden; SAM - South 
Australian Museum, Adelaide; UPNG - Depatt- 
ment of Biology, University oi Papua New Guinea, 
Port Moresby. 

Copiula fistufans Menzies <& t Tyler AMNH 
5*894-6, 81128-31, 82951-2; AU7. A723, D742; SAM 
R5852. R5S79. R6282-3, R9443-8, R14239-50, 
RI4497 (fvolotype), RltiOKI, R23S36-7: C minot 
Menzies & Tyler AMNH 56908. 56939-40, 56958, 
56960, 56971-2, 56986, 56997-8. 57046-7, 57050-4; 
SAM R15245 fparalvpe); C. oxvrhmu <Boulenger) 
AMNH 59894-8, 59957-60, 59992-60000, 60013. 
#3018-9, 60036-46; BMNH 1947.2.11.99, 1947.2.12.4 
(syntypesj; SAM R 10647, R 14237-S, RI80S0; 
UPNG 1371, 2612, 4311, 5204-5; C pipiens Burton 
& Stock v l ype series AMNH 123698; SAM R 2y?79 
(holoc-ypeVS2: UPNG 7025-8 (incorrectly cited hy 
Bunon & Stuck* (1986! as 7205-8); unidentified 
COfiiHio: AMNH 49516, 49554, 7996k BMN1I 
1938.6.6.2,3; RMNH 5256, 5269. 

Olher Genyopluvninac: Cophixalu* omoihi 
SAM RI2321, C porkeri SAM R557SA, R58I8A, 
R5S23A; C ripartus SAM R6145. R9125A; 
Sphmophryne mcKWrhynchv SAW R6395; S. 
palmipes SAM RM15?, 

Other Microhytidae; Hyfoflhorbus rufeseens 
SAM R62S5B; Kaloula pictu SAM R13603B; 
Mamophryue torero/is SAM R«H8IA, R9434A; 
Phryrtotnani& humtcola compro SAM R5825A: P 
stiaogatfer SAM R5202. 

Other families: Hylidac: (mow ctteruieu SAM 
R23974; LeptodacryUdac: Linmodynastes perow 
SAM R24273; / r/wweW//SAM R19IM0; Rauidac: 
Hana srisea SAM R8294B: R popua SAM R7695. 

Specimens were preserved in 65^o or 70^o 
ethanol, The following measurements were lalccn. 
Snuut-vwii length (S-VU head width (HW), head 
length (HL|. tibial length (TLj, E>e- diameter (E), 
Eye-nans distance (b-N). iniernanal distance flN), 
diameter of tympanum (Tj, and snout length (SN). 
Measurements were carried out using Mitutnyo dial 
calipers, and follow the methods of Burton & 
Stocks (19861. Mwlogical dissection* were faeill- 



tated by use ol the iodine-potassium iodide solution 
of Bock & Shear (1972). 

Specimens were, or had been, cleared and doublc- 
staincd for skeletal examination according to the 
method of Dingetkus & Uhlcr (J977). Some 
specimen* were flensed and cleared of soft tissue 
by application of sodium hypochlorite solution and 
allowed to dry slowly. Nomenclature of muscles and 
skeletal structures follows Burton (1986). 

Myological Characters of Cvphita 

The superficial throat musculature of Copiu/a 
includes a single supplementary .slip of the M 
b\tetman<iibularis: a broad sheet arising from the 
anterior part of the ventral margin of the 
angulospleniat, and passing medially and only 
slight (y anteriorly to insert on theventialepimvsium 
of the M. submentatis and the adjacent median 
aponeurosis of the anterior portion of the M, 
iruermantfihulam. This slip was illustrated by 
Burton (1986), and resembles closely that of 
Sphenophryne described .md figured by Burton 

The lack of clavicles and pioeoraeoids led Parker 
(1934) to associate Copiuia with Cophixolus but the 
nature of the throac musculature is stronger 
evidence of the phylogeneiic relationships "of 
Copiuia with Sphenopluyne, as it is clearly a 
synapoinorphy (Burton IV86). It is likely that 
clavicles and pnocoracoidc have been lost several 
limes in the evolution of the New Guinea 
microhylids (Burton 1986) and that reduction of the 
pectoral girdle, therefore, is not a reliable phylo- 
geneiic character 

The deltoid musculature of Copiuic (Fig. II 
resembles that of other gcnyophiynines, except that 
the portion of the M ticromiohurmraiti which 
arises from the eoracoid of Copiuia differs from 
that of other genyophrynines in origin, course and 
insertion. In Copiuia this portion has a broad origin 
occupying the middle one-half approximately of the 
anterior margin of the eoracoid. The fibres of this 
portion converge as they pass anterolateral^ across 
tht anterior mat gin of the acromion (dorsal to the 
acromion in other frogs), before passing along the 
lateral surface of the humerus. Instead of merging 
with the strap-like portion from the acromion, as 
in other frogs, it passes medially, deep to the strap- 
like portion, and inserts on the crista vcniralU and 
the adjacent latcroventral surface of the humerus. 
This condition is not found in other New Guinea 
microhylid genera, or in the other 22 microhvlid 
genera examined by Burton (1986), and has not been 
reported for any other genus. 

this unique muscle slip is found easily in 
dissection of the pectoral girdle, and in some spirit 

specimens with translucent ventral skin It can be 
seen clearly through a dissecting microscope 
sometimes without making an incision. In that rhe. 
condition described here is found in all frogs 
referred to Copiuia by the combination of 
characters presented by Men?ies & Tyler (1977), and 
in that this slip is unique to Copiuia and is relatively 
easy to find, possession of this condition of the 
deltoid musculature is diagnostic for Copiuia and 
taxonomically useful. 

The M. flexor ossi digiti IV ol Copiuia inserts 
only on the proximal one-half of the laicroplantar 
surface of metatarsus IV. This Is the condition 
shared by most of the asrerophryine genera but no 
other genyophryninc, and is described and figured 
by Burton (1983 b). As it is a difficult muscle to 

Fie. I. Ventral views of the pectoral musculature of rhe 
lett <ide of Coptuh tyleri t sp. nov, showing, the 
components of tit? M. avromiohumerahs A t with all 
muscles intact, and B, alter removal or superficial 
muscles and severing of strap-like portion, a. >hort flbftt 
from aeiouiiofi; b, >trap-Jike ponion; t, porrlon 
originating from eoracoid. 

l HJ 


dissect, it is of use in phylogcnelie studies rather 
than of taxonotnie value. 

Copiula tyleri sp. nov. 
FIGS 2-5 

Holotvpe: AMNH 77542, art adult male collected 
at Ml Hunstein, 1220 m, I42°39'H, 4 31 'S. East 
Sepik Province, Papua New guinea on 15.viii.1966 
b> R. Hoogland. 

Definition: A small species with a conspicuously 
unpigmcnied tympanum; dorsum distinctly more 
heavily pigmented medially than laterally; snout 
relatively short (SN/E <1.40) and broad; the nostrils 
opening laterally. 

Description of. holotvpe Head roughly trian- 
gular, longer than broad (HL/'HW 1-06) (Fig. 2). 
Head width more than '/? snout to vent length 
(HW/S-V 0.36). Snout relatively short (SN/E 1.31), 
with rounded, translucent white tip projecting well 
beyond maxillae. Nostrils lateral; intcrnarial 
distance much greater than eye to nans distance (E- 
VIN 0.61). Canthus rostralis well defined and 
curved when seen from above, loreal region almost 
vertical. Eye small (E/S-V 0.106), but larger than 
eyc-to-naris distance. Tympanum small (1.6 mm) 
and conspicuously unptgmented in contrast to dark 
pigment of side of head and scapula area; no 
supratympanic fold. 

Tongue more than half free posteriorly. Single 
transverse prepharyngeal ridge present, denticulate. 

Fingers and toes unwebbed (Fig. 3); lerminal discs 
with marginal grooves: discs of toes broader than 
discs of fingers; order of lengths of fingers 
3>4>2>I; order of lengths of toes 
4>3 >5>2;>1; inner metatarsal tubercle small and 
oval; outer metatarsal tubercle absent. 

Skin of dorsal and ventral surfaces smooth. 
Colour in preservative: dorsum mid purplish-brown 
medially, with indistinct dark brown to black 
blotches, grading laterally to a pale grey contrasting 
strongly with dark postorbual strips. Tip of snout 
unpigrnented. Postorbital stripe broad and irregular, 
extending beyond arm. Flanks dark brown blotched 
pale grey. Tympanum golden-brown contrasting 
with dark posiorbiial stripe. Ventral surfaces pale 


Fig 3. A, palmar surface on the left hand and B, piftntau 
surface of the left foot of the holotvpe of Copiula (yleti 

sp, nov. 

Fig. 2. A, dorsal and B. lateral vl-ws of the head of the lioloiync of Copwta tyleri sp. OW 


cream-grey, suffused with brown hi submandibular 
region and on undcrsuiface of tibia and foot. 
Iliosacral articulation dinecr and ligamentous. 
There is no information on the call of this species. 

Dimensions of Mistype 5-V 24,5 mm, HW 8.7 
mm; HL 9.2 mm; TL 12.) mm; E 2.6 mm; fi-N 1.7 
mm; IN 2.8 mm; T 1,6 mm; SN 3.4 mm. 

Etymoto&v. The specie* is named in honour of 
Michaei ,1, Tyler, whose contribution to xhc 
taxonomy of Australian and New Guinean frogs is 
immense, who, with Men/ies, resurrected Copiuia, 
and to whom the author is deeply indebted 
personally and professionally. It is evidence of the 
pcrwwty of nature that I he legs- of Copiuia tvleri 
are as moderate in length as fyler's aren't. 


There are 13 paratypes: AMNH 781(3 (eravid 9), 
Mi Nebo, 700-1550 m, 20 km N'E Of 1 umT, ]42°2'H. 
3 25*S,\VcstSepik Province, J, Diamond 14 vii.!96f>; 
AMNH 78114 (gravid <?), Mt Menawa, Hesvam 
Mrns, IS km NL of Utai, 14I°33'E, 3*22'S West 
Scpit Province, J. Diamond 2-N.viii.1966; AMNH 
77543 (gravid 9) collected with ihe holotype; 
AMNH 82949 (adult cr), Wanuma, I45°20'E, 
4°50'S, 670 m Adelbcrt Mtns, Madang Province, 
H. G. Zweifel 3.viiU969, BMNK J 938.6.5. 93-96,98 
{adult era-), 1938.6,5,97. 99 (immature 9 9). 
Cyclops Range, 910-1220 m, Irian Jaya ca 14<WF, 
2*30'S,E. Cheesman; SAM R33774 (adulr o-> 
collected with the holotype. More precise data ol 
sites and dales of capture are unavailable lor the 
Cyclops Range specimens, 

The adult rnale«. measure 19.6-24.5 S-V, and the 
females 24.2-25.5 mm S-V. The diameter of the 
largest unptgmented mature ovum observed is 2.9 
mm- Hind limbs are moderately long (TL/S-V 
045-0491 HL/HW varies widely (0.93-1.13). SN/E 
is very low M.2CM.3J). h-N/IN varie< between 

Coloration in preservative varies. In general 
specimens from the Cyvlup.s Range are browner, 
sometimes honey-coloured, whereas specimens from 
elsewhere ate grcy-purplc. Whether this reflect.* 
different length of preservation (the Cyclops Range 
specimens were collected approximately 30 years 
before the others), or the preservative practices 
adopted by collectors or museums, or any real 
dilference Is unclear. The postorbital stripe varies 
in breadth and extent, but it is broad and extends 
beyond the arm in all *pecimcns. 

Ventral colour ranges from pale mauve through 
pale cieam, and ;n some specimens the ventral 
colour of the thigh is pale orange. Oensiry of the 
mottling of the Mibmandibular region varies ftom 
slight peppering to heavy mottling. 



XJ "sSi 



Fig. 4. Distribution of Copiuia tyteri sp. nov. in Eastern 
New Guinea, C pipiens and an unidentified Copiuia. 
C. tytet'i\ squares, 1, Cyclops Ra; 2, Mt Bewani; J, Mt 
Ncbo; 4, Mi Hunstein; 5, Wanuma. C. pipiens: triangle 
Wewak districi. Unidentified Captula: diamond 

Hahiut and Distribution 

In his field notes on AMNH 82949, R. G. Zweifel 
states, *1 found this one hiding beneath a broad leaf 
On the forest floor in the daytime. When uncovered, 
it tried to hide in a hole in the ground". The Cyclops' 
Range specimens were collected from "dense forest". 

Information regarding the altitudes of collecting 
sites is sketchy, but the minimum range of altitudes 
U 670 m (Wanuma) to 1220 m (Mt Hunstein and 
Cyclops Ra)- Collecting sites are marked on Fig. 
4, All sites are to the north of the central highlands. 

Colour in Life 

R. O. Zweifel has supplied field notes o^ one of 
the paratypes (AMNH B2949): "Mid-dorsal area 
from snout to cloaca moderately dark brown edged 
laterally with lighter, more golden brown. There is 
a dark lateral band from the snout to mid-Hank that 
is much dai kei brown than the middle of the back. 
A light yellow line separates this dark brown from 
the lighter brown of the snout along the canthus 
rosrralis, and this line continues up over the edge 
of ihe evelid. The upper surfaces of the limbs are 
much rhe same colour as the middle of the back 
but have a few lighter and daiker speckles on them. 
The under surfaces are grayish white with a faint 
yellowish tinge fn the groin and in Ihe axillary 
regions, There is a general grey mottling on the chin 
which is much weaker un the chest, and entirely 
absent on the lower abdomen. Similar mottling 



Fig. 5. Outlines ol dorsal views of heads flf A, Copiula 
tyleri sp. nov; B, C pipiens Burton A' Stocks; C. £ 
minor Mercies & Tyler. 

reappears or the under surfaces of the hind limbs. 
The iris is dark brown, almost black, with liny 
golden flecks. The horizontal pupil is conspicuously 
margined with a reddish gold line". 

Comparison with other species 

Copiula tyleri sp. nov. us a small species 
tmaxirnum size of adult males 24.5 mm. females 
25.5 mm S-V), distinct on this account from £ 
fistulans adult males (25.1-29.2 mm* females 
29,4-33.5 S-V). Unlike the other small species (C. 
mnot] C uxyrhina, C. pipiens) there is strong 
contrast between the dark mid-dorsum and paler 
lateral dorsum, the tympanum is generally 
conspicuously unpigmented (Fig. 2) (dark and 
indistinct in other species), and the snoul is truncate 
and broad, (he nostrils opening laterally (Fig. 2) 
(anterolateral opening in other species). Fig. J shows 
a comparison between the shapes of the snouts of 
C. tyleri sp, nov., C. minor and C pipiens. C 
oxyrhirtti is so variable as to preclude its 
representation by a single morphotypy (Burton & 
Stocks 1986). 

Copiula tyleri sp. nov. differs from C fistulans. 
C. minor and C uxyrhina in having a direct 
ligamentous attachment between the ilium and 
sacrum, t! pipiens shares the C. tyleri condition, 
but can be distinguished by characters of the 
dorsum, tympanum and snout noted above, and 
probably by colour in life, as C. pipiens is tinged 
orange-pink in areas of Lhe back and vent, 
compared with Zwcafei's account of C tyleri above 
The snout of C pipiens is relatively long (min. 
SN/E 1.45 compared with C ivleri max. SN/E 
1.3!)(Fig. 5). 

The shared possession of a direct ligamentous 
attachment between the ilium and sacrum may 
suggest that the closest relation of C. tyleri sp. nov. 
is C. pipiens, but the polarity and hence utility of 
this character is unknown (Burton 1986). The range 
of C pipiens is poorly known: the only specimens 
were obtained from the Wc-wak area (Fig. 4). The 
range of C. tyleri apparently surrounds that of C 
pipiens* but there is no information to suggest that 
the ranges of the two species abui or overlap. 

Unidentified mainland specimens 

Two specimens from Mt Nomo, Irian Java (BM 
NH 1938.6.6.2-3) probably represent a further 
undescribed species. Both are small (S-V 19.1, 1S3), 
slender and little pigmented, and BMNH 1938.6.6.2 
possesses a very long snout. Unfortunately, these 
specimens are in poor condition because of previous 
exploratory dissection and it is impossible to sex 
or age them, or to determine the relationship 
between the ilium and sacrum. 

AMNH 49536 and 49554 (juvenile) from 
Bernhard Camp, Idenburg River, Irian Jaya cannot 
be referred to the species closest geographically, C 
pipiens and C. tyleri, as they lack lhe direct 
ligamentous attachment between ilium and sacrum. 
They resemble most closely the geographically 
distant C oxyrhina. Similarly, AMNH 79961 (S-V 
27.4 mm) from Soliabeda, (Thimbu Province (Fig. 
4) falls into the size range of C fisrulans, but the 
site is 250 km to the west of the known range of 
that .species. Each instance may represent eithei a 
range extension or a new species, but either more 
specimens to allow a study of variation or call data 
are needed before their identity can be resolved. 

RMNH 5256 and 5269 from Timena River, Irian 
Jaya are tiny (S-V 15.3 mm, 15.7 mm), and appear 
juvenile. It is therefore impossible to determine their 
specific identity. 


Specimens were provided by the following 
institutions and their curators or associates 


American Museum of Natural History (R. G. 
Zweifel); British Museum (Natural History)(B. 
Clark); Rijksmuseum van NatuurlijkeHistorie (M. 
Hoogmoed) South Australian Museum (M. 1 Tyler, 
A. Edwards) and University of Papua New Guinea 
(E Lambley). R. G. Zweifel provided encourage- 
ment, distribution maps and field notes as well as 


specimens, and to him my debt is incalculable 
Zweifel also provided the map on which Fig. 4 is 
based. M. J. Tyler and M. Davies read the manu- 
script and provided valuable criticisms. Much of (he 
work was undertaken whilst I was a Visiting 
Research Fellow in the Department of Zoology, 
University of Adelaide. 


Bock. W. J. & Shkar C. R, (1972) A staining method for 

gross dissection of vertebrate muscles. Anal, Anz. 130, 

Boulenger. G. A. (1898) Fourth report on additions to 

the batrachian collection in the Natural History 

Museum. Proc. zoot. Sac. London 3, 473-482 
Burton, T. C (1983b) The musculature of the Papuan 

troy Phrynomantis stiaogaster (Anura: Microhylidae). 

J. Morphot. 175, 307-323. 
(1984) A new character to distinguish the 

Australian microhytid genera Cophixaius and Spheno- 

phryne, J. Herpetol 18, 205-207. 

(1986) A reassessment of the Papuan subfamily 

Asterophryinae (Anura: Microhylidae). Roc. S. Aust 
Mus> 19, 405-450. 

& Stocks, R. (1986) A new species of terrestrial 

microhytid frog from Papua New Guinea, Trans. R Soc. 

S. Aust, 110(4), 155-158. 
Dingerkus. G. & Uhler, L, D. (1977) Enzyme clearing 

of aleian blue stained whole small vertebrates for 

demonstration of cartilage. Stain Technology 52. 

Ecker, A. (1889) 'The Anatomy of the Frog"(G. Haslam 

translation). (Clarendon Press, Oxford). 

Emerson. S. B. (1976) A preliminary report on the 
superficial throat musculature of the Microhylidae and 
its possible role in tongue action. Copera 1976, 546-551. 

Jones, E. I. (1933) Observations on the pectoral 
musculature of Amphibia Saiicntia. Ann. Mae, Nat, 
Hist. 12, 403-420. 

Kluge, A. G. (1976) Phylogenctic relationships in the 
lizard family Pygopodidae, an evaluation of theory, 
methods and data. Mist, Pubi Mas. loot. Univ. Mich 
152, 1-72. 

Mehlly, L. v. (1901) Beitrage zur kenntniss der Etigy- 
stomatiden von Ncu-Guinea. Termesz. huzetek. 24, 

Menzies. J. 1. & Tyler, M. J. (1977) The systematics and 

adaptations of some Papuan microhylid frogs which live 

underground. ./. Zool 183, 431-464. 
Parker, H. W. (1934) "A Monograph of the Frogs of the 

Family Microhylidae". (British Museum (Natural 

History), London). 
Zweifel, R. G. & Allison, A, (1982) A new montane 

microhylid frog from Papua New Guinea, and 

comments on the status of the genus Apharuophryne. 

Amer. Mus. Novit. (2723), 1-14. 




byK. L. Gowlett-Holmes 


Transactions of the tinyut Society of S. Aust.. (1990), 114(2), 95-97. 





Cotton & Weeding (1939)' described the chiton, 
Parachiton verconis, from a single posterior valve dredged 
in 1909 off St Francis Island, South Australia, No complete 
specimen of this form has been recorded and, although 
the name has been adopted by various authors- \ they 
note its close resemblance to the eastern Australian species 
Leptochiton (Parachiton) puppis Hull, 1923, and Kaas & 
Van Belle'' suggest that it may be a subspecies of it. Two 
complete specimens of R verconis collected in South 
Australia have been located recently, providing the 
opportunity to compare it with L. (P.) puppis\ it is 
apparent thai the two forms arc conspecific. 

The material reported here is deposited in the Australian 
Museum, Sydney (AM), and the South Australian 
Museum, Adelaide (SAM). Spirit material is preserved in 

2"/o formaldehydc/propylene glycol solution. The radula 
was prepared for examination under a scanning electron 
microscope (SEM) after the method of Bandel 7 . 

Family Uplochitonidae Dall, 1889 

Genus Leptochiton Gray, 1847 

Subgenus Parachiton Thiele, 1909 

Leptochiton (Parachiton) puppis (Hull, 1923) 

FIGS 1-3 

Parachiton puppis Hull, 1923*, p. 158, pi. 24, figs 1-V 
Iredale & Hull, 1925", p. 344, pi. 39, figs 15-19; Ircdale 
& Hull. 1927"', p. 46, pi, 6, figs 15-19 
Lepidop/earus puppis; Ashby, 1924", p. 322. 

Fig. I. Leptochiton (Parachiton) puppis (SAM D18415). A. whole specimen, x 8.5; B. detail of girdle, x 30. 


Parachiton venoms Cotton & Weeding, 1939'. p. 183. pi. 
I.. 2; Cotton & Godfrey, 1940', p. 4X2, tig. 464; 
Col ion & Godfrey, 1940 \ p. 22; Cotton, 1964', p, 21, fig. 

leptochiton (Parachiton) puppis: Kaas, OTT , p. 85; 
Kaas & Van Belle, 1980 1 . p. 107; Kaas & Van Hello, 1985 ', 
p. 169, tig. 78, map 25. 

/ vptochitnn (Parachiton) verconis: Kaas, 1977' \ p. 85; 
Kaas & Van Belle, 1980'. p. 139; Kaas & Van Belle, 1985", 
p. 177, fig. S3, map 25. 
Leptochiton verconis: Zeidler & » 1986 ', p. Ill 

Material examined: Types; Parachiton puppis: Holotype 
(AM C49540) and paratvpe (AM CI 49663), Bottle and 
Glass Point, Vaucluse. N.S.W., coll. A.F.B. Hull * W. 
Barnes. Parachiton verconis: Holotype (SAM D116K9) 
i Minje posterior valve), St Prancis Id. Nuyts Archipelago, 
S. Aust., dredged in 27-37 m (15-20 fm), coll. J- C Verco, 

Other material: SAM D10670(1) from Bottle and Glass 
Rocks, Vaucluse, N.S.W., coll. E. Ashby, 2J.ix.l923; SAM 
DI4929 (1) I'tom off Brighton, S. Aust., dredged in 18 m. 
coll. M Tilbrook,; SAM D18415 (I) from off 
Monument Hill, northern Spencer Gulf, S. Aust., 
(32°50'0O"S, 137°50'52"E), using Smuh-Melntyrc Grab 
dredge in II m, coll. E. Oks, ix.1987. 

Description: A specimen from Bottle and Glass Rocks, 
Vaucluse, N.S.W., was described in detail' . Supplementary 

Stnatl chiton to IS mm (Fig. 1A). Tegmentum with 
aesthetes arranged in semicircular groups, usually of live 
aesthetes, on each of the coalescing pustules of the lirae. 
with the semicircles opening anteriorly (Figs 2A, 2B). 
Posterior valve with postmucronal slope steep, straight to 
slightly concave (Fig. 3). 

On the dorsal girdle, the "goihic candle-like" spicules 
o\ Kaas & Van Belle 1 ' are random, close-set, becoming 
larger and denser toward valves in fresh specimens (Fig 
IB). These spicules are easily dislodged, and usually are 
missing from specimens from older collections. 

Radula (Fig. 2C) with narrow, very elongate central 
teeth, each with median longitudinal ridge, apical edge 
nl head irregular; first lateral teeth narrow, very elongate, 
strongly curved; major lateral teeth elongate, narrow 
nasally* with wide, bluntly tricuspidate heads, central cusp 

Ctcnidia large, merobranchial, adanal without 
interspace, with 10-17 on each side. 

Habitat On and under stones, pebbles and shell 
fragments in sand, imcrtidal to at least 27 m depth. 

Runxv South-eastern Australia, from Vaucluse. central 
N.S.W. to Nuyts Archipelago, western S. Aust.; not 
recorded from Vie or Tas. 

Fjg, 2. Leptochiton (Parachiton) puppis. A. tegmentum 
surface showing coalescing pustules and aesthetes, 
paratvpe, scale bar = 100 fivn (AM CI49663); B. detail 
of tegmentum surface showing aesthetes, paratype, scale 
bar = 20 pm (AM CI4%63); C radula, scale bar = 
100 /mi (SAM D18415). 


ry ^h^[ 0< i hU ^ < p « rachiton )Puppis- Posterior valve lateral profiles. A. holotype (AM C49540); B. paratypc (AM 
C149663); C .Parachiton verconis holotype (SAM D11689); D. (SAM D10670); E. (SAM DI4929); F. (SAM D184IiV 

scale oar = i mm. * ' 

Remarks The main difference between venoms and 
puppis' is fewer granulose lirae on the posterior valve in 
verconis, which was shown to be incorrect hy Kaas& Van 
Belle''. The only other difference given between the two 
forms was the shape of the posterior valve postmucronal 
slope: concave in verconis, straight in puppis. An 
examination of the available specimens has shown 
intergrading between the two extremes (Fig. 3), so this 
feature is .not a consistent difference. Accordingly, 
Parachiton verconis Cotton & Weeding, 1939, is 

considered a synonym of Lepeochiron ( Parachiton f puppis 
(Hull, 1923). 

Kaas & Van Belle*' record L. (PJ puppis from Port 
Stephens, N.S.W., citing a record in Ashby 11 . However, the 
specimen referred to there (probably SAM D10670) is 
stated to have been collected at Bottle and Glass Rocks, 
Vaucluse, so thai record is in error. 

1 thank Mr L Loch (AM) for the loan of the type 
specimens of Parachiton puppis. The photographs were 
taken by Mrs .1. Forrest and Ms A. Rcnfrey (SLM). 

'Cotton, B. C & Weeding, B. J. (1939) Trans. R. Soc. 

S. Aust. 63(2), 180-99. pi. 7. 

'Cnlton, B. G & Godfrey, F. K. (1940) 'The Molluscs 

oi South Australia, Part II: Scaphopoda, Cephalopoda, 

Aplaeophora and Crepipoda." (S. Aust. Govt Pfintcr, 

''Cotton, B. C & Godfrey, K K. (1940) Malac, Soc. 

S. Aust. 2, 1-32. 
^Cotton, B. C (1964) 'South Australian Mollusca: 

Chitons." (S. Aust. Govt Printer, Adelaide). 

Kaas. P. & Van Belle, R, A. (1980) "Catalogue of Living 

Chitons (Mollusca; Polyplacophoia)", (\V. Backhuvs, 

'Kaah, P. & Van Belle, R. A, (1985) "Monograph of 

living chiton$ (Mollusca: Polyplaeophora). Vol. I. Order 

Ncoloricata: Lepidopleurina". (Brill, Leiden). 

Bandel, K. (J984) /ool. Verhandl., Leiden 214, 1-188. 

Hull, A. F. B. (1923) Aust. Zool. 3 T 157-166, pis 24-26. 
'Iredale, T. & Hull, A. F. B. (1925) Aust. Zool. 4(2), 

75-111, pis 9-12. 
''Iredale, T. & Hull, A, F. B. (1927) "A Monograph of 

the Australian lx>ricates (Phylum Mollusca-Order 

Lorkata)." (R. Soc. N.S.W., Sydney). 
'Ashby, E. (1924) Trans, R. Soc. S. Aust. 48, 313-22, pi, 

^Kaas, P, (1977) Basteria 41, 81-86. 
"Zeidler, W. & Gowlelt, K. L. (1986) Rec S. Aust. Mus. 

19(8), 97-115. 

K. I.. GOWLET1-HOLMES, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, Si Aust. 50CK). 


by Mark N. Hutchinson 




herpetofauna of soirra Australia 

HID scincid li/aidv tjfiotopisma iritineaium (Gray, 
1838) from soutrnvestcril and southeastern Australia and 
launafna* and I. plxtynotum <r\?teis, 1881 > from 
tcmpenite eastern Australia tFig. I), have been recognised 
as clout relative* united as the I. trifiimmm species 
group', The southern Australian Uxon, /* IriHfiwtum, 
was subsequently divided una iwti species*- The name L 
(riHneatum was restricted to the southwest, and 
population* from southeaster* Australia were as»gned to 
?, xtltperreyi(Gny, !&)&), TlieL tritinctttum species gtoup 
hdongs to the *., bttwfini group, one of rwo assemblages 
witrwn AusitttuaS Lvirtfopkma r*d)aijon\ and has also 
been regarded as the sister lineage lo Proabiepfurrus and 
Moret hia . 

South Australian popubi ions, distributed in coastal and 
temperate habitats from Kangaroo Island to the Victorian 
border, ait conform to i. duperreyt in having well 
developed lateral siripe-d patterning, including a white 
rnidlaieral uxipe edged below by a Mark line, and a narrow 
huf prominent white dorsolateral tine along the middle 
of scale raw 3 from the level of the ear to the base of the 
tail, thest populations represent the western limit of L 
itupetreyi, while the eastern IJmU of L. Irtimeatum is at 
the western end of the Great Australian Bight (Western 
Australian Museum (WAM) RV1637, Biftbunya Dunes 
-vest or" Point Culver). No records of either species had 
been made from the intervening, arid terrain of the 
Bight 1 ' 1 *'\ 

During April May 1988. two specimens of the L 
Irltineatuw spews group were collected on the lussicu 
Peninsula, at the up of the Eyre Peninsula, The first, 
I Museum of Victoria) NMV D60934. a female of *2 mm 
SVL. from Vfonna, at the eastern end of Stcafotd Bay. 
was collected hy S. Dounellan and G, Armstrong- The 
second, NMV D50955. mate of 63 nun SVL, from Just 
south of Taylor's t -finding on the east coast of (lie Jussieu 
Peninsula, was collected by the author and D. Pollock 
Both specimens were collected from clumps of * coastal 
shrub. Catopcphuha krtlWHtt tAsteracea-el, growing on 
rocky ground a few metres from coastal cliff edges 
CitioccptitflHs lumis muuded hummocks up n> 90cm high 
and 1 rn or moic in diameter and*, nt this area, provides 
3 humid, shaded refuge for a variety ol reptile*. 

tit colour pattern, die rwo specimens conform to L. 
Jriiineatum, not tnc nearby Kangaroo Island / tlnperte,\\ 
and thus represent the first S, AusL records for i.. 
lritinettiumsensti stncio. The lateral pattern [| diffuse wtrh 
no dark-edged white rmdlateral stripe, and 3 rclatrvtdy 
pootly contesting pale brown dorsolateral stripe which 
is broad (running along the ottier half of scale- row > and 
the upper third of scale row 4) ana fades posteriorly. The 
dorsal scale rows have dark pigment at their coiner*, 
forming a series of narrow dark dorsal lines, but there 
is no strongly developed vertebral Mack stripe- (typical of 
L. dUperreyiy 

In fcalarion, the two specimens diverge frftffl ihc 
ttdtSCdtytatr in the numtrei of ptiravertebial scales 

Specimens of i, tnJineotum from between Augusta and 
Esperanee (the centre of the species' range) examined by 
Greer di ffercd from L. duperreyi in thw paravertebral scale 
count* within sexes showed minimal overlap Male /, 
trttirteatum ranged 54-S9 ix 56.3) paravertebral, compared 
with 57-62 tx 5V.6I for mate L. duperreyi. while in females 
the counts were 56-61 (x 59.8) and 62-66 tx 64,1), 
rcspeciively. Greer* standardized (he method of counting 
paravertebral scales, starting at the first scale behind 
a line joining the hack of the thighs and finishing with 
the enlarged nuchal adjoining ihe paiwral Vising this 
metbod, the Eyre Peninsula male has 60 paravertebral* 
and the female 6L so that lite male falls in Greer's 
duperreyt range of values. However, examination of 
specimens from the most geogiaphicajly proximate W.A- 
population** of L. trilineatum least of Esperanee) shows 
that males can range as high as 60 paravertebrals fWAM 
R68223, Mondram Is. Recherche Arcbipelago>, aiid 
females as high as 63 (WAM R41927, ol Mt U 

The ohsctvation that Uie paravertebral scale count 
differences are not as absolute as first thought Joes not 
diminish the likelihood that Ihe eastern and western 
populations represent two distinct specie*. The great 
consistency in colour pattern along more than 1,000 tci/> 
of the Bight coastline, followed by the abrupt SWllcfc 
between the Fyre Peninsula and the Kangaroo 1 ■.i.-imi 
population,, plus die fact that paravertebral counts are suit 
sienificantiy different bnween tbe two, argue 1 ; for their 
genetic independenc-;. 

In life, neither specimen had red throat colouring. The 
presence of bright ootour patches in Eugon&yius group 
skinks oiay or may not be sexually significant, and the 
status of this character in the L tfiiinevrtum species croup 
is confused, Greer 1 icported that red colouring occurs in 
"kMh sexes and all age groups'* (tl the species of the L. 
Jriiineatum group, and later* noted that I. (rihneatum 
he collected appeared to vary seasonally or geographically: 
specimens collected in mid October from Esperance lacked 
red colouring, while the colour was present in all specimens 
(li = 9, sex not specified) collected tour days later from 
Augusta. In my experience, however, red throat colouring 
is found only in mature males, not females, of all three 
species of the L iritintoium group, and unmatured f a - 
leist one species also have red colmunng on the sides of 
die jaws and neck, The distribution of red throat colouring 
is nm only of imxinsic interest, but may also have a bearing 
on the relationships of the /.. trih'neatttm species Eroup. 
Table 1 summarizes rhe known occurrence of red colour 
patches in the members of the L trititteatum specc* group, 
tn L. duperreyi, at least in Victoria and Tasmania, alt 
juveniles of both sexes hatch with pink to orange-red 
patches on each side of the neck and over the ear opening 
tRounsevell 6 and persjobs,! This colour is lost at sevual 
tnaturitv, which ncetm at about 50-55 mm snoui-\*nt 
length A Breeding rials (late <*pn ng-*ummer> develop 
bright veartet throat colouring. on the chin and gular scales. 


l-'ig, I. Distributions of Leiolopisma trilineatum (solid circles) and L. duperreyi (triangles). Arrow indicates 
.lussieu Peninsula area where S.A. i. trilineatum were collected (after Greer 1980 1 ). 

but not extending to the "juvenile" position around the 
ears. Females do not redevelop red colouring. Observations 
on the presence or absence of red colouring are not 
available For juveniles of L. trilineatum and L. 
platynotum, breeding female /., trilineatum and non- 
breeding male L. platynotum. 

A gradient in the timing of reproductive activity (and 
the development of red throat colouring) in L trilineatum 
has been noted 9 , with populations in warmer parts of the 
species range (around Perth) breeding earlier (mid to late 
spring) than more southerly populations (summer). This 
suggests that the observation of variation in t. trilineatum 
throat colouring may be due to climatic differences across 
the area, such that specimens from the cooler area 
(Esperance) were not yet in breeding condition and so 
lacked red colouring. 

Thus the evidence available to me strengthens the 
hypothesis of a close relationship between the L. 
trilineatum species group and Morethia\ since in both 
taxa, red pigmentation is limited in adults to males. 
Another point helping to reinforce this relationship is the 
presence of occasional scale anomalies that link the two 

groups. In the female L. trilineatum from Wanna (NMV 
050954), the postnasal scales arc distinct and there is a 
partial posterior separation of the supranasals, character 
states retained in most Morethia but usually absent in the 
L. trilineatum species group. As Greer suggested, based 
on a similarly aberrant specimen of L. plaiynotum, the 
supranasal and postnasal scales have apparently been lost 
via fusion with the nasal. In one of the W.A. L. trilineatum 
examined (AVAM R77956, 13 km W of Point Dempster), 
the interparietal shield, which is usually distinct in the/.. 
trilineatum group, has fused with the single frontoparietal, 
forming the single large plate typical of Morethia. 

The presence of L, trilineatum on the tip of the F.yre 
Peninsula adds to a group of reptiles apparently wide- 
spread during glacial rimes across the eool, semi-arid plain 
exposed along the southern margin of the Australian 
continent, but reduced to disjunct or relict ual near-coastal 
pockets since Ihe post-glacial rise in sea level. This group 
of species includes Egemta muhistutata, Hemierm 
peronii, Leiolopisma trilineatum. L. baudini, Lensta 
arenicola, L. dorsaiis, L. terdigituiu, Gemmutophora {- 
Amphibolurus) norrisi, Notechis ater, Drysdaliu masters/, 

TABLE 1. Distribution of red colour markings in members of the L. trilineatum species group. 

(-); absent; (?): not known. 


L, duperreyl 
L. platynotum 
L. trilineatum 

males females 

breeding non-brccding breeding non-breeding 



throat and 
sides of neck 

throat and 
.sides of neck 

sides of 
neck and jaws 


and possibly others such as Aprasia striotata and some 
species pairs like Tympanocryptis adelaklensis — T. 
diemensis and Egernia lucluosa — E. canveniryi. L. trilin- 
eatum is like several of these .species in that it was first 
believed to be restricted to W.A. but has since proven to 
be patchily distributed well to the east, In most biogeo- 
graphic schemes for southern Australia, a southwestern 
region encompassing the higher rainfall areas is usually 
jvhown terminating at the beginning of the Great Australian 


Bight (Israelite Bay area), while a southeastern (Bassian) 
region extends west to Kangaroo Island or the southern 
tip of the Eyre Peninsula' 1 l0h . In fact the pattern of 
reptile distributions along the southern coast now suggests 
that the Eyre Peninsula area, rather than the western end 
of the Bight, represents the major point of changeover 
from a southwestern to a southeastern reptile fauna. 

'Greer, A. E. (1980) Rcc. Aust. Mus. 33, 89-122, 
'Greer, A. E. (1982) Ibid. 34, 549-573. 

Rawlinson, P, A. (1974) Biogeography and ecology of 

the reptiles of Tasmania and the Bass Strait area. In 

Williams, W. D. (Ed.), "Biogeography and Ecology in 

Tasmania", (W. Junk, The Hague). 
^Schwaner, T. D. t Miller, B. A Tyler, M. J. (1985) Reptiles 

and amphibians. In Twidale, C. R., Tyler, M. J. & Davies, 

M. (Eds), "Natural History of Eyre Peninsula" (Royal 
.Society of South Australia, Inc., Adelaide). 

Storr, G. M, Hanlon, T M. S. & Harold, G. (1981) Rec 

West. Aust. Mus. 9, 23-39. 
^Rounsevell, D. (1978) Tasmanian Nat. (52), 1-2. 
'Pengilley, R. K. (1972) Systematic relationships and 

ecology of some lygosominc lizards from southeastern 

Australia. Unpubl. PhD thesis, Dept of Zoology, A.N.U, 

^Hudson, S. C (1988) Phalangeal growth rings as a 
method of aging for scincid lizards, and its application 
to the study of life history in Leioiopismo entrecasieauxit 
and I. duperreyi. Unpubl. B.Sc.(Hons) thesis. Dept of 
Zoology, La Trobc University, Bundoora. 
Dell, J., pers. comm., January, 1989. 
"'Keast, A. (1959) The reptiles of Australia. In Keast, A., 
Crocker, R. L. & Christian, C. S. (Eds), "Biogeography 
and Ecology in Australia", (W, Junk, The Hague). 
Hem wok, H. (1987) Major components and distri- 
butions of the terrestrial fauna. In Dyne, G. R. & Walton, 
D. W. (Eds), "Fauna of Australia, Vol. 1A, General 
Articles", (Aust. Govt Publ. Serv., Canberra). 

MARK N. HUTCHINSON. School of Biological Sciences, I.a Trobe University, Bundoora Vic 3083. Present 
address: South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, S. Ausl 5000, 


byN. S. Pledge & T. Sadler 


Ihw\«umn\ of ihc HuvalS»Hun ■ ,.f S rlWft, P'Wfl), ||4(2) ( 103-Nft, 



The lagantd sea urchin, A?ww/te lesueuh, cummiy 

lives Eta the *eas from the Maldives to New Zealand and 
north to Hong Kong- On (he Australian coastline it occurs 
from Albany in Western Australia, north around the 
tropical coast io Port Demson (Bomn, Qnectwladtf) in 
the cast' Jt is known bom the Miocene of lava and occurs 
Id BBvera] places tinin the Pliocene in the fndo-AuMralian 
area.- Ii has no) been recorded previously, extant 01 foStdli 
in South Australia. 

Over die past few years, excavations foi foundations 
and site works for the new Northern Power Station at Pot t 
AuguttB have resulted it. a variety of Quaternary fossils 
nemg brought to the South Australian Museum for 
identification. Amongst them have been a number of large 
sand dollai sea urchins, which have been acquired from 
Several sources, mosi notably Messrs tohn Turner and Dcs 

These eehinoids were derived 1'iom a creamy yellow-grey 
silly day dredged during excavation of (he large cooling 
water channel " , . from a depth of about 7-Km |p 
yellowish mud, below a black mud, and above a clean sand 
and hard, btowi. day. The bottom o\' the channel is 
limestone at about 14m ".- To .letennine more accurately 
the sfratiyraphic position of the eehinoids, access was 
gained to the study reports- 1 on the geology of the new 
powe. station site and to the core held m the S.A. Hera 
Mines and Fncrgy Core Library. 

The sequence can be matched in some of the horcs 
drilled, though not all because of rafhet rapid lateral 
changes concommiuifil with its nearshorcesiuaimc setting. 
The mamv matches those segments of the bore-cores 
intcrpteted as Bakara GaJcceie although no direct evidence 
of eehinoid remains wys picsent. It IS probably equivalent 
to Ihe "soft mottled sandy day'* just below the Glanville 

Shell-. o( the Sydney blood cockle Anadatv trapezia 
occur in the sand dredged wjlh Ihe eehinoids. 
Unlortuiialcly they are 1101 found togerher in the same 
lump of tnatnv ami ihcit irue relationship has been 
obscured h> excavation, A trapezia is abundant in the 
(jlflnvitlc formation elscwhcie, equivalent of Hie Bakara 
t 'alctcic.' 1 I tic age of the eehinoids is therefore considered 
10 be Late Pleistocene, possibly of I he last Pleistocene high 
sea level 

Nine moMly complete specimens and tlumcRtux 
segments- have been collected (Table I). 


Class Lchinoidca 

Order Clypeasieruidca A. Agassi? 

Family Laganidac A. Agassi/ 

Genus Penme/lu Gray 

Peronelta (esueuri (I . Agassi/, IK41) 
Peromelia tesla-un august a subsp, nm 

Laganum tesueun i . Agassi/, |B4I: lift, pi 24, %* 3-J8? 

Peronctla lesueuti A. Agassiz, 1872: |4(J.« 

Huhtvpe: P24854, South Australian Museum, 
comprising a complete test. 

Diagnosis: Medium to large size, thin, elongate, oval; 
broadest jusi anterior of ihc apical disc, tapered behind, 
orally slightly concave. Notched onangcntially flattened 
at marginal ends ot ambulacra. Apical area raised, almost 
central; petals narrow elongate, open, length 0.5-0.7 of 
radius, petals reduced to single pores apically and end 
SOrtje distance from the genital pores, between paired pores 
miliary tubereules only; four genital pores all within the 
madreporilc. the posteiior two placed wider apart. 
Peristome anterior of centre; amhulacral food gooves 
short, with (he anterior groove 10% of length on the 
holotype. Periproci 6% of length from posterior margin. 
lobular ornamentation fine, regular, twice as dense 
dorsal! y as ventral ly. 

Comment: Morphologically, Peronctla lesueuri appears 
Io be quite vai "lable and although two varieties have been 
described 1 the species is clearly in need of revision, The 
specimens described here differ consistently From ft 
lesueurt tesueun in that they are concave orally, rapcred 
behind, have a lest margin that borders on rlic Iran 
estreme, and Ihe petals reduce to single pores apicaliy. 
These specimens differ from & te,\ueuri var. rosttata, 
extant in the Philippines, in that they arc broader relative 
io length, the tapering of the test posteriorly does not reach 
the extremes of ibis variety, nor do the series of pore pairs 
reach the genital pore* and ihc genital pores are within 
the inadrcporife rather than on the margin 

I 7V J , )/wT7?'' '■' / r P / L ' rOIR ' ,la k '^' UM i, "* H!sla v// ^ r "" l " N ' tSoHeeUfm number. South Australian Museum; 
I. toHHitut/wuJ diameter; T, transverse diameter; H, height Ait measurements in millimetre* 















rlJ feslj 

I 1 ) A 




35.7 test) 













Fig. 1. Perunelta tesueuri au S usta subsp. nov. (a) apical view SAM P24K54, (b) adapical view SAM P24852, Scale = 1cm. 

The specimens differ from P. tesueuri var gatiiuna, 
evtanl in Singapore and ihe Strait of Malacca, in thai the 
shape of the test is elongate rather than rounded, the 

margin being thin, the shape of the pore pairs and that 
they are separated only by miliary tubercules rather than 
interrupted by primary tubercules. 

1 Morlensen, T.H. (1948) "A Monograph of the 
Echinoidea." Part IV(2), Clypeastroida. (ReiUel, 

2 Durham, J.W. (1955) Untv. Calif. Public. Geol. Sci., 31, 

a Turner, J. (1984) Pers. comm. 

4 Selby, J., Waterhouse, J.D. & Jones, G. (1976) Proposed 
Northern Power Station, Play ford South site. Port 
Augusta. Preliminary geological and botanical 
investigations. Unpub. Report. S. Aust. Dept Mines. 
Rept. Bk. 76/69. 

5 Selby, J. & Milner, G. (1981) Q. Geol. Notes, Geol. Surv: 
S. Aust. 77, 1-7. 

6 Firman, .1. (1969) Quaternary Period. In Parkin, L.W. 
(ed. "Handbook of South Australian Geology," (Geol. 
Surv, S. Aust., Adelaide.) 

7 Agassiz, L. (1841) "Monographies d'echinodermes: des 
Scutelles." (Neuchaiel en Suisse.) 

s Agassiz, A. (1872) "Illustrated Catalogue of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, No. 7. 
Revision of the Echini." (Univ. Press, Cambridge.) 

N,S. PLEDGE & T. SADLER, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, S. Aust 



by Mark N. Hutchinson 


Transactions of the Royal Society of S. AusL, (1990), 114(2), 105. 



The elevation of Castiarina to genus 1 and the transfer 
of Hypostigmodera variegata Blackburn (1892) 2 to it, has 
created the need of a replacement name for one species. 
Stigmodera (Castiarina) variegata Barker (1983) 3 
becomes a secondary homonym. I propose that the latter 
taxon be replaced with C interstincta, derived from 
interstinctus L. "variegated". 

In addition Stigmodera (Castiarina) deliciosa Barker 
(1988) 4 is a primary homonym of Stigmodera deliciosa 
Kerremans (1898) 5 and I propose the younger name be 
replaced with C beatrix, derived from beatrix L. "she that 
makes happy". 

'Gardner, J. (1990) Invert. Taxon. % 291-361 

'Blackburn, T. (1892) Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust 15 


^Barker, S. (1983) Trans. R. Soc. 5. AusL 107, 139-169. 

^Barker, S. (1988) Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 112, 133-142 
Kerremans, C (1898) Annls Soc. ent. Beig. 42, 113-182. 

S. BARKER, Department of Zoology, University of Adelaide, Box 498, G.P.O., Adelaide, S. Aust. 5001. 

VOL. 114, PARTS 3 & 4 
30 NOVEMBER, 1990 

Transactions of the 

Royal Society of South 



Wells, A. New species and a new genus of micro-caddisfly from northern Australia, 
including the first Australian record of the tribe Stactobiini 
(Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) - - - - - - - 107 

Koste, W. & Shiel, R. J. Rotifera from Australian inland waters. VI. Proalidae, Lindiidae 

(Rotifera: Monogononta) -------- 129 

McDonald, K. R. & Davies, M. Morphology and biology of the Australian tree frog 

Litoria pearsoniana (Copland) (Anura: Hylidae) - - - 145 

Twidale, G R., Parkin, L. W. & Rudd, E. A. C. T. Madigan's contributions to Geology 

in South and Central Australia 157 

Barker, S. New species of Castiarina (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and redescriptions of 

C. diversa (Kerremans) and C. elderi (Blackburn) - - - 169 

Lee, D. C & Shepherd, K. J. Magnobates (Acarida: Cryptostigmata: Haplozetidae) 

from South Australian soils ------- 179 

McDonald, K. R. Rheobatrachus Liem and Taudactylus Straughan & Lee (Anura: 
Leptodactylidae) in Eungella National Park, Queensland: 
distribution and decline - - 187 

Hartmann-Schroder, G. & Parker, S. A. First Australian records of the family 

Pisionidae (Polychaeta), with the description of a new species - 195 

Hartmann-Schroder, G. & Parker, S. A. First Australian record of Hesionura 

(Polychaeta: Phyllodocidae), with the description of a new species 203 

Davies, M. & Richards, S. J. Developmental biology of the Australian hylid frog 

Nyctimystes dayi (Giinther) ------- 207 

Read, J. L. & Tyler, M. J. The nature and incidence of post-axial, skeletal abnormalities 
in the frog Neobatrachus centralis Parker at Olympic Dam, South 
Australia - - - - - 213 

Campbell, R. A. & Beveridge, I. Pseudochristianella (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha), a 
new genus for Tentacularia minuta (Van Beneden, 1849) sensu 
Southwell, 1929 and its relationships with the family 
Eutetrarhynchidae --------- 219 

Brief Communications: 

Bird, P. & Tyler, M. J. First South Australian record of the fossorial leptodactylid 

frog genus Uperoleia Gray - 223 

Twidale, C R. & Bourne, J. A. Comment: Preliminary investigations of beach ridge 

progradation on Eyre Peninsula and Kangaroo Island - - 225 
Short, A. D M Buckley, R. C & Fotheringham, D. G. Reply: Preliminary investigations 

of beach ridge progradation on Eyre Peninsula and Kangaroo Island 227 
Johnston, G. R. Cyclorana maini and Notaden sp: additions to the frog fauna of South 

Australia ---------- 229 






VOL. 114, PART 3 





by A. Wells* 


Twenty-two further species are recognised in the Australian Hydroptilidae, all from northern 
Australia and, with the exception of Oxyethira bogambara, all newly described. For the first time a 
stactobiine species (in Chrysotrichia) is recorded and also a new monotypic genus, Jabitrichia gen. 
nov., probable sister group to Oxyethira. Other new species include two in Oxyethira, six in 
Hellyethira, two in Acritoptila, one in Orphninotrichia and eight in Orthotrichia. Information is 
given on immatures of several species, some new and others established. For the latter, new data on 
ranges also are supplied. 
KEY WORDS: Taxonomy, Trichoptera, Hydroptilidae, Stactobiini, Northern Australia, new genus. 

fcvAflWftffs oj the- Koyal Society oj $, Aust.. (,mo\. 1U(J), 107 ?;; 




hy A. Wfci_us* 

Summary, A. (I9W) New species and a new genus of mtcto-caddisfly from northern Australia, including 
the Australian record of (he iribe Suetohiini. Trans. H Soc # Aiiv- U4(3k I07-I2S, 30 November. 1990. 
Twenty-two fun her species are recognised in the Australian Hvdroptilidne, all from northern Australia 
and, with the exception of Oweihtru bo&mibitni. all newly described. For the first time a: stactobiine species 
(in ChfXS&tftfftW to recorded and also a new monoiypic genus, Jabkriehia gen. nov., probable sister group 
to Oxypihira. Other new species include two in Oxyethira, six in Hcltyerfuro^ two Ijf Achtopnlo. one In 
Otphnt/iorriihiu and jnglu in Onhtitnchtu. Information is given on itnmHiurcs of several SppctoS, same 
new and others established. Kor (he latter, new data on ranges bUo are supplied. 

Km Words: Taxonomy, TrichojHcro, Hydropriltdae, Stactobunt, Northern Australia, new genu* 


The basic composition ot the Australian 
Hydropttlidae (Trichoplera) appeared to be known 
until recent intensive collecting in northern Australia 
revealed several new clement, as w<-|l as more 
species in established gamps. Now. an Oriental-New 
Guincan £enus in a tribe hitherto unknown in 
Australia and a new monoiypic genua are repotted. 
Both represent significant additions to the fauna. 

Wells 11986 ) commented on the relatively 
restricted nature of Australian Hydroplihdae, 
apparently comprising only two Hydroptilinae 
rnbes, Hydroptilini and OrthotnehimL Several 
genera in the tribe Stactobiini were known from SL 
Asia, but none from Australia or New Guinea. 
More recently, three stactobiinc gencia have been 
reported from New Guinea (Wells I990b>, and now 
a species in Cftrysoutvhnt Schmid is described from 
NE Australia, 

Another new species from northern Australia 
keys tu Hydroptila Dal man with which it shares the 
derived teatures (Wells 1986*) of tibial spur 
formula 0,2.4. and ocelli absent. Yet in general wing 
shape and venation, form of male and female 
genitalia, and presence of abundant sensttfa 
auria'llitv on antenna! segments of males, it mote 
closely resembles members of Oxyvthint Eaton, 
which has three ocelli and usually tibial spurs 0.3.4. 
Arguments are given for the establishment ot a new 
genus, perceived as the sister group of O.xycthira, 
and the presence of this taxon is discussed in 

Department ol'Zoologv, Universitv of Adelaide, ti.HO 
Bon -t l >8, Adelaide, S.*Au*t. 5001*. 
Wells, A. (1986) The systematic* and biogeoexaphy oi 
the Australian Hydropiilidae (Trichopiera). Ph.D. thesis, 
University or Adelaide (unpubl.). 

relation to representation c\ Oxyethiro subgenera 
in Australia. 

Among others described in this paper, is a species 
in Orphninotrtchta Mosely, an endemic genus 
previously unknown to the northwesl of the Great 
Dividing Range, although common and diverse in 
the southeast and occurring in the south-central 
region. A torrentieolous group, it is probably not 
surprising to find a member, possibly a component 
of a lelietual Gondwanan fauna, in a small 
monsoon forest stream at the loot of the Kakadu 
Escarpment From this same locality, a specie* is 
referred to O.xyethiru (irivhogiene), the most 
primitive of (he Oxyethira subgenera; it most closely 
resembles a New Caledonian species, Oxyethira 
insulurb Kelley. 

Additional to the above, are a second and highly 
irregular new species m Oxyethint, and ihe first 
Australian records of the widespread Oriental O, 
bogotvhara Schmid. Descriptions arc given also of 
new species in the almosf-cosmopoliian 
Orthorrkhia Eaton, and in the Australian -E Asian 
Heilyethira Nebous, genera which together 
comprise mOie than half (he Australian hydroptilid 
fauna; and two new species are referred to the 
Australian- New Caledonian genus, Acriwpnla 
Wells. Information on miniatures is supplied when 
available, and is included for several established 
species, previously unknown from larvae and/or 
pupae. Ranges of these species are extended. 

Twenty-one new species are described, and with 
O, bogambiira, they raise the Australian 
Hydropttlidae to ill; tribal representation increases 
to three, all in the subfamily Hydroptilinae. 
Compared with about 340 species in all other 
irichopieran families in Australia (Ncboiss 1988), 
hvUropltltds appear extraordinarily well represented. 
However, work in prugrcss on other families (e,g. 



fcenomidae. Leptocertdae, and Hydropsyehictae: 
Cartwright, Neboiss, St Clair & Dean in prep.) will 
shirt the emphasis and result in a mote realistic 
picture of the faund 

Motenuls unil MHhotls 

Methods follow those of Wells (1979a, 1990a), All 
holotypes and some para types were prepared as 
permanent slide mounts in Canada halsam. 

Material sLudied includes light trap collections 
from Yuecabme Creek, NF. Queensland ( Benson & 
faaouft 19K8), and Alligator Riven region. 
Northern Tetritoiy. collected from (985-198*? 
Samples of immature* were collected from ilie latter 
area, and fur several species larvae have been 
associated with adults using pharate adults, larval 
exuviae and eases. Reappraisal af Benson & 
Pearson'* (19X8) material has resulted in changes 
10 several identifications and these arc ind>c;iicd for 
jbe species involved, One new species from NW 
Western Australia is described. 

No keys to genera or species arc given as this *s 
essentially a miscellaneous set of species. 

Depositories are abbreviated as follows: 
Museum of Victoria, Melbourne (NMV); Museum 
and Art Galleries "of the Northern Territory Darwin 
i.NTM)i National Museum of Natural History, 
Washington, DC, (USNM). West Australian 
Museum (WAM). 


Chrysofrk'hia Schmid 

Chry.\o(rt\:hia Schmid, 1958. p. 54. Type species: 
( hnsofnehia /WfM/gwfcr Schmid. by original designation. 

Cluysomehia ranees from Pakistan to New 
Guinea (Wells 1990b) and has been collected from 
beside slow; lowland stream* (Schmid 1958) and 
Taster first order streams (Weils 1990a. i990h); 
laivae have been collected from cocks in streams. 
Chrysnlrich'ta austrulis sp. nov. closely resembles C 
iooiow Wells from the Central and Highlands. 
provinces of New Guinea (Weils 1990b) and 
prnbably evolved from relatively recent emigrants 
to Australia. 

Chrvxoirichix suitratii sp. nov. 

Holotyfw: NMV, a, NF Qld, Yucvabinc Creek, 
i,I98C\ R, G. Pearson & L. J. Benson. 
Diagnosis; ClOsety resembling C. totnara in furnt 

of male genitalia, but distinguished by inferior 
appendages more attenuate apically, and dorsal. 
plate with a V~slmped apical cleft, 

Description: Male. Anterior wing length, 1.3 ram, 
Genitalia, big. I. Segment IX short. Dorsal place 
elongate, longer than inferior appendages a V* 
shaped cleft apically. Aedeagtis slender, with paired 
spines apico-lateralJy. Inferior appendages broad- 
based, attenuate apically. Female and immatures 

Distribution: Known only from the type locality, 
northeastern Qld. 

Etymology; From the Latin - oifstratis - southern. 
being the southern-most occurrence of the genus. 

Jabitrkhin gen. nov, 

Type species: Jabarichia dostinet gen. et sp. nov. 

A new genus is erected to accommodate a species 
otherwise requiring considerable modification of 
the generic definitions of Hydroptila or Oxytlhirc, 
with each of which it shares some derived 

Juhitrichia gen. nov. shares with Hydropiila the 
apomorphous states of ocelli absent and tibial spur 
formula 0,2,4, as well as pattern of winy colour and 
form of thoracic scutellae, The long anterolateral 
apodemes on abdominal segment IX. seen in male 
Jabitridna gcn t nov., arc found in the Holarctic 
HrwoiiJes group in Hydroptila (Marshall J979), 
although not in other groups. Yet, wings strongly 
attenuated, forewing without jugal lobe, antenna! 
segments with dense sensitla aurieithcu, lemafe 
genitalia in form of a modified oviscapt, and 
particular reductions of male genitalic structures are 
apomoiphics uniting the new genus with Oxywhtrt;; 
spur formula 0,2*4 and aedeagtis without titillate* 
occur in some OxvetJurv, although not together. 
The rounded or triangular forward projcciion of 
the antero-ventral margin of abdominal segment IX 
of males and the uniquely flask-shaped case of larva 
and pupa are autapomorphies otOxyethim - as yet 
immatures of the new genus are unknown. 

Spur number and presence of ocelli seem to be 
labile characters in Hydroptilidae, and in a 
somewhat different situation, with an ocelli-lesj 
New Guinean species which otherwise conforms 
with Seel of richia 1 3 1 m e r, 1 arg ucd agm ns 1 
establishing a separate genus- (Wells 1V90b). With 
this present species and Hydroptila, however, Eta 
synapomorphies are probably homoplastic, The 
closet association, indicated by sharing of derived 
states of more conservative characters, is thus with 
Oxyelhirn t and since several autapornorphous 
conditions can be recognised in each (axon, a new 
genus is erected. 

I'xamination of characteristics of suh-genera in 
Qxvethira (see Kelley I9SM) reveals resemblances 
between member s 01 O. t f/h-fyo^lene/ and 



Jabsirichiit dostinei gen, et sp. iiov, fit general form 
of male genitalia. Ifi lateral view, abdominal 
segment IX of each i& similar in shape, although 
in ventral view the anterior margin of the segment 
h modified in Oxyethtro while Juhitnchta is closer 
to the primitive form for the family. According to 
Kelley tl9S4}, some members of O. (JHchogietJe) 
have lost the titillate* on the acsieagus and in others 
it Is present as a vestigial rod. The elaborately curved 
spine associated with the aedea^us of Jabttrtvhta 
gen. now may be derived from the tiriltator. 

O, (Trk'hoglcneh the most primitive sub-genus 
in Oxyethim (Kelley 1984), is Australasian, 
occurring mainly in sou | hem and eastern Australia, 
and in New Zealand and New Caledonia (Kelley 
1^89). A new species in this subgenus. Q cornutata 
sp. nov, described here from the Alligator Rivers 
Region in the north, most closely resembles a 
species lrom New Caledonia; this is the species in 
what I believe is a relictual fauna in the small 
monsoon forest stream. All other Oxyethim to the 
west of the dividing range in northern Australia are 
in I he relatively highly derived Q. (Durnpjiirichiu), 
several ranging from SF. Asia through New Guinea 
to Australia, 1 have suggested previously (Wells 
IW7) that O. (TYtchoztMe) probably evolved in 
Gondwanaland and that in Australia £>. 
(Datnpfaricha) represents a relatively recent at rival 
from the Oriental region. Juiyitrichia gen. nov, 
appears to be the sister group of Oxyethira, 
surviving in northern Australia in what could well 
have been the habitat (Weils 19S7) of their common 
ancestor - the warm,, macrophylc-rieh. billabong 
that seasonally becomes a slow-Uowing, warm 
stream. With the initial dichotomy, the ancestor Of 
Oxyethim may have invaded coolei, faster-flowing 

Diagnosis- A sister group to Oxyethim, but differing 
in absence of ocelli, and in the male having slender 
ameiior apndemes on segment IX. 
Description; Adults, Head <Ftg. 3) without ocelli, 
tentorium complete, tentorial arms reduced to fine 
threads medial!), antennae of male wirh basal whorl 
of fimbriate hair and dense sensiito uuriaiita? on 
flagellar segments. Thorax (Fig. 3) with 
mcsoscutellum convex anteriorly, metascutclium 
tnangular; tibial spur formula 0,2,4; wings nar row, 
attenuate apically, vesuture fuscous anteriorly, pale 
cream posteriorly, anterior wing withoul jugal lobc> 
with fork 2 only (Fig. 2). Male genitalia; no mesal 
process on segment VII; segment IX short dorsally, 
with slender antero-laieral apodemes produced 
forwards (a^ form seen in Stactobiini), posterior 
margin forming stout lateral processes; dorsal plate 
(lergHe- X) and subeenital plates absent; aedeagus 
without initiator (may be represented by cursed, 
elongate spine). Female genitalia a modified 

uviscapi (as m Oxyethira); bursa copulalri* sloulJy 

Immatutes unknemn. 

Comments: Knowu only liom a single species 
collected at lights beside the slow-flowing inlet to 
a large, shallow billabong that supports a rleh 
growth ul macrophytes, northeastern NT. 
EtywoJogy; Derived from Jabiru. the name of the 
township near the collecting locality. 

,hbit*ichr-i dostiaei gen et sp. nov. 
FIGS 2-7 

Hohrype: NTM, cr, N.T.,Gutungul CreeV at inlet 
to Gutungul Billabong, 12*38 S, 132°53'E. 
17.V.198B, Lt Tr.. A. Wells & ft Sulci. 
Pantlypes. NX: NTM, 9 (allotype), collected Willi 
holotype; NTM, NMV, 6 cr P\ same loc, U.iv.89, 
Wells & Suter; NMV. I o\ Jabiru, Ranger Retention 
Pond 1. 20x88, Wells & Sutcr. 
Diagnosis: As for the genus. 
Description: Medium sized; pale, fuscous and 
cream. Male (Figs 2,3, 5-7). Anterior wing length, 
1. 8 mm. Antennae 32-segiucnted, segments 
elongate. Genitalia, Figs 5-7. Sterniie IX about as 
long as wide, retracted within segment Vlli. 
posrero-laieral processes on segment IX stout, 
curved inwards, truncate apically; antero-laieral 
apodemes elongate, produced forwards into 
segment VI. Paired small sub-triangular veniro- 
lateral structures probably represent inferior 
appendages. Aedeagus swollen basally, const rictcd 
medially and expanded in distal hair, a complex 
spine arises me.sally, extends beyond apex to curve 
sharply anteriorly. Female. Length of anterior wing, 
2.J mm. Antennae 21-segmented. segments without 
si anricitticQ. Genitalia, Fig, 4. Terminalla stoui. 
Sternite IX broadly rounded posteriorly. Bursa 
copulatrix stout. 
J m matures unknown. 

Distribution: Known only from the type locality and 
a macrophyte-rich settling pond. Alligator River.% 
region, NT. 

Etymology: Named for P. Destine who collected 
litres of uthet c;tddi.<flies. 

Qrphtitrtotrfchtti Mosely 
Orphfunairithia \tosel\, 1934, p. |JB; Mostly & 
Kimrninj lv5:% p, sir*, -wvits J9S0. p. 628, IVWb, p. 644. 
Jype species Qrphn'motnchia mu%.uhvo Mosclv* by 
original designation, 

Nine species in this endemic .genus have been 
described previously. The type species. 
Orphmnotrtchia tvttcufattt. is wjdesptead [itrrrt 
50ulh-cenrralS.A ( Tits., EVic.toSEQld. All others 
appear to be narrowly distributed although thwr 





I \ : 


■ 1 



1 i 


■'■ * 


- i 
j ■! 




lack of attraction to light may have led to a false 
implosion oi their distributions. One species is 
rccoided from Atherton Tablefand in \£ Qtd (Wells 
1980) bin none from W.A. The new species ts the 
first found west of the Great Dividing Range, and 
is probably pair ftf a reliciual Gondwanan fauna 
in ihe small, spring-fed stream al the base of ihe 
Kakadu Escarpment, No larvae have been collected, 
but as all others- conform wilh thai of O. matvla/o 
this new species is expected to be similar, 

Orphninotrichia origfais sp. nov. 

Hoiotype: NTM, a, NX, «3kadu National ParVu 
Radon Springs, I2 D 45 S* I32 D 55'E, t$-l9.v,]988, Lt 
Tr, A Weils & P. Suier. 

Jtaratypes, NTM, 9 (allotype), collected with 
hololvpc; NTM, NMV, 2 cr cr , 4 o t? , $ame k>C. t 
14,ivv89. Smcr & Wells. 

Diagnosis: Quite dissimilar to congeners; male 
distinguished by dorsal plate deeply cleft apically, 
females lack Ihe vemral abdominal glands seen in 
other species. 

Description: Adults. Uniformly dark grey, small. 
Male Anterior wing length, 1.6 mm. Antennae 
l$-segmented. terminal segments pale rest dark. 
Genitalia, Fig. 8. Segment IX produced po.stero- 
taterally to form lobes, each with a shon inner 
ventral process; siernite deeply excavated. Dorsal 
plate membranous, deeply cleft apically. Subgenital 
plate tapered, apex rounded, scicrotised. Inferior 
appendages sub-lriangulai, bases scpatalcd widely 
by paired sclerotised processes, apices converging. 
Acdeagus of usual shape: elongate, sJender. dilated 
towards rounded apex, unlJaioi near base. Female. 
Anterior wing length, I 5 mm. Antennae 
17-segmented. Genitalia. Fig. 9. Segment VN1 
elongate, tapcTed distalty. Terminal segments 
narrow; no pairninent gland on abdominal sternite 
VII. Irnmarurcs unknown. 

Distribution: Known from type locality only, 
Kakadu National Park, northern NX 
iUymology: hrom the Latin - ortgi/ui> — source, in 
reference to the likely reliciual naiurc of this and 
other components oi' the fauna nf the type locality. 

Hellyelhirv Nebotss 

Hsihi'ihiro Neboiss, !<>". p. 42; WelU 19% P- 3J2; 
ies: Xuthotrtctuu .:imphx Mosely, 

1983, p. 632. type spec. 
by original designation 

Sjx nov species arc described, two (torn lite 
Alligatoi Rivers region, three from Yuecabine Creek 
and one from northweslern W.A. Males of H. 
wdonemis sp. nov., H. forftcaiu sp. nov., and H, 
miumontu $p. nov. resemble members of the 
eskensis group, a distinct lineage amongst 
Australian Hetlyethira {Wells 3979b). and H, 
impaniobantsp. nov. and possibly H quadra tasp, 
nov. are in the malteoforma group. J am unable to 
place the highly irregular H. spt/tosa sp. nov (here 
tentatively placed in Heilyethim), in any of the 
existing .species groups. Its male eenitalic parts are 
modified to form a set of complex and irregular 
spines and lobes. Three strongly asymmetric species 
occur in New Guinea (Wells in prep.K but all are 
distinct from spinosa sp. nov; its immature* are 

These six new species increase to 2} the number 
of Australian Heftyethtro, In addition, four are 
known irom New Guinea, one each from Sulawesi 
and Japan; one Australian species has been 
collected in New Caledonia. 

Hetlytlhirv forfivuta sp, nov, 
FIGS 10, 45 

Holotvpe: NTM, c/ t NX, Kakadu National Park, 
Radon Springs, I2°45 S, LU*55'E, tS.v.1%8, A. 
Wells & P. Suter. 

Puratypes, NX: NTM, 1 o\ same lue, as holotvpe 
IS-I9.V.8S, Wells & Suter; NTM. 4 or cr, Graveside 
Creek, t8.vii.88. P. Dostine. 
Othvr material examined, NX: NTM, larvae, pupae, 
Radon Springs, 18 v.88, Suter & Wells; larvae and 
pupae, Koolpin Creek, 13^9'S, n2*35'E,25.v.8R, 
Suter &. Wells, OSS voucher set. 
Diagnosis: In the eskensh group and most closely 
similar to H, radonemts sp. iw. Differing in 
parameres hooked sub-apically v apices acute, dorsal 
plate without spines or spinules. 
DL'scripiion: Male. Vestuure mcMttcd, fawn-brown 
Anterior wing length, 3,8 mm. Antennae 
32-segmenied. Genitalia, Fig. 10. A slender, 
apically-aeule mesal process on sternile VII. 
Segment IX broadly rounded anteriorly in ventral 
view, postero- lateral margins produced in short 
triangular lobes, apical margin concave Dorsal 
plate stout throughout length, membranous, 
without spines or spinules. Subgenital plate not 
seen. Inferior appendages with a broad, irregulat ly 

Hg 1, Chrysotnthm Qusfrads sp nuv. 1, male genitalia, veiiual view. 

Wg5 2-6. Jabitrichia ttosiinei sp. nov. 2, male wings; 3, male dorsal head and thora*; 4. female genitalia, venlr*l 
view; 5,6, male genitalia, dorsal and vcniral view*. 

Abbreviations: ae . aoleagns; am aj>., {interim apodeme; dpi., doisal plate; iul. ;tpp. t inferim appendages; lai. 1. 
IX, laicraJ lobe at' segment IX; mc>. <c, rnc*<.iseutcMum;, metasciiietlum; s,l., seul lobe; Vl|, ahdomtnul 
segment V'H: VI II, abdominal segment VI LI; IX, nbdominal segment TX. 



\ I / J \ * " ■ !••: LJ *-a pr. 



shaped veniral lobe and four slender lobes 
posteriorly. Paranteres scissor-like, hooked $ub- 
apltally, apices acure. Aedeagus slender, elongate, 
constricted slightly ai about % length. Female 
unknown. Mai are larva pale. Case (Fig. 45] purse- 
shaped, valves constructed ot" fine sand with distinct 
dona] and ventral margins ends rounded, a shallow 
concavity dorsally in which a large sand grain is 

Distribution: Northern NX, larvae collected from 

Etymology: From the Latin -forfteaua - scissor*- 
shaped, describing the paranteres, 

Hvllyethins ntkwensis sp. nov. 

no. ii 

Hofotype: NTM, cr, NX., Kakadu National Park, 
Radon Springs, I2°45'S, 132*55 'F, 18-19.V.I988, Lt 
TV., A. Wells & P. Surer. 

Poratypi% NX: NTM. 2 p cr, same Inc., I4.iv.89, 
Surer & Weils; NMV, 1 CO. ^ame loc, I3-I4.iv.89, 
Sutet & Wells; NMV, I a, Magcla deck, at Ranger 
outlet pipe, 23.V.88, Wells & Suter; NTM, 1 or. 
Bower Bird Billabongai outlet, 12°47'S, H.VWE, 
l.x.88, Dosline 

Diagnosis; Closely resembling H. vemta (Wells 
19S5aj but males distinguished by the form of the 
base of the parameres whicli align with the body, 
rather than laterally; the digitiform. seiaie process 
above the inferior appendages; and the additional 
upper lobe on inferior appendages with long setae 
on inner margin. 

Description: Adults. Male. Anterior wine length, 
1.9-2.0 mm. Antennae 33-segjnemed. Genitalia, 
Fig. 11. A slendet, elongate mesal process on sternite 
VJIl. Sfermrc IX roundly excavated apical ly_ Dorsal 
plate broad throughout length, expanded distally, 
apical margin rounded, without spine* or spinules. 
Subgenital plate not apparent- Inferior appendages 
multi-lobcd: ventral lobe with outer margin broadly 
rounded, inner margin crenulate; dnr.sal lobe 
narrower, with a tufi oi' long .setae sub-apieally on 
inner margin; laterally a long, slender lobe without 
apical seta, and a shorter slender lobe with an apical 
seta. Parameres slender, loosely S-shaped, not 
over lapping, apices rounded. Aedeagus with a 
swollen membrane apical I y and twisted sclcrotised 
Female ami immature* unknown. 

Distribution: NX, Kakadu Nanunal Park, Rad^n 
Springs and upper Mage la Creek, 
Liymology; Named for the type locality. 

Heilyvthim naumanni sp. nov, 
1 1C.S 12-B, 17 

Hofotype: NMV, cr. W.A., Charntcv River, 2km 
SW Roly Hill, CALM Site 25/2,, 
I, D. Naumann. 

Punttypes, NMV, 7 c/cf T 1 Q (allotype), collected 
with holotype. 

Diagnosis: An eskensis-group species differing from 
others in having all male genitalic parts slender and 
elongate distally; female resembles hi. vernorti Wells. 
Description: Male. Anterior wing length, I.9-2.C 
mm. Antennae 32-segmenfed, An elongate, slender 
mcsal process on sternite VI 1. Segment IX short 
Dorsal plaie membranous, rounded distally. 
Subgenital plate sub-triangular, narrowly rounded 
apically. inferior appendages in ventral view Hi- 
lobed: ventral lobe broad-based, constricted mcsally, 
narrow in distal half; above, two slender processes, 
the uppermost sctate apieally. In lateral view, these 
two dorsal processes can be seen as two lobes of 
a bifid branch. Porameres slender, overlying each 
other, inserted laterally. Aedeagus narrow, with ar. 
apical twist. 

Female. Anterior wing length! 2.3 mm. Antennae 
27-segmented. Sternite VIII with apical margin 
slightly notched medially, a pair of setae on each 
side of notch, 
Immature* unknown. 

Distribution: Collected from the type locality only. 
Etymology' Named for 1. D. Naumann who 
collected the specimens. 

Htifytthim intpamSohata tp. nov. 
FIGS 14-16 

Hototvpe: NMV, cr, NE Qld, Yucca bine Oeek>>85, R. G. Pearson & L. J. Benson. 

Other material exununeil: NMV, I y t W.A., 

Char nley River, 2 km SW of Roly Hill, CALM site 

25/2, 16*22 S, 125°I2'E> L D. 


Diagnosis? A close surer species to H. vernont Wells, 

distinguished by asymmetrical inferior appendages 

and dorsal plate narrowly quadrate in distal hall. 

Figs 7'12. Jabitr'tchia dostinei sp. nov. 7, male genitalia, lateral view. Ofphninotrichia ariginis sp. nov. 8,9, male 
and female genitalia, ventral views. Ilctlycthira forficuta sp. nov. 10, male genitalia, ventral view. Heltyethiro rmttmensis 
sji nov. 11. male genitalia, ventral view. Heltyethiru rtiMttiattni-sf). nov. 12. male genitalia, ventral view. Abbreviations: 
at, aedeagus; dpi. dorsal plate.; inf. app., inferior appendages; lar. 1. IX, lateral lobe of segment IX; pr , parAmwe; 
Vtn s abdominal segniem V1I1; l\, abdominal segment IX 



Figs 13- iT. Hellyethira naumanni sp. nov, 13, male genitalia, lateral view. Hellyethira imparalobata sp. nov. 14-16, 
male genitalia, dorsal, ventral and lateral views. Hellyethira naumanni sp. nov. 17, female genitalia, ventral view. 
Abbreviations: ae., aedeagus; dpi., dorsal plate; inf. app., inferior appendages; pr., paramere; VHlj abdominal segment 
VIII; IX, abdominal segment IX. 



Description; Male. Anterior wing length, 1.8 mm. 
Antennae damaged, Genitalia* Figs 14-16. 
Abdominal sternite V(l wirh slender, elongate mesal 
process. Dorsal plate broad-based, in distal hair 
narrowly sub-quadrate wlih margins dark and 
paired selerotised spines laterally. Subgenuai plate 
not evident. Inferior' appendages unequal, vemrally 
with a broad lobe, several narrower processes 
distally and paired styliform processes laterally. 
Broad, selerotised structures laterally above interior 
appendages may represent parnmeres. Aedeagus 
twisted in distal half. 
Female and immatures unknown. 
Distribution; Known from ihc type locality, 
northeastern Qld, and from Charnley River; 
northwestern W.A. 

Etymology; From the Latin - tmpat, lobaius - 
unequal, tobed. in reference to the lobes of inferior 

Htlisethim quadrJia sp, nov. 
TIGS 18-19 

Hehtvpe: NMV. o\ NE Qld, Yuccabine Creek, xii, 
1985. R. G. Pearson & f.. J. Benson. 

Punnypes, NMV, same loe. and collectors as 
holorype: rVc cr, 5 y 9 (including allotype), IL85; 
12 ccr v.85; 4 O'er, 5 9 9 ix.85. 
Other material examined, NMV, same loe and 
collectors; 11 cr o\x.K4; 4 crc\ xi.444; 8 o o\ i.85; 
I cr, vii.85; 4 cer, ix.SS; 1 o\ xi.85; I cr, i.86; 3 
era, ii.86, I DT\ iv.S6. 

Diagnosis; Most closely resembling H. ramosa 
Weil>, hut mate wirh inferior appendages wider than 
long, alntosr truncate distally. but with a pair of 
digjtiform processes medially. 
Description: Males. Anterior wins length. 2.0-2.2 
mm. Antennae 31-segmented. Genitalia (Tigs 18, 
IV). A slender, elongate mesal process on stern ke 
VII. Segniem l\ sub-quadrate. Dorsal plare 
membranous, rounded distally. SubgcriitaJ plate not 
apparent. Inferior appendages rogcf h-rr as wide, in 
ventral view; as sternite IX, length about half width, 
inner apical margins produced posteriorly in a small 
lobe, a setatc, digilifot ni process mesally. Aedeagus 
with several const ncrions distaJly, hooked apically. 
Females and miniatures unknown. 
Distribution; From the type locality only, 
northeastern Qld 

Etywolosv: From the Latin -quadrvs- square, for 
the general shape of male lerrmnalia. 

livllyrthiw tyinos* sp. nov. 
FJGS 20-22 

Hototype: NMV, cr, NP Qld, YucCttbinc Creek, 
R, G. Pearson & t. J. Benson. 

Parotypes, NMV, cr, collected with hololype, 

A curious species, originally believed to represent 
a new genus (Benson & Pearson 1988 - 
'Unidentified genus A"), but here referred lo 
Fieltyeihira with which it conforms in general 
respects* although the aedeagus more closely 
resembles of the new species in Acritnptita. 
Diagnosis; Males readily recognised by I he array of 
digitifotm processes and irregular spines which 
replace the more usual genitalie structures; affinities 

Description; Male. Anterior wing length, 1.6-1. K 
mm. Antennae 28-segmented. Genitalia, Figs 
20-22. Abdominal sternite- VII wiih slender, 
elongate mcsal process. Dorsal plate membranous, 
rounded apical Jy. Subgenital plate probahly 
represented by the two setate, cligitiform processes, 
fused basally (Fig. 22b). The homologies of a 
second pair of similar processes (Fig. 22c) arc 
unknown Inferior appendages (Fie 22d) broad- 
band, constricted medially, finger-like distally, with 
paired apical setae. Pararncnes forming a set of 
irregular spines (Fig. 22a). Aedcagus slender, 
elongare, hooked apically 
Female and immaturcs unknown 
Distribution; Known only from the type locality, 
Yuceabtne Creek, northeastern Qld. 
Etymology- Prom the Latin - spina - thorn, 
describing the spiny form of the male genitalia. 

Aentopiiia Wells 

Acritopttta Welts, I9K2, p. 262; Kelley 1989. p. IW. Type 
species; Ac/iioptito gtobosa Wells, by original designaiinn. 

A small genus closely resembling HctJye/fura in 
general hody features, but with male genitalie 
structures simpler and tending to be filled. Larvae 
known for Western Australian species arc 
distinguished from Hellyethira by ihe less 
pronounced constriction of the first iwo abdominal 
segments (Wells 1985b). Two new species from 
Yuccabme Creek (originally identified as Hetfyethim 
sp. C and D for Benson &. Pearson 1988) raise 
Australian representation to five; six arc known 
from New Caledonia (Kelky 198$). 

AeritoptUa pearsoni sp. nov 
FIGS 23-24 

Hviotype: NMV, cr, NE Qld, Yuccabme Creek, 
iii.1986. R. G. Pearbon & L. 1. Benson. 
Parutypes* NMV, I rr, collected with hololype; 
NMV, I o\ same loc. and collectors, ii.85. 
Diagnosis: Resembling A. hamata Wells in the 
elongate posterolateral processes on 
segment IX and paired spines on lateral margins 
of dorsal plate, but with Ursmxtivc ventral peimalu. 




Figs 18-22. Hellyethira quadrata sp. nov. 18*19, male genitalia, lateral and ventral views. Hel/yeihira spinosa sp. nov 
20-22, male genitalia, lateral, dorsal and ventral views. Abbreviations: a, b, c, d, displaced genitalia structures; 
ae., aedeagus; dpi., dorsal plate; inf. app., inferior appendages; IX, abdominal segment IX. 



Description: Mate Anterior wing length, 1.7-1.9 
ranu Antennae 37-scgmentcd. Genitalia* Figs 23, 
24. Abdominal sterntte VIII with a slender, elongate 
mesa! process. Segment IX with setose postero- 
lateral lobes. Doisa! plate membranous, rounded 
apically, overlaid by * short, triangular, sclerotised 
lobe antero-mesally, and bordered by irregular stout, 
dark spines inflected ar righl-angles siih-apkally. 
Inferior appendages fused, with a small Y-shaped 
process apico-mesally. and stout, divergent lobes 
laterally, each tipped with a hair. A small process 
dorsal to inferior appendages may represent rhe 
subgenttai plate. Aedeagus slander mcsally, 
expanded distally, a long, sclerotiscd spur apieaJly. 
Female and immatures unknown. 
Distribution: Known only from the type locality, 
northeastern QUI, 

Etymology: Named for R. C Larson who collected 
much of the material used in this siudy. 

AwUopiHa capisira sp. nov, 
HGS 25-26 

Hoiotype: NMV. o\ NEQId, Yuccabine Creek, \l 
I9H4, R. G, Pearson & I,. I Benson. 
Paratypes, N.MV, same loc. and collectors: I o\ 
collected with holoHpc; I cr, ?,S5; I male, ii.85; I 
male iii.86; I 6\ v. 86. 

Diagnosis; Males recognised by (he broad, strap- 
like spines wrapping around the dorsal plate. 
Description: Male. Anterior wing length, 1.9-22 
mm. Antennae 31-segmented. Genitalia. Figs 25, 
26. Abdominal sternite VII with a slender, elongate 
me^al process. Segment IX not produced postero- 
laUndly, although dorsolateral spines are present, 
twisting sharply and wrapping around the dorsal 
plate. Dorsal plate membranous, constricted in 
basal half, expanded distally, then tapered towards 
apex. No subgenital plate evident. Inferior 
appendages fused at bases, forming stout lobes 
distally. Aedeagus elongate, slendet throughout 
length, slightly hooked sub-apically, apex acute. 
Females and immatures unknnwn. 
Distribution: Known only from the type locality. 
noilheastern Qtd. 

Etymology: From the Ljlm - eupisimm - halten 
to describe the twisting q rap-like spines wrapping 
about the dorsal plaic. 

Oxyethira Eaton 

Oxyethira Eaion, JS73, p. 145; kelley l9«4, p. 435. Type 
specifs: / tytiraptilu costuhs Cuilts se*\*i* Uaifin, by r»f*etn^l 

Ttkho.qkne Nebum, 197 7 . p. 43. Type specie*; 
Frichogtene cotumha Nebutss, by original 

Previously, only two of ihe 10 subgenera 
comprising Oxyethira (Kclley 1984) were recorded 
from Australia; the most primitive sub-genus, O, 
fTrichogtene) Neboiss, from the south and east, and 
a more highly derived group. O. (Dampfitrichia) 
MoseJy, from the north. Now arhird, O. (Oxyethira) 
Eaton, is added, with the discovery of the Oriental 

(Oxyethira) bogambara in ihe north-east. 

Of pattlcular interest is the new species O. 
(Triehogtene) cornutata sp. nov, from the Alligator 
Rivers region, again from the small monsoon fores* 
.stream, Radon Springs. Its associations are 
with a New Caledonian species, tending to support 
the thesis that this stream harbours components of 
a relictual fauna. 

Originally, I considered that the third speciej 
reported here, O. compticota sp nov., represented 
another new genus (Benson &. Pearson 1988, 
'Unidentified genus sp. A.">. More cautiously, it is 
now placed in Oxyethira with which it shares 
general features such as shape of wings and 
venation, antennal form, ocelli 3 and in maJes 
Ulillator present on aedeagus and anterior margin 

01 abdominal segment IX rounded, But it has a 
tibial spur formula of 0,2,4. which occurs only in 
members of the minima group in O. (Dampfitrichia) 
and. in the male, abdominal segment IX not 
relracted in VIII and genitahe structures highly 
asymmetric, it is not assigned to any sub-genus, 1 
am unaware of any other Oxyethira species with 
higMy asymmetrical genitalia - a state which is 
usually considered to be derived. 

Oxyethira (Oxywhira) bogambara Schmid 
O.Kyetmra hozambara Schmid. 1958, p. 67- 

Hotoiype: male> CeyJon, Kandapola, USNM. 

New Records. NMV: 1 o\ NE Qld, Vuccahine 

Creek, x.84, Benson & Pearson; 1 a, same loc. 

I0.iv.85; 2 a cy, 2 9 9. same loc, v.85; I 0\ same 

loc, i,86; I c, same loc, i,86. 
In the Oriental ramosa group,. O. (Oxyethirv; 

(Kelley 1984), and. like Oxyethira htcana Ulmer, 

probably a species that has dispersed recently to 

Australia via New Guinea. 
Males readily recognised by the titillator twisled 

2 to 3 times around the aedcagus (Schmid 1958). 
females by the stout terminals and V-shaped 
structure on stemite VJIi (Wells & Dudgeon J 990). 
Distribution: S.E. Asia, New Guinea, northern 

Qxyrthirz complicate sp. nov 
FIGS 27-29 

Qrifimally designated "New genus sp. B* 1 ft>i 
Benson & Pearson (1988) this unusual species is now 
placed IcnLalivcty tn Oxyethira, but left in mceriae 







-Jr. Z.:'r ' 


sedis. asii cannot be .issigncd to any of the existing 


Hohtype: NMV, o\ Nf Qlcl, Yuccabine Creek, 

ii.1986, R. G. Peaison & L J. Benson. 

Pawypes, NMV, same loc and collectors a* 

hoiocype: 2 era, collected wi|h holotypc, I a\ 

.vii.S5; 1 cr, ivHfi, 

Diagnosis: Males recognised by the combination of 

presence of ocelli, spur formula 0,2.4, and highly 

asymmetric genilalic appendages. 

Description: Male. Anterior wing length, 1.7-1 K 

mm. Antennae 27-segmented, flagellar segments 

with abundant sensilia aunaliica. Genitalia, Figs 

27-29. Abdominal segment VII with a small acute 

spur apieo-mesally. Segment fX well protruded 

from VIII, anterior margin broadly rounded, 

posiero- lateral lobes rounded distally; sicrnite with 

apical margin deeply excavated. Subgenital plate not 

evident. Inferior appendages asymmetrical, 

sclerotised, complexly multiloba!, with paired, 

irregularly-twisted, setaie, digit iform processes 

Jorsally. Aedeagus straight, with a slender millacor, 

and -strongly recurved apical spine. 

Female and immaturcs unknown. 

Distribution; Known only from the type locality, 

northeastern QUI. 

ttymotogy: From the Latin - compJteatus - 

complicated, for the genitalie structures that defy 


OxytHhir* tlricbogiene) eorautata sp, nov. 
FIGS 30-31 

Holotype: NTM, a, NX, Kakadu National Park. 
Radon Springs. 12 D 45'S, I32°55E. t4.iv.l9St A. 
Welts & R Suter. 

Diagnosis: Referred to Q (Trkhog/ene) and most 
closely resembling the New Caledonian O. insuiaris 
Kelley (198*)) with which it fthares the form of ihc 
inferior appendages, but also showing some 
resemblance ro 0. hrevis Wells from SW W. Aust., 
and (). caledonensis Kelley from New Caledonia. 
Description: Male. Uniformly dark grey. Anterior 
wing length. 1.3 mm. Antennae 26-segmented, with 
alternating bands of light and dark segments. 
Gcnualia. Figs 30, 31. Abdominal .segment IX 
narrow, elongate, anterior margin rounded, leaching 
into segment Vll. Dorsal plate short, rounded. With 
a seferoiised process on zaciistdc. Subgenital plate 
membranous, divided into two lobes by rounded 
median excision. Bilobed process slightly longer 

than other genitalie parts. Inferior appendages 

forming a pair of widely divergent arms Aedeagu* 

broadly hooked apieallyv 

Female and immatures unknown. 

Distribution: Known only from one male from a 

small monsoon forest stream, Kakadu National 

Park, NX 

Etymology: From the Latin - cornulus- horn-like, 

describing the form of the interior appendages. 

Orthotrichia Eaton 

(hthoitichia Eaton, 1673, p. i41. type specie*. 
ttydroptita at\£ustcita McUichlan, by original designation 

Eight new species referred to Orthotrichia raise 
to 43 the Australian representation. Four are in the 
L'tvcitis group (Wells 1979c), three in the more 
diverse adornata/kokodana group (Wells 1984); and 
one in the aberrant group. Additional record.*, pf 
established species extend their distributions, and 
cases of several oi' these are figured. 

Qrihotrivhiu Mttwiat sp. nuv. 
FIGS 32-33, 47 

Holowpe: NTM, c\ N.T., Kambolgic Creek, 
13*32'S, 13?°23 ' F, 25,v.J9XK, UTr.. A, Wells & P. 

Para types: NTM, NMV, 6 cr a\ same loc. as 
hoiotype, 25.v.88> UV Lt, Suter & Wells. 
Other material examined: NTM, pupae, .same loc 
as holotypc, 25, v. 88, Wells; NTM, cr pupa and 
cases, NX, South Alligator River at Gimbat OSS 
Station, I3°35'S, I32°*6'E, Wells. 
Diagnosis: In live qrueihs group and duscly 
resembling O. khaloensis Wells and Ot paranga 
Wells from which it differs in shape of inferior 
appendages and presence of a small, pale spur 
distally on dorsal plate. 

Description: Male. Anterior wing length, 1.7 mm, 
Autennae 26-segmented. Genitalia, Figs 32, 33. 
lergite VI IT witha pair of strong, black, spiny sccac 
on apico-mesal margin. Tergite IX with lett lateral 
spine broad 7 . blade-like. OoTsal plate elongate, 
membranous except for left ve-nttal margin; a small 
laterally-directed spur distally; apex truncate, about 
one third width nf base. Inferior appendages in 
vvntraJ view with a concavity apico-mesally; dorsal 
process slender, undivided. 
female unknown. 

Figs 23-29. Acrttoptifa peanoni sp, nov, 23.24, male genitalia, dorsat and ventral views. Acntopttto capistra sp. nov. 
25.26, male genitalia, dorsal and ventral views. Oxyethtro contpticattt sp. nov. 27-29, mate genitalia, lateral, yentm* 
and dorsal views. 
Abbreviations: ae , aedeagus; tip!,, dorsal plate; inf. app.. inferior appendages; *p. spine; JX, abdominal segment IX. 



Pupal case (Fib. 47j Of chariUterisiic form, dark 

With short ribs dorsally. 

Distribution: Collected from the upper reaches ot' 

the .South Alligator River, and one of its smalt 

tributaries, NX 

Etymology: Prom the Latin - amnio** - of a 

stream, permuting to type locality, a small si team. 

Orthotricbm iontitato sp. nov. 
FIGS 34-35 

ffofotype- NTM, cr, NX., Kakadu National Park, 

Radon Springs, 12°45'S, I32°55'E, 18-19.V.1988, Lt 

ii.. P. Sutei & A. Wells. 

Pftrvtypes, NTM, NMV. 10 C o\ collected wilh 

holotype; NMV, 1 o\ same lot, 13-I4.iv.K9, Wells 

ASuicr; NTM, I 0?, NX, Kakadu National ['ark, 

Howerbird Biltabong, 12°47'S t I33°02'E, l.\M, 


Diagnosis: Another eradfis group member, svith 

male genitalia similar to G. attenuula WelK but 

distinguished by asymmetry oi inferior appendages 

and i heir dorsal process. 

Description: Male. Anterior wing length. 1.2 mm 

Antennae 24-scgmcnted. Genitalia, Figs 14, 35. 

Paired, black, spiny setae apicomesalJy on icr^itc 

Vlll. Right doisal spine only on tergiie IX. Dorsal 

plate irregularly bilobed distaily. left lobe sli.ahtlv 

hooked aptcully. Paramerc elongate, slender. 

Inferior appendages asymmetrical: in ventral view. 

separated basally, converging distaily, left sub- 

rriajigulai, right almost ovoid; dorsnl process 

undivided, arising on right, curving to left. 

Female and immature* unknown. 

Distribution: Known only from two localities ill 

Kakadu National Park. NX 

EtymolORv: From the Latin - fonfinatn - of a 

spring pertaining io ihe collecting site. 

Orthoiriehto tomeoioya sp. nov. 
MGS 36-37 

Holotype; NTM, o\ NX, Kakadu National Pail, 
Radon Springs, 12°45'S, 132°55'E, Lt TV., 
1R-I9.iv.1988, V, Suter& A, Wells, 
Pctrvtypes> NX; NTM, NMV, 6 & iff, collected with 
holotype; 1 c, Cuiurujul Creek at mid ruCuturuuil 
bhllabong, 20.iv.89, WeMs & Surer, 

Diagnosis: In the gracilis group, with males closely 
resembling O. aeuleato in form of inferior 
appendages and their dorsal process but 
distinguished by the dark, curved spine to the lefi 
pf the dorsal platc. 

Description; Anterior wing length, i,5 mm. 
Antennae damaged Genitalia (Figs 36, 37). A pan 
of stout black', spinose setae oflset from posterior 
margin oi tcrgitc V1IJ. Abdominal segment IX with 
obliquely truncate anterior margin, a strongly 
curved, dark spine arising apicalty on left and 
pressing against dorsal plate. Dorsal plate narrowly 
rounded apically. Inferior appendages ovoid, setose, 
separated at bases, converging apicnlly; process ol 
inferior appendages short, undivided, lying on 
right. Paramere slender, elongate. 
Female and immatures unknown. 
Distribution: Collected from two sites in Kakadu 
National Park, NX 

Etymology; From the Liitjn - (omentum - hairy, 
describing the appearance of the inferior 

Qrthotrichiit iermtx sp. nov. 
TIGS 39-40 

Holotype: NTM, cr, NX, Kakadu National Park, 
Radon Springs, 12°4S'K, !32°55'E, Lt Tr., 

UM9A1B8& p * u,er & A WeUs * 

Para type, NTM. 1 o\ same data as holotype. 

Diagnosis; A gracilis group member,, with close 

similarities to paranga, btit differing in the shape 

of inferior appendages and their process, and the 

irregular-shaped sclerotised spine along left of 

dorsal plate. 

Description: Male. Anterior wing length, 1.5 mm. 

Antennae damaged, Genitalia, Figs 39, 4o\ Paired 

black spiny setae subapical on tcrgite Vlll. Right 

lateral spine on segment IX blade-like, left irregular 

in shape, broad in proximal ¥*, slender distaily, apc\ 

slightly expanded. Dorsal plate about same width 

throughout length. Inferior appendages discrete. 

inner margins dark, toothed; dorsal process 

asymmetric, slender, arising on right, arching 

towards lefl Paramere lender, elongale. 

Female and immatures unknown. 

Distribution; Known only from the type locality, 

Kakadu National Park, NX 

Etymology: From The Latin - scnaius - notched. 

to describe i lie inner margin of inferior appendages. 

I ig* 30-35. Qxyethira larnutato %j\ nov. ?'UI, mole &crmahn t Mftfltflri and lateral views. OrUtatrichta amtnea sp. 
nov. 12,3$, male genitalia, ventral and cWsnl views. Ottfnarkhia fottfittala *p. nov 34,35, male .eennaha, dorsal 
;inrt veniml views. 

Abbreviations: ac., aetita&Ut;, bilohcd proee«; dpr. inf. app M dorsal process of infci mr appendngcs; dpi., doisaJ 
plate; inf. apn„ inferior appendages; pr., paramere; w.ib.g„ subgenual plate; Vlll, Hbilominal segment Vlll; IX, 
nhrtnnunal segment IX- 





Orthotrichia paranja Wells 
F[G. 46 ~ 

Orthotrichia parango Wells, U^9ft P 614. 
Hototype: 0% W.A., Ord River Dam, 21.ti.1977. 

New records, NT: NTM, I o\ MageJa Creek at 
Rum Pipe, l7.ii.8K, Dostine; NTM, I or, Kambolgie 
Creek, 13*32* S r m°23'E, Lt Tr.. 25-26.V.S8, Wells 
a Suter: I o* pupa and case, Fisher Creek above 
South Alligator River junction, 13°34S, 132°34'E. 
Wells & Suter, OSS voucher set. 

Originally described from NW W.Aust., CX 
patvnga closely resembles O. stipa Wells, O. 
kholoensis Wells and 0. fontinata, but differs in 
<hape of inferior appendages and their dorsal 
process. The pupa has been associated. 
Pupal case <Fig. 46). Length, 2.2 mm. Darkly 
pigmented, dorso-ventrally flattened, with finely 
serrate ribs extending full length. 
Distribution: Eastern Qld, northern NT. 

Orthotrichia tvleri Wells 
FICS 51-52 

Orthotrichia tyleri WelU, 1979c, p. 6J7. 
Hofotype; Cf % W. Ausl„ Mitchell PlaLeau, Camp 
Creek", 20.vii.l978, WAM. 

New records: Cased pupae, NT., Yellowwatets 
Billabong, 21.V.88, Dostine, OSS voucher set. 

Males are distinguished by widely separated, 
strong, black, spiny setae on abdominal tergite VI 1 1; 
a gracilis group member. 

Pupal case (Figs 51, 52). Length, 2.4 mm. Pale, 
transparent; long, slender, tapering ar. each end, 
without rihs, a pair of vents opening on the dorsal 
margin as in O. tttrrita Wells (Wells 1985b). 
Distribution; Northwestern W.A., northern NT, 
This* is a common species in lentie and lolic systems; 
immature* collected from stems of an aquatic 
rnacrophyre, Hydrilla sp. 

Orthatrieht'j furcate sp. nov. 
FIG. 38 

Hofotype: NTM, o\ NT, South Alligator River 
above Fisher Creek junction, I t'l'i., iy-20.iv.19R9, 
P. Suter & A, Wells, 

Ptirutype; NTM, 1 o\ NT., Kakadu NationaJ Park, 
Magcla Creek al outlet lo Bowerbird Billabong, 
ItxJBB; Dostine. 

Diagnosis: An adomata group species with elongate 
inferior appendages fused medially, and paramerc 
bifid apically. 

Description: Male. Anterior wing length, 2,1-2 3 
mm. Antennae 27-segmented. Genitalia, Fig. 38. 
Abdominal stemile VIU with brush of blunt, blac*. 
setae mesally. Segment IX short, Dorsal plate 
broad, rounded apically, a small spur on margin. 
Inferior appendages elongate, widely separated 
distally, bases fused; dorsal process Y-shaped. 
Paramere stout, daik, distally bifid, apices acute 
Female and immatures unknown. 
Distribution: Known only from two localities 
Kakadu National Park, NT. 
Etymology; From ihe Latin -Jurcatus- forked, to 
describe the forked paramere. 

Orttiolrivhti statu vp. nov. 
FIGS 4M2, 48-49 

Hoiotvpe; NTM, cr % NX, Kamooleie Creek, 
I3°32S, I32°23'F. Lt Tr, 25-26.v,l988, A. Wells 
<£t P. Sutet. 

Porotypes; NTM, 2 or o\ NT., Kakadu National 
Park, Radon Springs. l2°45'S, 132°55 £, 
18-19.V.88, Suter & Wells; NMV, 5 era. same loc. 
I3-I4.iv.89. Suler & Wells; NTM, 1 a*. South 
Alligator Rivei; Gimbac Station, 26.iv.88, Dostine; 
NTM, 10 orcr, Graveside Creek, lK.vii.88, Dostine; 
NMV, I a, Creek 5 km W of OSS Gimbat station, 
19.iv.89, Wells & Suter. 

Other material examined; NTM, NMV, larvae, 
pupae, cases, NT, Kakadu National Park, Baroalba 
Springs, 12°49'S, 132°52'E 22.V.88, Wells & Suter: 
NTM. immatures. South Alligator River, numerous 
records, Dostine. 

Diagnosis; In the adornota group; males wish 
irregular and strongly asymmetric inferior 
appendages resembling those of O. tyleri Wells; 
cases recognised by distinctive lateral flanges. 
Description: Male. Anterior wing length, 1.7 mm, 
Antennae 25-segrnented. Genitalia, Figs 41, 42, 
Tergite VIII without black setae. Sterniie IX 
rounded anteriorly; tergite with right lateral spine 
only, stout, curving towards left distally. Dor^l 
plate irregularly rounded apically, a deep notch in 
right lateral margin, sclciotiscd spur subapieally. 
Inferior appendages comprised of irregular lobes, 
selcrotised distally; dorsal process small, slightly 
divided subapically, lobe* divergent. 
Female unknown. 

Rgf ^6-40. Orthotrichia tometttosa sp. ncn/. 36.37. male genitulm, dumal Mid witial views. Orthotrichia fitirata 
sp. nov. 38, mate genitalia, ventral view. Orthotrichia serrata sp. nov 39.40, male genitalia, ventral and dorsal views. 





Larval and pupal cases (Figs 48, 49). Length of 
pupal case> 1.8-2.1 mm. Black, wiihoui usual dorsal 
ribs but xviih lateral margins expanded and raised 
to form "wings*' or flanges, a furrow mid-dorsally. 
Distribution: Alligator Rivers region, NX, where 
it DCCUrS in small streams on the edge o( the 
escarpment and in the higher reaches of the Sourh 
Alligator River. 

Etymology: The Latin - atatus * furnished ivith 
wings, describing the Manges on I he cases. 

Orthotrichia scutate NWrlls 
FIG. 55 

Orthmnvhia xcutata Wells, 1979c, p. 599. 
Uototype: o\ W. Ausr.,Spil!wav Creek, Orel River 
Dam, 20.ii.1^77, WAM. 

(View Records, NT.: NTM, I o\ Soulh Aliieator 
Kiver at Gimbal OSS Station, I3°J5'S. I32°36 IH.,K8, Dostine; NTM, lame, pupae, same lac,. 
24.V.88, Wells & Suter. 

In samples of congeners, Q> scutata can he 
recognised by its large srze and dark culour; males 
have nght lateral spine on abdominal tergire IX 
broadly bilobed and visible in ventral view as a 
"bract" about the left margin of the dorsal plate, 
Larval and pupal awes. Pupal case length, 2.3-2.7 
mm. Case (Fig. 55) dark brown, larger than other 
Orthotrichia except uberrans group members, 
relatively stout, with short ribs dorso-mcsally, pupal 
case with posterior end longer than anterior end. 
Distribution: Northwestern W.A , northern NT. 
Immarures collected from undersides of rocks in 
flowing water. 

Orthotrichia bensoni trv nov. 

FIG 44 
Hobtype: NMV, c, Nfc Old. Yuccabinc Creek, 
xi.1984, U J. Benson & R. G. Pearson. 
Serotypes; NMV. 3 o* cr t same loc and collectors, 

Diagnosis: In the adornata group, and distinguished 
hy the slender lateral spine projecting posteriorly 
on the right side, well away from other genuahc 

Description: Male. Anterior wing length, 1.4-1.6 
mm. Antennae 22-seginented. Genitalia. Fig. 44. 
Abdomina] segment IX rounded dtstally, with a 
strong, dark, slender tight lateral spine. Dorsal plate 
in form of two stout spines, one 2x length of other, 
each with apex curving inwards. Inferior 
appendages rounded laterally* fused basally y divided 
disUlly, with slender tapered projections apico- 
laterally; dorsal process asymmetrical, arching from 

right to left, left aim produced and notched. 

Paramcrc elongate. 

Female und immaturcs unknown. 

Distribution: Northeastern Old, Vuccabine Creek. 

Etymology: Named for one of the collectors, L- J. 


Orthomefiia sutcri Wells 
FIGS 54, 56 

Orthotrichf .wterl Wells 1979c, p, 605. 
Holotype: a, W. Aust., Mitchell Plateau, Camp 
Creek, H.vii.1978. WAM. 

New Records, NT.: NTM; Jabiru, Ranger Retention 
Pond I, I6.iv.89, A. Wells. 

A tiny caddisfly described from northwestern 
W.A., male recognised by long, widely divergent 
lobes on the dorsal process of Inferior appendages. 
Larval and pupal cases (Figs 54, 56). Small slender, 
transparent, without ribs, larval case tubular, pupa! 
case bluntly rounded anteriorly, tapered posteriorly. 
Distribution: Northwestern W,A.» northern N.T. 
Collected from beneath Nymphaea and 
Nymphoides leaves in still water. 

Orthotrichia velata Wells 
FIG. 50 

Orthotrichia velato Well* 1983, p, 641. 
Hofofype: c', Old. Upper Ro*s River, below weir. 

8 .v. 1979, NMV. 

New Records, NX: NTM; I cr, Magela Creek ai 
Mudginberri Billabong inlet, I8.V.88, Wells & Suter; 
4 era. Radon Sptings, 13-19.V.K8, Suter & Wells; 

9 c or , same data, I4.jv.89; 2 exer, Magela Creek 
at Ranger outlet pipe, 20.V.88, 8 ycr, pupae, South 
Alligator River at Fisher Creek confluence, 24.V.88, 
Wells & Suler; 7 era. same data, l9-20.iv.89; 5 
crcr-, South Alligator Rivet at Gimbal Station, 
28.V.88, Dosttnc. 

Male o\' this species can be recognised by the 
broad, sheathing dorsal plate with V-shaped apico- 
vcntral excision, larvae by the spines on the anal 
prolegs. The pupal case is figuted for the first time 
Pupal case (Fig. 50). Length, 1.4-1.9 mm. Rounded, 
with short medial ribs, grey. 
Distribution: Northern Australia. 

Orthotrichia rnuweri Wells 
FIG. 53 
Orthotrichia muscttn Wells, 196$ p. 638, 
Hototype: cr, Qld, Iron range. Middle Claudie 
River, 2-9.X.I974. NMV 

New Records, NX. NTM. ! o\ I 9, Radon 
Springs, I4.iv.89, Suter & WelK; t o* pupa and case, 
Kakadu Nationat Park, HaroaJba Springs, J2°49'S. 

Fins *l-44. Orthotrkhia ataia sp. nov. 41,42, male genitalia, dorsal and venira.1 views. Orthotrichia constrkta sp. 
nov. 43, male genitalia, ventral view, Onhotrtchla bensoni up. nov 44, nude genitalia, ventral view, 



'y,- '-'"'■"'-'"" -!-"^ i ;,...» w 



Figs 45-56. Hetlyeth'tra forficata sp- nov. 45, larval case. Onhotrichia paranga Wells. 46, pupal case. Onhotrichia 
artmica sp. nov. 47, pupal case. Onhotrichia alata sp. nov. 48,49, larval and pupal eases. Onhotrichia velaia Wells. 
50, pupal ease. Qrthatrichia tyleri Wells. 51, 52, pupal case, lateral and dorsal views. Onhotrichia muscari Wells, 
53, pupal case. Onhotrichia scutata Welts, 54» larva and ease. Onhotrichia suteri Wells. 55,56, larval and pupal 
cases. Scale bars = 1 mm. 


132*52 E, 22.V.K8, Wells A Sailer- OSS voucher set: 
1 Urva, 1 pujw* Magela CreeV below fails, 2I.iv.S9, 
Wcfls & Sincr. L pupa, Baroalbn Cnxk, |7jv.S9 
Suicr & Wells. 

An unusual member of the abemens group of 
large hydropululs, with elongate inferior 
appendages and a brush-like structure aasing above 
Ihc right inferior appendage. Several cased pupae 
have been collected and eunform with others in the 

Pupa and case, Pupal case length, 4.6 mm. Case 
large, smooth, transparent, constructed of secretion. 
In one specimen, one of the two tiny valves of the 
early final instar larva is incorporated inio the later 
stage case (Fig. 53), others lack the small valves. 
Pupal cases are covered loosely with coarse sand; 
pupal hook plates with only one large hook each, 
anterior margin of the head is produced as in other 
members of the gioup (Wells 1985b). 
Distribution: Nouhcastern Qld, northern NX 
Pupae were collected from undersides of rods in 
a .small, spnng-fed stream at the toot of the KaVadu 

OrthotricMs comttici* sp. nov. 
FIG. 43 
Hototype. NMV, c t NE Qld, Yuccabinc Creek. L 
1985, R G. Pearson & L. J. Benson. 
Diagnosis: A new aoemws g/oup species, 
distinguished by the form of its interior appendages 
and their dorsal process, and by the narrow sub- 
apieat constriction on the aedcagus which results 
in a sharp twist at about Kt length. 

Description: Male. Anterior wing length, 2.6 mm. 
Auiconac 28-segmenled. Genitalia, l**ig. -S3. 
Ahdommal segment VIII short, broad, sternitc 
produced apico-mcsally to fotm a triangular lobe, 
tipped with blunt setae. Segment JX narruw. 
laterally on right produced posteriorly to form a 
stout spine. Dorsal plate membranous, a bfoad, 
blunt, marginal spine on left. Inferior appendages 
fused, bulbous, slightly cleft mesaily: dorsal 
process undivided, irregular in shape, slightly 
produced apicu-mesally. Aedcagus elongate, lightly 
constricted and twisted at about 3 A length. 
Paramere a short, twisted spine 
Female and immature* unknown. 
Distribution' Known only Trom the type locajity. 
northeastern Qld. 

Etymology: From the Latin - cortstriaas - 
contracted, describing the shape of the aedcagus. 


R. G. Pearson and L. J. Benson kindly allowed 
me to study their hydroptilid collection from 
Vuccabine Creek, NE Queensland. 

The office of the Supervising Alligator* 
Rivers Region Research Institute funded the project 
which gave rise to most of the other material used 
in this work, 1 wish to thank particularly P. Dosline 
and C- Humphrey who encouraged me to become 
involved in work in the Alligator Rivers region, and 
who, together with P. Suter and P. Cranston, helped 
with much of the collecting; P. Dostinc also made 
other extensive collections. 


Bcnson, L. J. & Pr.Mtsnw R, U UV8S) Diversity and 

seasonality ot'adutl Trichuptera captured in a light-trap 

al Yuccabinc Creek, a iropicat Australian rainforest 

stream. 4ust X hcoi 13, JJ7-344, 
EATON, A. E. 11873} On the Hydroplilidac, a family of 

the Trichoptera. Truns. ent. Soc. Lnnti, 1*73, 125-150. 
Kllllt, R. W. (19841 Phytogeny, morphology anil 

Classification of rhe micru-uHitdisfly uetius Oxyethira 

Eaton (Tnehoptera: Hvdioptilidae). Trans. Am. Ent. 

Soc. 110, 435-463 . 
1 1989) New species ot ink-ru-caddisHics 

(TVirhoptcta; Hydiopiilklae) from New Caledonia, 

Vanuatu and Fiji. Prvc, Enlomo/. Soc. Wash. 91, 

Mskshmi. J. H. (1979) A icview iff the yeneta of (he 

Hydroptilidae iTiuhopleraV Bull. Br. V/w.v. nat, Hixi. 

(Emj 39. 1J5-239. 
Mosciv. M. E (19*4) New cvotie HvUropTilidac Vans 

*.*»/. Stk OjfHl, «, 137-163. 
& Kimmins. D E. (1953) 'The TVichopiera of 

Australia and New Zealand". 550 pp. (British Museum 

(Natural History), london.) 
Nntiitsn, A. (1977) A UKonoirrie and zoogeography 

jnidy ol Tasronnian eaddisflies (Insecta; . i u tur-iTu) 

Mem. Not! Mus Yin 38, I-20R. 

(1988) Trichoptera. In Walton, U. W & Houston. 

W W, K (Eds) "Zoological Catalogue ot AuMialia Vol, 
6." (AuM. Govi Printing Service, Canberra). 

SriiMio, ft (1958) Trichopte'res. de Ceylon. Arch. 
Hydrobioi 54, 1-17.1, 

Wtits, A. (W79a) A review of the Australian species of 
JfydropiHa Ralman (Trichoptera. Hydroptilidae) with 
descriptions of new specacs. Aust. J, tool 26, (I97H), 

(I979b> A review of the Australian genera 

Xuthotrk'hia Mosely and Htllyptkiro Nehoi« 
( Irichoptern: Hydropniidac), with descriptions of new 

species. fbidl7 f 311-329. 

< 1 979c) The Ausiialian species ol' Orthotnchic 

Eaton (Irichoptern; Hydropriticlar). Ibid 27, S85-622. 
0980) A review of the Australian geiicrn 

Orphrtittotrichia Mosely and Mayiletutptifa Nebou* 
(Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae), with descriptions of new 
species. Ibid 28, 627-64?. 

_ (1982) Trichoiemchtton Kloei A Hincks and new 
genera in the Australian HvdropiiJidae (Trichopiera). 
f bid Ml, 251-270 

II9K3) New jpectesin the Auviraliyn HyJroptilidae 

(Trichoptera). with observations uft relauonslrips and 
distributions- //?/rf3l, 6i**-t»49. 



(1984) HydroptUa Dalman and Orthothchia 

Eaton (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) from the islands of 
New Guinea and New Britain, with observations on 
relationships. Ibid 32, 261-82. 

(1985a) Four new species of Hydroptilidae 

(Trichoptera) from the Alligator Rivers Region, 
Northern Territory. Trans. R. Soc. S. Ausi. 109, 97-102. 
(1985b) Larvae and pupae of Australian 

Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera), with observations on 
general biology and relationships. Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. 
Ser., No. 113, 1-69. 

(1987) On the biogeography of the Oxyethira 

group, tribe Hydroptilini (Hydroptilinac, Hydroptilidae, 
Trichoptera). In Bournaud, M. & Tachet, H. (Eds), Proc. 
5th Int. Symp. Trichoptera. (Junk, Dortrecht, The 

(1990a) The micro-caddisflies (Trichoptera) of 

North Sulawesi. Invert. Taxon. 3, (1989), 363-406, 
(1990b) The hydroptilid tribe Stactobiini 

(Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) in New Guinea. Ibid 3, 

Dudgeon, D. (1990) Hydroptilidae (Insecta: 

Trichoptera) from Hong Kong. Aquatic Insects 12. 


BY W. KOSTA* & R. 7. SHIELf 


Keys are given to the genera and species of the Rotifera: Monogononta of the families Proalidae 
(four genera) and Lindiidae (one genus). The proalid genus Wulfertia is not known from Australia, 
and a single record of Bryceella is doubtful. Two species of Proalinopsis and ten species of P males 
are known from Australian inland waters. Proales similis exoculis (Berzins, 1953) is suppressed. 
Five species of the lindiid genus Lindia are confirmed, with a sixth, known from New Zealand, 
doubtful. All species of these genera recorded from Australian waters are described and figured 
with known distribution data and ecological information. Brief comments are included on current 
rotifer taxonomy and biogeography. 
KEY WORDS: Rotifera, Proalidae, Lindiidae, Australia, taxonomic revision, biogeography. 

/kwwrrmnv ofihv ttoyat Soitct.v ttf Z>, Atxt.. (***», IH(3), 129 JdX 


by W. KosTt* & R. J, SBffifct 


Koste, W. & Shiel, R. J, (1990) Rotifera from Australian inland waters VI. Proalidae, Lindiidae (Rotifera: 
Monogononia) Trans. R. Soc. S. Aus(, 114(3), 129-143, 30 November, 1990. 

Keys are given to the genera and species of the Rotifera: Monogononta Of the families Pioalidae (lour 
genera) and Lindiidne (one genus), The ptoalid genus Wuifertkt is not known from Australia, and a single 
record of Bryceella ii> doubtful. Two specie* of Proaiino/mv and ten species of Prattles arc known from 
Australian inland waters. Pmates ximffls exacutix tHerzins, 1953) is suppressed. Five specie* of the Imdiid 
genus Lindia are confirmed, with a sixth, known from New Zealand, doubtful. All specie* ^( these genera 
recorded from Australian waters are described and figured with known distribution data and ecological 
information. Brief comments are included on current rotifer taxonomy ar*d biogeogntphy. 

Key Woros. Rotifera, Proalidae, Lindiidae, Australia, laxonomic revision, biogeography. 


This paper is the sixth of a series reviewing the 
Kottfera recorded from Australia. The initial 
purpose of Ihe series was lo collate a century of 
records (much early survey work was done by 
visiiors, and their publications were widely 
dispersed), bring nomenclature to accepted world 
standard, and provide usable keys to the known 
Australian rotifer fauna. As Ihe series has 
progressed, so too has methodology; advances in 
light and electron microscopy, biochemical 
■techniques and computing used in studies of the 
Rotifera worldwide have provided much better 
resolution of a number of problem areas, including 
systematic*. Some of these advances are 
documenled tn the proceedings of triennial 
symposia on the Rotifera (e.g. Ricci W ol. 1989) f of 
which there have now been five. 

Increasing attendances al these symposia suggest 
thai more researchers are studying rotifers, Some 
impetus has been provided by the enviionmcnta! 
crisis; microscopic aquatic organisms such as 
Ptotozoa and Rotifera have been seen as 'early 
warning syslems' lot deteriorating water quality, and 
their morphology, physiology, behaviour, or 
population characteristics, have been more closely 
examined. Whatever the reasons, interest in rotifers 
has expanded, and with it, requests for our revision 
papers from outside Australia. In view of this more 
widespread interest, and as a cautionary note to the 
use aT our keys elsewhere, we felt it appropriate to 
briefly review present rotifer biogeography. At the 

* Ijudwig-Brill-Strasse 5, Quakenbriick D-4570, hederal 

Republic of Germany. 
I Murrav-Durlinis Freshwater Research Centre, PCX Bent 

921, Albtiry, N.S.SV. &40. 

suggestion ol an anonymous referee, to facilitate 
comparative studies, we also have included more 
formal taxonomic details than in ihe earlier parts. 


Global rotifer biogeography and the evidence for 
vicariance were reviewed by Dumonl (1963). He 
noted that each continent has a distinctive endemic 
feunule among more widely distributed taxa- Until 
relatively recently, cosmopolitanism has been 
promoted by the global use of authoritative 
taxonomic references (e.g. Ward & Whipple, revised 
by Edmondson 1963) or the use of figures from the 
work of respected taxonomists for taxa superficially 
similar (or not!) but geographically separated. In 
the Australian context, much of the earlier work 
was done elsewhere, by workers more Familiar wild 
the Rotifera of the northern hemisphere, at a time 
when rotifers, among others, were widely accepted 
as cosmopoliian. W'hen competent local workers in 
Australia began to describe the indigenous species 
early this century, European reviewers *eusmo* 
polilanized* these species by synonymy with familiar 
northern hemisphere taxa. 

l! has become increasingly evident in our studies 
of Australian rotifer taxonomy, ecology and 
distribution that a high degree of endemicity 
prevails (fit. Koste & Shiel 1987). Methods now exist 
by which superficially similar taxa can be resolved 
(el\ Kosic & Shtel \W9). Tltese include SEM, as 
used by Frey (in press) for chydorid cfadoceran*, 
and elect rophoretic methods, as used by Benzie 
(198S) for Daphnia. Until such methods are applied 
to the Australasian Rotifera. caution should be used 
in identification below family, particularly where 
evaluation of environmental impacts or 

J 30 

W. KOSTt & R. J. S1UEL 

perturbations is involved. Similar caution should 
be exercised in use of our keys and figures ru identify 
non-Australian rotifers. 

Darting Freshwater Research Centre, or *% 
subsamples in the Koste collection, Quafcennriick, 
ultimately will be deposited ac the SAM. 


The families of Roiifera: Monogononta 
considered in this part of our revision are 
predominantly littoral (epiphytic or epibenlhic) in 
affinity, collected in and around vegetation in 
shallow waters e.g billahongs, or at lake margin*, 
where they graze on detritus, bacteria or algae. The 
Proalidae and Lindiidae are illoricate rotifers, ijc., 
they tack the firm, sometimes facetted cuticle 
(lorica) characteristic of most of I he rotifer families 
we have reviewed (cf. Koste & Shid 1990). On 
preservation, most illoricate taxa contract into 
indeterminate spherical 'blobs*, and identification 
is difficult. Specific determination from preserved 
material therefore relies heavily on comparative 
morphology of the sclerosed mastax elements 
(trophi), which appear to be species-specific. 

There are difficulties in detailed examination of 
trophi structure: the trophi of some rotifer genera 
are minute <<20 jttn), with correspondingly tiny 
components. Bleaching the body tissue away 
generally leaves the trophi, but delicate parts may 
be lost, and the three-dimensional orientation of 
the trophi is disrupted. In view of these difficulties, 
the details of trophi structure given in previously 
published works may be only partially accurate, or 
a: *»x>rst. useless to interpret trophi morphology. 
Inadequate descriptions and figures may have 
passed through several generations of revisions. The 
recent application of scanning electron microscopy 
(SEM) to trophi structure (Markevieh 1987; 
Markevieh & kutikova 1989) has improved 
resolution of components, but the problems of 
dissociation and disorientation remain. 

In the systematic section below we have followed 
the format of earlier parts. Formal descriptions are 
modified (generally abbreviated m translation from 
the original author) with additions in some cases 
after the most recent reviser's comments (Koste 
1978). Keys to families are included in Koste & Sbiel 
(1987), and details of Rotifera outside Australia, 
including other species of the two families reviewed 
hcrc> are found in Koste <197S). Information, where 
available, on type localities and known distribution, 
is included* Type material per se is very limited; 
some early taxonomists did not make type sHdes 
at all, and many extant collections were lost during 
the destruction in Europe during WWll. Our 
Australian type material has been or will be lodged 
in the South Australian Museum. Adelaide (SAM) r 
and our collections, presently boused at the Murray- 

Family Proalidae Bancs 
Proalidae Bar (as, 1959, 515. (- sub-family ProaJiuae 
Remane, 1933 partim). 

Illoricate, body swollen, fusiform or vermiform; 
head and foot clearly defined; corona mostly 
supraoral; buccal field with rudiments of Literal cilia 
(Bryceeila with two long cirri); mastax resembles 
mallear? with different number of unci teeth (1-8), 
however is used like virgate mastax, with eptpharynx 
present; liypopharynx muscle inserted on mastax 
wall,, not fulcrum; eyespci on brain, sometimes 
lateral in ProaJes, Of Four genera, ftvxtttnopsis 
(2 spp.) and Proafes (10 spp.) are known From 
Australia. Bryceeila (1 sp.) is a doubtful necwd, and 
Wutfertia has not been recorded here. 

Key to genera of the Family Proalidae 

1. Corona with stout cirri with which die animal moves 
rapidly in a jerk> morion, head with rostrum; budy 
Fusiform or near-*haped with transverse 

pseudosegiiierUbtion; uncus 5-7 toothed, 

Bryceeifa Remane 

Corona without clrTl_ 2 

241). Head long, with sulci; corona reduced, without 
lateral ciliary tultsc ioes short, wide arid acme; body 
fusiform, widening at beginning of posterior Vj\ 
cuticle with longitudinal pleats; uncus 5*toothed; 

large epipharyngeal plate Wuijenio Donner 

Corona with lateral ciWsry lufts ..3 

3d). SpinuUre papilla above cloaca; unci 8-9 toothed 

ProaiiHopsis Weber 

No papilla above cloaca; unci 1-6 toothed , 

• • ...!.., Pro<?t$$ Oosse 

Genus Bryceeiio Remane 
Brycetih Rcraane, t919, p. 115 

Tvpe: Stcphanops srylatu* Milne, 1886 - Bryceeila 

stylaw (MUne), 

Type locality: Moss near Glasgow, Scotland. 

Bryceeila is isolated systematically by the 
possession of peculiar cirri assemblages on the 
corona. Body slender; anterior end oval, with neck 
clearly defined, head extended anteriorly (rostrum); 
abdomen oval, wilh narrow preanal section and 
short, squat tail; foot slender, with 2-3 
pseudosegrnents; toes blunt, slender, curved 
ventralJy, integument relatively stiff; abdomen with 
lateral longitudinal sulci; irophi *tnall, of modified 
maileate type; manubrta with lateral lamellae; unci 
with 5-7 teeth; rami with teeth on inner margin as 
well as basalanopbysis; cim of corona stand in 
several transversa rows and .serve in toconuHsun 



(reminiscent of the ciliate Euplotes); animal 
proceeds jerkily, with longest cirri IO the front; 
laterally, a pair of exiTemely long sensory setae 
project from the head. 

DHiribuiion: R stylata (Milne. 1886) (Fig. til) 
is known from the Palaearctic and 8, tenela (Bryce, 
1897) (Fig. 3:2) is known more widely from acid 
waters of North and South Amenta, Europe Asia 
and New Zealand R voigti was described from 
Romania by RodewaJd (J933), however the figures 
and description were unsatisfactory, and the status 
of this taxon was queried by Koste (197$). The 
single-toothed uncus, lack ol" inner-margin ceeth of 
the rami, apparent absence of long lateral setae and 
differences in the morphology as figured, make 
placement of flL voigti doubtful. 
Australian record: The only record is of Dryceetia 
voigti by Berzins (1982) from two localities at 
BombaJa, N.S.W, (28.xii.49 and 8.i.50), both from 
moss on Eucalyptus trunks. No figures or 
description were given. Hence we regard it as an 
unverified record of an indefenninate taxon. 

Genus Pwalinopsis Weber 
Proalinopstt Weber in Weber & MonteT, 1918, p. 98. 

Type: Notomma/a caudata Collins, 1872 = 
Przxdinopsi's caudatus (Collins) 
type locality: pooh, Sandhurst, Berkshire, England. 
Body elongated, illoricate, cuticle very 
transparent, adult sometimes with filamentous 
gelatinous envelope; head and foot clearly 
demarcated; body cross-section hemispherical; 
dorsal antennae on cuptike-cylindncal papillae; 
gibbous rump protrudes as a rim over foot; foot 
two-segmented, proximal segment longest, with 
dorsal knob bearing a long spine or seta! lufi; 
corona an oblique disc with short marginal cilia and 
two lateral areas with long cilia; lateral antennae 
with tongsensillae, on small protuberances, at level 
of upper intestine; long pointed toes, elongated foot 
glands; raaslax intermediate between malleate and 
virgate trophi; fulcrum slender, laterally dagger-like; 
rami symmetrical, large and triangular, without 
teeth or alulae; uncus with ca. eight long, thin teeth, 
clubbed at tips; cpipharynx absent; eyespot, if 
present, cervical. Seven species are known (Koste 
1978)> two of which have been recorded from 

ho to species of the genus Proalwopste known 

From Australia 

Fiiw neeUle-Wke spinuJe3 On posterioi ddsal paptlift. 

t P cuudatus (Collins) 

Papilla with robust spine. 

./! SWi//w< Harrfafi & Myers 

Proalinopsis caudatus (Collins) 

FIG, \$ 

Notommata caudata Cotlin.s, 1S~2, p. 11, fig <S 
Proalinopsis caudatus: Weber & Montet 1918, n, 98. 

type locality: Pools, Sandhurst, Berkshire. England. 
Holotype: Nor designated. 

Description: Body slender, bulging posteriorly, 
width < l /* length; head narrow, .separated from 
neck by transverse fold; bright red cervical oyespot; 
abdomen ends in short tail projecting over loot; foot 
two-segmented, fusiform; proxjrnal segment with 
dorsal knob bearing long deflexed setae; toes long, 
acute, slightly curved; foot glands small and slender; 
mastax virgate, resembles malleate, eight teeth on 
left, seven on right uncus, ventral tooth in each case 
largest and clubbed, remaining leeth decreasing 

Length: 125-268 ^m; width lo 77 jut»; toes 
16-22 /Un; trophi IS *im wide, 25 urn long; 
manubrium 18 urn; fulcrum 7/tml unci II *tm\ 
subitaneous eg# 60 k 30 pin. 
Ecology: Widely distributed, probabl) 
cosmopolitan in slightly acid waters (pH 4.5-6v5L 
Sphagnum pools. Rare> N.S.W- , W.A. 
Literature: Koste (197&). 

Proalinopsis slaurus Harring & Myers 
FIG. 1:4 

Proahaapsi* swaus Harring & Mycis, 1924, p. 439-40. 
Fig. 20: 5-9. 

Type locality: No single locality specified; In 
'floating and submerged Sphagnum in soft water 
lakes and ponds'. Mamie Lake, Eagle River and l-ae 
Vieux Desert, Vilas County, Wisconsin, also New 
Jersey and Florida, U.S.A. 
Holotype: '.'Myers Coll., USNMNH, New York. 
Description: Body fusiform; deep constriction 
separates )tead from abdomen; no red cervical 
eyespot; abdomen tapers gradually to tail; foot two- 
segmented, proximal segment with dorsal knob 
bearing single stout spine; toes stout at base, acute; 
foot glands large, pyntorm; mastax virgate, 
resembles malleate; unci with eight or nine clubbed 
teeth, decreasing dorsally. 

Length: 100 #n>; toes IB uft\; trophi 15 jim 
Ecology: Only known previously from Sphagnum 
in North America. Two Australian records; L. Tidier 
(Gordon R.) and a stock dam al Golden Valley, "las, 
\gJb-2SXPC, pH 5.8-7.$, 40.8-46.6 >tS cm , TDS 
26.1 mgl MS NTU 
Litenuure: koste (1978); Koste et ai (1988). 

Nat recorded from Australia; 

/? gracilis Myers, 1933. U.S.A.; P fobaius Rodewaid, 

1935. Europe; P, nhagus Myers, 1933 U.S.A.: P 



Fig. I: 1, Rryceeiia stylata (Milne): (a) dorsal; (b) lateral; (c) trophi, 2, B, tenela (Bryee): (a) dorsal; (b) lateral; (c) 
trophi. 3, Proaiitwpsis caudaius (Collins): (a) dorsaJ; (b) foot and toes, lateral; (c) trophi, dorsal; (d) trophi, ventral; 
(e) trophi, lateral. 4. P. staurus Harring & Myers: (a) lateral; (b) trophi, lateral. 5, Proates daphnkola Thompson: 
(a) lateral; (b) dorsal; (c) trophi, ventral; (d) trophi, lateral. 1 after Wulfert (1940); 2 after Kutikova (1970): 3-5 
after Harring & Myers (1924). Scale lines: adult 50 //m, trophi 10 /tm. 



sefeae Myers, 1933. U.S.A.; P. squantipes Hauet, 
1935. Europe. 

Genus Prmtes Gosve 
Proales Go*se in Hudson & Gosse, 1866. 2, p. 36. 

type: Notommata decipiens Eluenbere, 1832 = 
Proales deeipiens (Ehrenberg). 
Type locality: near Berlin, FRG 

A diverse series of taxa, from free-living to 

parasitic, freshwater lo halophile. Fusiform illoricate 

body in free-living, species, more swollen in parasitic 

taxa (aha considerable distortion of the body in 

females bearing resting eggs); head separated from 

abdomen by slight constriction behind ma&iax; foot 

indistinct, very shori to long and articulated^ (wo 

toes; corona generally oblique, ciliary disc with 

short marginal cilia and two lateral tufts of long 

cilia (not contractile auricles a$ in Lmdio or 

Notommata species); mastax modified maJIcate- 

virgate type; trophi very small. 

Comment: Proales requires thorough revi.sion; the 

diversity of laxa presently included in the genus 

undoubtedly will separate into more uniform groups 

wuh improvements in taxonomy* eg. SEM study 

of trophi morphology as by Markevich (1987). Of 

30 species recorded globally, 10 are known ftom 


Key *o species of the genus Proales known from 


I, Foot with *iufje toe.. ,,P, doUaris tKousseterj 
Foot with iwo-toes 2 

2i\). Eyespot below base of brain; body bulbous; toes 
coniform; commonly enizoic on Daphnta , 

. . . P (Jophnicoia Thompson 
Eyespot, body and toes not as above; not epirxric on 
Daphma 3 

3(2). Parasitic in colonics of Votvox or in VaucHerio <ctis 

Free-swimming, noi parasitic . .5 

4<3). in V<?/vav colonies (nor to be confused with 

Awomorpheila vofvodcoia/i trophi small (to J5*uuj 
P. parasita (Chrenberg) 

In VatKheriu f» laments P we week i (bhrenbetg) 
5(3). foerbody ratio >18 6 

Toerbody ratio <l7 .7 

liC)). Trophi c?0/im; smalt dors-at knob rocs. 
/» fatfaciosa Wulfert 

Tronhi >3()Mm; pointed spine on dorsal margin of 

t'ocn P. figantea (Glasscotr) 

7(5). l-not Inng (2-3 i mc length t.'. P tafuiefc Gosse 

root shoit (<2* ioe length) .B 

8(7). Eyespot absent; hody vermiform 

p. mfcfoptfs CGotee] 

Eyespot present, median or laterally displaced; body 

fusiform 9 

9(fc). Median eyespot, ventral ta base of brain, no lens. 

6 unci teeih P simile De Beauchamp 

Eyespot displaced to right, crystalline lens; 4/5 unci 
teeth ... P. deapienx tbhrcnbergl 

Proales daphnicota Thompson 

FIG. 1:5 

f> (faffifcnebk Thompson, 1892, p. 220, Fig. «23. 

Type locality: (England) 
Holotype: Not designated. 
Description: Body short, stout, widest medially with 
marked constriction behind head, fusiform 
thereafter, corona slightly oblique, with two lateral 
strongJy-cihatcd areas corresponding to auricles in 
notommaljds; integument soft, flexible; foot short, 
sroui, two-segmented, with two short coniform lots, 
swollen at the base, with tubular spinules; reddish 
eyespot at underside of brain; trophi mallcate with 
Hve clubbed unci teeth, rami with unusual doubled 
hornlike, conical, elongated >pikes; oesophagus 
long, slender, gastric glands large; foot glands large, 
pyriform, with reservoir!* in distal and proximal foot 
segments; subitaueous egg smooth; resting egg lighc- 
brown, covered in hooks. Male similar in form M 
female, slightly smaller. 

Length 273-400 /trn, iocs 25-30 >im, trophi 36-40 
pfri< unci to 18 ^m, subitaneous egg 96*$0 um, 
resiing egg 105-109x76-80 flVL 
Ecology: Widely dismhuted epi/oite on Daphma 
spp.^ where ii feeds on flagellates and ciliatcs living 
on the carapace. Regarded in early literature as 
'entozoicatly parasitic' (Hudson & Gosse 1886). 
Eggs generally are attached to the bases of the 
cladoeeran's antennae (Kosie 1978), Europe, Asia, 
N. America, Africa, Only known localities in 
Australia ate from R. Murray billabongs near 
Albury-Wodonga on D. carinaia and D. ccphafata, 
]0.2-l5J°Q pH 6.9-7.9, DO 7.1-12.4 trig h 1 , 
78-170 *S cm '. 4.0-39.0 NTU 
Literature: Harring & Myers 1924; Koste 1978. 

Proates deeipiens (Ehrenberg) 
FIG, 2:1 
Notommata deeipiens Ehrenberg, 1832, p. 132. 
Proatei rfreiptem: Hudson & Gosse 1886, 2, p, 36 

type locality: near Berlin, FRG. 
Holotype: Not designated. 
Description: Body elongate, slender, transpatcnt; 
trunk widest in posterior third, Lapers to two- 
segmented foot bearing two toes with acute points; 
integument with longitudinal folds; Lransverse folds 
demarcate head and neck from trunk; corona 
oblique with lateral ciliary fields; eyespot small, red. 
mostly displaced to rifiht; distinct bubble-like 
retrocerebral sac; gaslric glands oval or lobate; 
mastax with vtreate trophi, but resembling mallcate 
type; rami with large basal apophysis, on which are 
asyinmelric teeth medially; no alulae; unci with 5/5 
and 4/5 webbed teeth, the largest bifurcate, 
decreasing in sizedorsally: epipharynx two hammer- 


W. KOSTE & R, S, SH1EI. 

Fig. 2: 1, Proales deapiens (Ehrenberg): (a) dorsal; (b) lateral; tc-e) trophi, various aspects. 2, R dofiaris (Rousselet): 
(a) dorsal; (b) lateral; (c-d) troplii, 3, P.faHaciosu Wulferl: (a) dorsal; (b) lateral; (c-d) trophi. 4, P. gigamea (Glasscott): 
(a) dorsal; (b) juvenile; (c) posterior showing tail and toes; (d) trophi; (e) manubrium and uncus, lateral. 5, P. micropus 
(Gosse): (a) dorsal; (b) lateral; (c) 2nd individual, lateral; (d-e) trophi. 1, 2 after Harring & Myers (1924); 3 after 
Wulfert 0939); 4 after Koste (197S); 5 after Hudson & Gossc (1886), as figured by Kuiikova (1970). Scale lines: adult 
50 ^m, tropin 10 tfs. 



like structures; manubrium long, broadly triangular 
ribbed plates. Male known. 

Length: 120-270 pm, toes 10-1 6 >uu trophi 15-21 

Ecology; Cosmopolitan among vegetation* in small 
water bodies, billabongs, ponds. Rare; Tas., Xtc 
10a-2LO°C ( pH 7.2-7.6, U.8-57.3 jiS enr 1 , DO 
V.O mg I \ 4.0-5.0 NTU 
Literature; Marring Si Myers (1922); KoMe (1978). 

Proaies doliaris (RousseleO 

FIG. 2.2 

Mkrocodides dolioria RousseleU 1895. p. 120, Fig. 7:4 
P. doliaris; Harring & Myer* 1924, p. 437, Fig. I9J-7. 

Type locality; UK. 
Holotype; Noi designated. 

Description; Cuticle soft and transp3ienl; trunk 
oval to round in section; foot two- or three- 
segmented; iwo fool glands; indistinct reddish 
cerebral eyespot; corona oblicue with supraoral 
buccal field; complete ciicumapicaJ dilation and 
lateral ciliary bundles; right uncus with seven, left 
uncus with six teeth; inner margin of rami with 
asymmetric hooklike denticles, externally with wide 
lamellae; retrocerebral organ absent. 
Length; 170-300 ^m; toes 20-25 /trn; trophi 20-25 


Ecology: Widespread (Europe, North America, New 
Zealand, Asia); Not seen in our material Bcrzins 
(1982) recorded it from. Sunbuiy, Vic. 
Literature,- Koste (1978). 

Proaies fallaciosa Wulfen 
FIG. li 

Proaies faJltciosa Wulfert. 1937, p. 65, Fig. 4; 1939, 
p. 597. Fig. 12. 

Type locality: Bad Lauchstadt, FRG. 
Holotype: Nol designated. 

Description: Variable morphology, body cylindrical 
with medial bulge, tapers to truncated two 
segmented foor with two conical toes; small 
tounded knob projecting dorsally between loes; 
cuiicle generally with longitudinal folds; corona 
oblique, laterally with strong ciliary tufts rather than 
auricles; small rostrum present; hemispherical 
retrocerebral sac and red eyespot displaced to right; 
trophi primitive virgate type resembling nialleate: 
left uncus with seven teeth, right wilh 5-6 teeth; fine 
denticles directed inwards along tooth-plate margin 
(Ftp. 2:3c), rami wilh basal apophysis drawn into 
2^3 points; no alulae; manubrium with shorter 
inner lamella and outer inwardly curving wider 
lamella: gastric glands round to elongated; foot 
glands wilh reservoirs. 

Total length 20O-320 ^m: toes 9-15 /an; trophi 
25-28 >ira; fulcrum 6-11 >an; rami 9-12 /*m; unci 
9-15 ^m. 

Ecology; Cosmopolitan in alkaline lo slightly acid 
watei, particularly decomposing macrophytes, 
where it feeds on detritus, bacteria and al^ae, also 
on decomposing rnicrocrustseean* and 
macroinvertebrale*. Often confused with /? 
decipiens or P, sordida flCostc 1978). Only knovrn 
from Tasmania: stock dam near Hiumville, 
9.0-16.0°Q pH 5.7-7,6, 13,4-415 pS cm -» P 0.6-0.7 
Literature: Koste (197S); Koste & Shiel (J0S6). 

Proaies gigatUea (Glas&coit) 
FIG. 2:4 

Notommata gigamed GlasSCOlt, 1893, p. 80. Fig. 7. 
Proaies gigantea: Stevens 1912, p. 481, Fig. 24:1-5. 

Type locality; (Ireland), 
Holotype; Not designated. 
Description: Body cylindrical, very flexible in living 
animal; clearly defined constriction behind mastax; 
trunk dilates distaliy to wide, short foot terminating 
in two short, conical toes; pointed spur on posterior 
dorsal margin of foot; mastax with asymmetric 
rnalleare-type trophi: incus straight; fulcrum long, 
with slight terminal curvature; manubrium with 
short lamella at head; rami broad, triangular, right 
ramus only with broad denticulate blade opposing 
fust tooth of left uncus; right uncus 5-6 toothed, 
kit 4-5 toothed; no alulae; gastric and foot glands 
elongated, fusiform. 

Length; 140-510 /<m toes 8-12 /*m, trophi length 
30-35 /im, unci to 19 /an, manubrium 18 /mi, 
subitaneous egg 150*50 pnft. 
Ecology; Europe, N. America. N.Z. Parasitic in 
pond snail eggs (eg. Lymnaea, Radix). Young 
female pierces egg sheli> Jays eggs* juvenile P. 
gigantea eat the snajl embryo. A 140 ^un juvenile 
leaving an eggshell can reach 510 ^n in 5-6 days 
(Koste 1978). We have not encountered this animal 
in our Australian maxerial, however Laird (1956, 
verified by Russell 1957) recorded it free-swimming 
from a ponded stream near Rollingstone, 
Queensland (19°03 ' S/146°24 ' E). 
Literature: Harring & Myers (1924). 

Proaies mieropus (Gossc) 
FIG. 2;5 

Furctitimu Microtias Gossein Hudson &. Oossc, 18X6, 
2, p. 46, Fig. 19:12. 

Proaies mieropus: Jennings 1901, p. 743, Fig. 5:82 

Type locality; A ditch near Birmingham, England 


W KOSJI. <fc *. J. SHIM 

Holotype: Not designated. 
Description: Small cylindrical vermiform body, 
colourless, illoricate, very pliable and variable in 
living animal; trunk tapers Lo minute conical Iocs 
almost as wide as long; toes with inner convexity, 
commonly deflected ventraily; corona oblique; 
eyespot. occasionally present; small rostrum may be 
extended; uncus wilh three teeth; epipharynx with 
two small plates. 

Length; 100-150 /*m> toes fi-9 jurn, trophi 14-16 

Ecology: Rare in periphyton, on Chara'iu ponds and 
lakes. Europe, N. America. Not seen in our 
material. Single unconfirmed record from 
Queensland by Colledge (1911). 
Literature: Koste (1978). 

Proutes parasita <Ebrenberg) 

FIG- 3:1 

Sotommata parastia Ehrcnbcrg, JS3S. p. 426. Fig. 50:1. 
Proates parasita: Rousselet 1911, p. 8. 

7\pe locality Near Berlin, FRG- 
Holotype: Not designated. 
Description: Body short and stout, integument 
Flexible; head and neck* marked by transverse folds: 
trunk dilated posteriorly, tapering id foot; tail a 
rounded median lobe; foot broad, indistinctly two- 
segmented; toes wide at base, coniform to acute 
poults: corona with two lateral ciliary lufts; brain 
quadratic with hemispherical retrooerebra] sac; red 
eyespot at end of brain; Wuiferl (I960) repotted red 
crystalline bodies in a light sensitive organ, 
displaced to right; mastax small, epipharynx two 
slender curved rods; trophi modified vifgat* type; 
basal apophysis a semicircular plate; unci 3-toothcd, 
teeth joined by thin lamellary web; rami 
asymmetric, more developed on right than left, 
without alulae; manubria with broad plates 
anteriorly, continue as slender, curved rods; gastric 
glands small; stomach commonly filled with green 
or dark red-yellow food mass; separate intestine; 
foot glands large sausage-shaped with reservoirs; 
resting egg covered with short, strong spines. 

Length 140-180 pm, toes 10 jirn, trophi 15 ^m, 
subitaneous egg 64 ^m. male 40 **m. 
Ecology. Europe, N. America, Asia. Lives in 
colonies of Votvox % Ophridium. Uroztena. 
occasionally confused wilh Ascomorphella 
volvocicota* which its behaviour resembles. Eggs 
laid in algal colony, young animals and parent graze 
individual algal cells, eventually swim from the 
ruptured colony to seek fresh colonies. Not seen in 
our material. Recorded by WhMelegge (1889) from 
N.S.W., and by Colledge (1914) from Queensland. 
These tecordv may represent A. volvocicola. 
Literature: Harrng & Myers <I922); Kostc 0978). 

Proates si milts De Beauchanip 
FIG. 3:2 
Proate* simitis Vc Beauchsmp, iW(7, p (53, Fig, 2. 

type locality: (France). 
Holotype: Not designated. 
Description: Body elongate transparent cylinder, 
slightly dilated medially, taper jug to comparatively 
long wrinkled foot and toes; ruby-red eyespot 
behind brairu medial, displaced ventraily; 
retrocerebral sac small, ductless; stomach and 
intestine not dearly separated; mastax light brown; 
epipharynx two long curved rods in anterior masuut 
wall; trophi intermediate between virgate and 
malleate; rami triangular, without dcnticulation on 
inner edge; short, pointed alulae present; fulcrum 
short; unci with six teeth, last two on dorsal margin 
partly fused (NBr 4-5 teeth were reported bv De 
Beauchanip 3908 and 6-7/8-9 by WuJfcrt 19421; 
foot glands small, pyriform, with small mucus 
reservoir at base of toes. 

Length 125-180 ^m, toes 7-20 ^m, trophi 18-24 

Ecology; Halophile, in athallassic saline, euuaxiue 
and brackish waters, Europe, N. America. Single 
record from Diana's 8asin near St Helens, Tasmania 
I9.0°C, pH 8.9, 34.8 m$ cm-' 
Comment: A variant described by Berzins (1953) 
as P. stmitis var. exocufts* from saline (ephemeral) 
waters near Tamnuri, W.A., is here synonymised 
Its measurements fall within the range of P. stmttts. 
The lack of an eyespot as noted by Berzins is 
probably a preservation artefact. 
Utentutre: Kosle (1978). 

Proates sordtda Cossc 
FIG. fcj 

Proates sorttidn Cosse in Hudson & Cossc 1 886. 2. p 
37, Fig. 18;7. 

nun P. sordid? Marring & Myers 1922, p 605. Fie, 

Type locality: Not specified 'Many localities in 
England and Scotland: common in pools.' 
Holotype: Not designated. 

Description: Squat, head slightly flared anteriorly; 
head and neck marked by transverse folds; trunk 
almost cylindrical, tapering to 3-segmented fool 
with rounded distal segment projecting over swollen 
bases of stout toes; foot with median longitudinal 
depression; corona oblique; numerous vesicles in 
anterior ot head; large hemispherical retroeerebial 
sac; brain with lateral ruby-red eyespot; stomach 
and intestine not separated; foot glands large with 
reservoirs; unci with five teeth; rami with large 
alulae; epipharynx unciform *vlth characteristic 
basal plaic, 





mtm wr% 

l 4 

'hjA \ 2c 

reals ^m$k 
% 2d 

Ftg. 3; I. fW/cv parasiia (Ehrenberg): (a) dorsal; (b) lateral* (c-d) trophi. 2, /? stmiffc De Beauchamp: (a) dorsal, 
(b) lateral; (c-d) trophi, 3, M sanMus (Gossc). (a) dorsal; (b) lateral; (c-d) trophi. 4, P. wernecki (Ehrenberg): (a) 
dorsal; (h) lateral; (c-e) trophi, various aspects, i after Harring & Myers (1924); 2 Kcwte, ori*.; 3 after Wulfen (1939). 
Scale lines: adult 50 wn, trophi 10 pm. 

Length: 150-230 /im, toes 10-12 ^m, trophi 25 
/*m, fulcrum 12 //m v unci to 12 /an, manubrium to 
20 fim t 

Ecology; Cosmopolitan, in periphyton and diatom 
films. Not seen in our material; recorded try 
Cntlcdge (1911) from Queensland and Evans (1951) 
from Victoria. 
Literature: Koste (1978). 

Proales wernecki (Ehrenbere) 
FIG. 3:4 
Notornmata werneckit Ehrenberg. 1834, p. 216. 
Praate werneckii: Hudson & Gosse 1889, p. 23, Hg. 32:18. 

T\pe locality: Near Dassau, FRG. 
Holotype: Nor designated. 

Description: Body elongate, transparent, very 
slender; integument flexible; head longer than wide, 
rounded anteriorly, slight constriction demarcating 
neck; body cylindrical, tapering to 2-segmemed foot 
with slightly decurved conical toes; corona oblique 
with lateral ciliary tufts; retroeerehral sac present, 
mastax with salivary glands; epipharynx two 
sigmoid plates embedded in mastax wall near base 
of rami; trophi resemble malieate type; rami 
triangular, decurved at posterior ends; unci single- 
toothed; manubria with small anterior lamellae, 
elongate with hooked ends curving diagonally 



inwards; gastric glands large, tilled with refractive 
globules; stomach not separated from intestine; 
retrocerebral sac present; eyespot posterior to brain. 
Resting egg with smooth shell. 

Length; i40-20G>m. male 128-150 *tm, toes 11-46 
irtfl, trophi 12-18 utfl, subitaneous egg 65-87 pin; 
retting egg 62-72 <un. 

Ecology; Parasitic in filaments of Vaucheria spp., 
ihc cells of which form galls around the rotifer, 
which subsists on chloroplasts, cytoplasm and oils 
produced by the alga. Up to 80 subitaneous eggs 
produced by the leinale lft the gall, where she 
subsequently dies. Young animals leave the gall; 
copulation is outside the host, with resting eggs 
produced overwiniering in the sediments. Europe, 
North America. Two Australian records; Sydney 
(Whitelegge 1889) and Macquarie Marshes, N.S.W. 
(F. Cromc unpubl.) 

Literature: Kostc (I97S1. Foj species not recorded 
from Australia, see Kosie (1978: 267-284). 

Family Birgeidae Remane, 1937 
Not reooided from Australia (see Kosie 1978: 284-5) 

Family Lindiidae Remane, 1933 

^nuform or fusifoim rotifers in general 
appearance and coronal form resent Ming 
Notomrmta (Notommatidae); mastar cardate: 
rrtanubria with characteristic hooked structure 
Remane (1933) separated Lindia Dujardin, 1841 into 
rwo subgeneia, Lindia (■■.- a.) and Lindia 
(Halolindkx), which, although having comparable 
trophi structure, have marked differences in body- 
and coronal-form, also in ecology. Lindia [s. sir,) 
occurs in freshwater, and is oviparous. L. 
(HaloUndia) occurs in marine or athatlascuc saline 
waters, and is viviparous. Five species of ' Lindia (s, 
s.) arc known from Australia, none of L. 
(HaloUndia). Lindia parrolti Russell, described 
from New Zealand, also may occur here 

Genus Lindia (s, s,J Dujardin 
Lindia Dujardin, I84J, p. 653. 

type locality; (France). 

Body cylindrical or fusiform; head with lateral, 
medium to very long, ciliary auricles (not everted 
under pressure of coverslip in mounted 
preparations); head and neck delineated by 
transverse sutures, which also occur along trunk, 
but most obviously on tail; foot short, stout, two- 
segmented, cylindrical with short acute conical toes: 
trophi with small 2-4 toothed unci; manubna with 

dorsal projecting plate-, hook-, strut- or sickle- 
shaped structures; preuncial teeth in several species; 
conspicuous epipharynx generally present; 
hypopharynx muscle, when present, rudimentary; 
salivary glands present in L mmcata; stomach and 
instestine indistinctly separate; gastric glands mostly 
large; protonephridia and retrocerebral sac without 
structure; subcerebraJ glands absent; cerebral 
eyespot always present. 

Key to species of Limfij known from Australia 

I. Body <10Q nm; trophi <10|*ra. . . L parrout 

Body > 100 *m; tropin > 10 *m . . .2 

2(1). Toes >30 *j.m L. ecela Myers 

Tbes < 30 /im , , , . J 

3(2). Distinct bilateral spherical proirUMons of 
Integument in contracted individuals (Fig. 4:2b); 

trophi >50 fflh long L. deriddeh Koste 

No obvious protrusions; trophi <so pm long. A 

4(3) Trophi <20 #m, , ,L. umiecta Harring & Myers 
Trophi >20 ttm 5 

5(4>. Head with rostrum; iocs cylindrical with offset short 
points; elongate ciliated auricles (Fig. 4:4a); trophi 

26-52 /<rn . . L. torulosa Dujardin 

Head without rostrum; toe* conical, tapered; miliary 
auricles short (Kig. 4:5a); trophi 30-43 pmi, . 

. . . >L. truficaia Jennings 

Lindia annecta Harring & Myers 
FIG. 4:1 
Lindia annecta Harring A Myers, ]922> p. 622-^24, Fig. 
54: 6-9 

Type locality; No single locality specified. 
'. ,,, Sphagnum bogs and ditencs near Atlantic 
City, New Jersey.' 

Hototype: ?Myers Coll., USNMNH, New York. 
Description: Body slender, rransparem, transverse 
folds give annular appearance; head and fleck 
sections of similar length and width; trunk widest 
posteriorly, tapering to indistinctly 3-tobcd rump, 
two-jointed foot, short, conical, acute toes; corona 
extends vientrally ca. l/5th of body length; lateial 
auricles small, widely tongue-shaped as in many 
Notommata species; rudimentary salivary glands 
large gastric and food glands; brain large, saccate, 
with posterior retrocerebral organ encasing distinct 
red eye-spot, scattered pigment granules; mastax 
specialized virgatc type: fulcrum short, quadrate; 
manubria with wide lamellae, before hooked 
appendage; unci with three teeth, median twice a* 
long and more strongly developed than I wo laterals, 
all three joined by elongate plate. 

Length: 300-350 am; toes 15-18 mil; truplii 1R 
jim long, 30 (itn wide. 



Fig. 4: 1, Lindia annecta Harring & Myers: (a I lateral; (b) dorsal; (c-4) trophi. 2, L. deriddert Koste: (a) dorsal, slightly 
contracted; (b) fully contracted; <c) trophi, ventral. 3, L. eceta Myers; (a) dorsal; (b) trophi, ventral; (e) unci, frontal; 
(d> trophi, lateral. 4, £, torulosa Duiardin: (a) dorsal; 0>) lateral, (c-d) trophi. 5, L. truncata (Jennings): (a) dorsal; 
(b) lateral; (e-d) trophi. 1, 4 after Harring & Myers (1922); 2 after Kosie (1981): 3 after Myers (1933); 5 after Wulfert 
(1939). Scale lines: adult 50 /tm, trophi 10 ptn, 


W. KOSII: & R. J. SH1EL 

Ecology: Most abundant in Sphagnum and 
pcriphyton. Single uncon firmed Australian record 
from 2000 m, Mt Buffalo, Vic (BerzLns 1982), 
Literature: Koste H97S). 

Lindia dcridderi Kosie 

FIG. 4:2 

Undid (leridderi Kostc, 1980, p. 504-511, Figj 1-4. 

/',/,** locality; Ryan*s I billabong, Wodonga, Vic. 
(36°07'S, 146°53'E>. 

Hoiotypc Holotype nophi only and three panllype 
itophl preparations lodged with the Type Collection, 
Zoological Museum, University of Kiel, PR.G.. 
Nos. Rot 15-18. 

Description, Fusiform body with distinctive paired 
lateral protrusions of integument (more obvious in 
contracted individuals), trunk broadly rounded to 
romp projecting over single segmented foot and 
conical toes; head and neck distinctly 
pse-udosegmciited by dorsal annular creases, which 
also occur (less distinctly) on trunk; corona of 
Noiomnma type; oval salivary glands, very large 
elliptical gastric glands; large retroccrcbrai sac and 
eye spot present; mastax with specialized eaidate 
trophi, with distinct paired hypophnryngeal muscles 
unique lo genus binding fulcrum and rami; rami 
sickle-shaped, acutely pointed, bearing two small 
pointed leeth; unique to L. deriddeh also arc the 
widened lips of the rami, forming spoonlike 
extensions bearing II small, sharp leeth (Pig. 4:2c) 
below the inwardly directed main teeth; unci plates 
with four longer rod-like teeth, beneath which arc 
6-7 denticles on a rod-like structure, possibly 
functioning in opposition to the Tami -processes 
f'preuncinal teeth). Subilaneous egg spiny. 

Length; 3.00-400 <*m; toes 14-20 ^m; trophi 53 
}tm lung, 60 ^m wide; fulcium 12 ^m; rami 29-32 
pm\ longest uncus foorh 16-20 /on; manubrium 40 
pfri; subhancous egg 136*100 /<rn with 12-16 ptfl 

Etotogy: Endemic. Recorded only in billabongs on 
the R Murray floodplatu between Wodonga and 
Yarrawonoa, Vic, Often with cyanohaererial remains 
in gfcft IO.Z-P.5 C, pH 6.4*-7.2. DO 7.3-9-0 mg 
I \ JOS-145 jwScm ! , 4.0 NTU 

Lmdta eceta Mvers 
FIG. 4:3 

If* «vW« Myers, M3, p. 8-9. Fig- 5. 

type locality: Mt Desert Island, Maine, U.S.A., 
among Nitclla and Bomchospermunx in permanent 
bodies ol acid water. 

Holotype; Myers Coll, USNMNH, New York. 
Description: body elongate, cylindrical, slender, 
integument very flexible; head small, neck fold 
indistinct; abdomen swollen posteriorly, tapers 
abruptly to very short foot with equally short, acute 
toes; comna extends ca. 30 IT /o along ventral surface; 
retroccrebral sac (posterior to brain) round, ductless* 
encloses eyes po I and red pigmenl granules; trophi 
cardate; rami lyrate with thin lunate extensions on 
margins; fulcrum a subsquare plate; unci with single 
long ventral tooth and smaller accessory, joined by 
wcblike plate; manubria with large, ereseemic 
anterior branch: epipharynx ol two irregular plates, 
finely denticulate on inner margins. 

Length; 570 <*m; toes 32 pm. 
Ecology: In permanent acid waters, apparently 
feeding on cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) (Myers 
1933). Single record from humic waters in Tasmania, 
near L. Gaicia on the west coast, I7.0^C, pH 3.1. 
80.6 uS cm \ 0.6 NTU 
Literature; Koste et ai (1988). 

Lindia Iorulosa Du)*rdin 

FIG, 4;4 

Lindia totvtasc l>u,iatdin. 1841. p 653, Fig. 22.2 

Type locality: (bnance). 
Hohtypc: Nor designated 

Description: Body elongate, fusilbiiU to vermiform, 
transparent; cuticle thin, very flexible; adult animal 
tinged yellow to orange-red; transverse folds distinct 
anteriorly, many partly telescopic annular rings 
posteriorly in creeping animal; abdomen tapers to 
rounded lobe of tail; toot indistinctly two- 
segmented; fool-glands small bulbs in terminal 
segment; toes small, cylindrical, terminate in minute 
tubules; mastax specialized virgate, with lyrate rami; 
alulae well-developed; fulcrum a triangular plate; 
unci with three teeth, first or ventral most 
developed; lamellary web unites teeth; manubria 
with crescentic ventral and straight median branch; 
epipharyn\ two bent rods behind mouth, with two 
rhomboidal lamellae from external angles ol which 
12-15 thin ribs radiate; small brain with red eyespot; 
rctrocerebral sac brown to black; oesophagus, lone, 
ringed; stomach and intestine not separate, often 
filled with Oscillatoria fragments. 

I xmgih: 250-600 **m, toes to 1 1 pm, trophi 26-32 
fj.m y male to 175 jtm. 

Ecology; Cosmopolitan in still and flowing waters; 
mass developments in Osdlfotoria blooms; single 
record from Shccpwash Billabong, Yea, Victoria. 
II.0°C, pH 7.2, DO 6.1 mg I \ 170 flS cm 1 , 17 
Literature: Kosle <1978). 



Lindiu truncata (Jennings) 
TIG. 4;5 
Nvivmmuiv truncata Jennings, 1BP4, p. 16, Pigs 10, II. 
Lindia truncata after I (arcing A Myers, i*>2'2, p. 626, 
fig. J4^ f 2. 

type locality; Lake Si Clait, Michigan, in bottom 

Holotype: Not designated. 
Description: Elongate fusiform body, with annulare 
transverse folds, tapers to rounded tail; two- 
segmented foot with short, conical toes; body 
orange-brown to red coloured; reirocercbral sac 
dark red to red-brown; cerebral eye carmine red; 
ma 5 Lax with two large salivary glands pushing 
posterior ends of matiubria outward; rami Iyrate 
with large alulae and long right-angled dorsal 
extension supporting rami; fulcrum slender, 
lapering; unci with ihree teeth united by lamellary 
web; ventral branch of manubrium crescentic, 
dorsal branch short, forms anterior majgin of broad 
lamella projecting dorsally; epipharynx two 
hammer-like pieces behind mouth; brain large and 
elongale, posteriorly with hemispherical heavily red- 
pigmented retrocerebral sac enclosing eye -spot. 

Length: 200-512 /im, toe 8-15 /un, trophi 30-43 
Mtn long, to 50 Mm wide (fulcrum 9 /mi, manubria 
25 ftm. iami 16 ftm); epipharynx width 19 ftm; 
subiianeous egg 90v60 ftm. 
Ecology; Europe, N. America, E. Asia iu Rivutaria 
and Gleolric.hia colonies, occasionally in periphyton 
on submerged rnacrophytes. T\vo records: Yarnup 
Swamp, VV.A. and Seotts Peak, near I „ Pedder, Tas. 
J4-0°C, pH 6.2, 75-1600 #3 cm I 
Literature; Kostc et rt (1983), Kostc & Shicl (19S7), 

Irtceriise sedis 
A rotifer identified as Russelletia (sic) parrotti 
Russell ? was listed from Myall Lake, ca. 80 km 
north of Newcastle, by Sud>uki & Timms (1977). 
No description or figures were piovided. If this is 
ihc rotifer described by Russell (I947) r it was 
ascribed to the genus lindia, now placed In the 
family Lindiidae, not Rousseletia (NotomroaitdacK 

Lindia parrotti Russell 
Lindia parrotti Russell, 1947, p. 403. 

type locality: Victoria Lake, Christchurch, N.Z. 
Holotype; Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 
Description: Elongate, slender body tapering gently 
to foot; no distinct separation between head and 
abdomen; ambulation obvious in contracted animal; 
foot rudimentary, no tail; toes short; single dorsal 
antennae on papilla; lateral antennae not described; 
corona weak, oblique, extends ventrally to retractile 

rig. 5 Truphi of Undiv part out Russell, IV47 us ngurca 
by Russell. Scale line 5 Mm. 

chin; mastax cardate, small; fulcrum long, narrow, 
terminates in circular plate; rami lyrate, not 
denticulate; unci with four teeth (three rudimentary, 
lamellate): manubria long, slender, curved, 
expanded pro.\irnally at junction with unci; ?no 
epipharynx; ?no retrocerebral organ; foot glands 

Length 80-100 /mri; width 27-35 tin); manubrium 
7- 9 ^m; uncus 5/tm; fulcrum 3 jutr; subitaneous egg 
45 x 25 pXXL 

Ecology; Described from Victoria Lake. 
Christchurch, N.Z. 18-24°C, pH 8.5-10. Record 
from Myall l^ake needs verification, Occurrence 
with Brachionus plicatdis and other halophilc 
rotifers and microcrustaceans suggests that the 
Myall Lake species is a halophilc. 
Literature; Sudzuki & Timms (1977). 
Comment: Russell provided no figure of this 
species* and the trophi as figured {Kig. 5) arc 
inadequate, however the description appears valid. 
No authority is given by Sudzuki «& Timms for the 
relocation of L. parrotti to the notommatid gcnu% 
Rousseletia Harring. Russell described the trophi 
as cardate (vs. virgate trophi in Rousseletia): other 
differences in trophi morphology separate the 
genera. We regard the Myall I .ake record as incertac 


The Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft. Bonn- 
Bad Godesberg, is thanked for long-term Joan nl 
microscope and ancillary equipment to WK 
Tasmanian material was collected with support from 
The Australian Biological Resources Study and 
Peter Tyler, University of Tasmania. 



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(1939) Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Ra'dertierfauna rotatorien in der Umgebung von Rovigno dlstria. 

Deutschlands. IV. Die Radertiere der Saale-EIster Thalassia 4, 1-26. 

Niederung bei Mersburg in Okologisch-faunistischer (1960) Die Radertier saurer Gewasser der Dubener 

Beziehung. Ibid. 35, 563-624. Heide. II. Die Rotatorien des Krebsscherentumpels bei 

Winkelmuhle. Arch. Hydrobiol. 56, 311-333. 


by Keith R. McDonald^ & Margaret DAViEsf 


Litoria pearsoniana (Copland) is a small, polymorphic tree frog found in northeastern NSW and 

southeastern Qld at elevated altitudes. Morphometric data, colour variation and osteological data are 

provided together with observations on large winter aggregations of the species, temperature 

regulation and behaviour. The call and tadpole are described and a possible decline in populations is 


KEY WORDS: Litoria pearsoniana, tree frog, morphology, biology, advertisement call, ostelogy, 

larval development, winter hibernaculum, distribution. 

ftwraofftaftS oj the Royal Souety oj $. Aust v (WW), JI4<3), I4S-IS& 


by Kfith R. McDonald*! & Margaret Davics) 


McUOVAin, K, R & Davics M. (1990) Morphology and biology of the Australian tree frog Utoria 
peatsoniutiu (Copland) (Anura: Hytidae). Trans. /?. Soc. S. Aust 114(3), 145-156, 30 November, L990, 
Utoria pearsoniana (Copland) ft a small, polymorphic tree Prog found in northeastern NSW and 
southeastern Qld at elevated altitudes, Morphometry dau, colour variation and osteologist dauare provided 
together with observations on large winter aggtegations Of the species, remper&rmc regulation and behaviour. 
The call and tadpole are described and a possible decline in populations is reported. 

Krv Words' Utoria pearsoniana* tree frog, morphology, biology, advertisement call, osteology, larval 
development, winter hibernaeulum, distribution. 


Utoria pearsoniana (Copland) is a small hylid 
frog occurring on the eastern seaboard of Australia. 
Jl is closely related to Utoria citropa (Durne'ril &. 
Bibron), /.. subglandulosn "tyler & Ansns> L 
ptperata Tyler & Davies and L phyttoehroa 
(Cundiet) with which it forms the L. dtropa species 
group of Tyler & Davics (1978), 

In the original description Copland (1960) 
compared L. pearsoniana with U gradients hut 
not with more closely allied species. Moore (1961), 
Cogger (1975) and Cogger, Cameron & Cogger 
(I9R3) considered it to be a synonym of L 
phyttoehroa although these latter authors did not 
justify their conclusion. Frost (1985) recognised ihe 
species on the basis of chromosome data presented 
by King (1980) and differences in call indicated by 
Barkei Sl Grigg (1977). 

The name L barrirtgronensis (Copland ) has been 
applied by Ingram & Covacevich (1981) and 
C^eehura (1983) to species here recognised as L, 
pearsoniana. However, none of these authors 
provided justification for the name change. The 
types of L. phyttoehroa barring tone nsts ate 
subadvH. and a conclusion as to their status was 
considered to be impossible by Tyler & Davics (1985) 
in Ihe absence of topotyptc material reliably 
identified 3* L. pearsoniana, L. phylhchrou or L. 

Queensland National Parks &. Wildlife Service, 

Pallarenda, Townsvitle, Qid 4810 

Centre for Amphibian Studies Department pf Zoology, 

1_iuivershv of Adelaide, G.PO. Boa 498. Adelaide, S. 

Auu. 5001. 

Stfftughan, H R. An analysis of species recognition and 

s-pecies isolation in certain Queensland frogs. Ph.D. 

thesis. University of Qld. Unpuhl. 

Few data have been published on the biology and 
habitat preferences of L. pearsoniana other than 
those provided in the description by Copland (I960), 
Straughan (1966) 1 and Barker & Grigg (1977), 
despite the species' abundance throughout its range 
during this study. 

Here we report data on the morphology, habitat, 
biology and distribution of the species, collected 
during Queensland National Parks and Wildlife 
Surveys within the Moreton region of Queensland, 
and in particular the Kikoy Shire (McEvoy el at, 

Materials and methods 

The specimen* reported here are lodged in the 
following collections: Queensland Museum, 
Brisbane (QM); South Australian Museum. 
Adelaide (SAM), University of Adelaide Zoology 
Department (UAZ); Queensland National Parks 
and Wildlife Service (QNPWS). 

Animals were measured with dial calipers 
measuring to .01 mm. 

Methods of measurement of adults follow Tyler 
(1968). The following measurements were taken; 
snout-vent length (S-V); tibia length (TL); head 
width (HW r ); head length (HI ); eye to naris distance 
(E-N); imemarial span (IN). Measurements arc 
expressed in mm, as mean ( x ) g standard 

Larvae were staged according to Gosncr (I960i. 
The following measurements (in mm) were taken 
using dial calipers measuring to .05 mm or an 
eyepiece micrometer: total length (TL), body length 
(BL), maximum body width (MBW), body width 
at eyes (EBW), maximum body depth (BO), snout 
to eye (SEj. snout to naris (SN), eye lo naris (EN). 
snout to spiracular opening (SS), internanal 



distance (IN), interorbital distance (EE), width of 
outer eye surface (OE), eye diameter (E) t pupil 
diameter (P), narial diameters (ND), transverse oral 
disc diameter (TDD), basal tail muscle height 
(BTMH), basal tail muscle width (BTMW), 
maximum dorsal fin height (DF), maximum ventral 
fin height (VF), distance from maximum dorsal fin 
height to body terminus (BDF), tail muscle height 
at maximum dorsal fin height (TMD), distance 
from maximum ventral fin height to body terminus 
(BVF), tail muscle height at maximum ventral fin 
height (TMV). 

Calls were recorded on a Uher 4000 Report 
portable reet-to-reel tape recorder at a tape speed 
of 19 cm/sec and a Grampian DP 4 microphone, 
Calls were analysed on a DSP 5000 digital Sona- 
Graph (Kay Elemetrics) with playback on a Revox 
B7711 stereo tape recorder, Frequency responses of 
all audio-electronic components arc close to linear 
with the relevant frequency range (1000-5000 KHz). 
The built-in set up No. 10 was used for analysis on 
the Sona-Graph. 

Classification of vegetation follows Webb (1959). 
Observations on aggregating frogs were made from 
August 1976-Scptcmber 1978. Cloacal temperatures 
were taken with a Schuliheis rapid reading 
theimumeter. Specimens were handled by the hind 
limbs with a gloved hand to minimize heat transfer. 
Humidity was determined using a Zeal hygrometer 
at the opening of the crack occupied by 
overwintering frogs, whilst air, water and 

fr'tg, I. A* Palmar view of liana and H> plantar view ot 
foot u$ L ttoriu pettmunMna [\JAZ reference collection). 

microhabhat temperatures were measured ro the 
neatest 0.2°C using Schultheis thermometers. 
Thermometers were calibrated regularly. 

Data were analysed using two-tailed Student I- 
test and regression equations. 

Illustrations were drawn using a Wild M8 stereo 
dissecting microscope snd an attached camera 


Utoria pearsoniana (Copland, 1961) 
FIGS 1-3, 7-12 

Hyla pcarsoni Copland, I960 p. \$4 
Hyla pearsonkma Copland. 1961 p. 168 
Litorta peanorti: "IVler 1971 p. 354 
LitvHa pearsonltwa: Barker & Grigg W7 (\ 56 
Utoria barrmgtonemts: Ingram & Covacevich 19SI rx &9 
Definition; Small green tree frogs (cr cr 24-29 mm. 
9 9 30-37 mm) with well-developed lateral stnpe 
from narts to flank, brown tympanum, large finger 
and toe discs, basally webbed fingers, extensively 
webbed toes, slightly developed submental gland. 

Kxleraal morphology- 
Only variations from the original description of 
Copland (I960) are provided here. 

S-V of a sample of 20 adult males from the 
Conondale Ranges ranged from 24.4-29.1 mm ( x 
= 23.2 ± 1.3) and S-V of 20 gravid females ranged 
from30.S-?;5,Smni(x = 32.1 t 1.6). The largest 
L pearsotmm examined was a female of 37.1 mm 

The head is deep, flattened dorsally, rounded in 
dorsal view and broader than Ions (HL/HW, 
females 0.89-!. 00, * = 0.95 ± 0.03; males 
0.92-0.98, x - 0l95 ± 0.02). Eye lonaiis distance 
is consistently greater than inxernariaJ span 
(E-N/tN, females 1.24-1.52, 5 = 1.4] ± 0.08; 
males 1.22-1.52. i - I.3S ± 0.09). 

The legs are moderately long (TL/S-V, females 
0.49-0.56, x ^ 0.53 + 0.22; males 0.51-O.55, x 
= 0-53 ± 0.01). Webbing between the toes is 
extensive (Fig. 1), reaching the subarticular tubercle 
at the base of the penultimate phalanx of toe IV. 
The fingers are long and slender with large terminal 
discs and a trace of webbing between the second 
and third and third and fourth fingers (fig. 1). A 
rudimentary submental gland is present, 

The colour is highly variable within the species. 
The dorsum of live adults varies. The following 
colours were observed: dark brown, brown with 
green suffusions, yellowish brown with green 
suffusions, bmwn and green and completely green, 
all with Or without black spots or reticulations. A 
brown canthal stripe extends from the naris through 



Fig. 2. Litoria pearsomanu in life (Conondale Ranges). 

the eye and tympanum along the flank 10 the mid- 
body (Fig. 2). It is barely discernible in brown 

The anterior and posterior surfaces of the 
hindlimbs vary from yellowish tan to brick red and 
can change in an individual over a short period of 
time. The tympanum is brown merging with the 
canthal stripe in all the specimens examined. A 
white upper lip stripe is sometimes present. The iris 
is golden or bronze. The ventral surface is cream. 

Coloration can vary seasonally, individuals 
examined from a winter hibernaculum had all of 
the dorsal colour variation described above. During 
September when the winter aggregation in the 
hibernaculum was breaking up, some individuals 
were brown anteriorly and predominantly mottled 
green on the posterior half of the dorsal surface and 
on the legs. In January, these dual coloured frogs 
were not in evidence. Individuals were either green 
or brown mottled with green, with all degrees of 
these colorations occurring. An individual can thus 
vary from brown to brown and green mottling to 
predominantly green. Black spotting occurs on both 
green and brown animals with similar frequency. 


(based on UAZ A1034, an adult male, S-V 25.3 mm) 

Skull moderately ossified (Fig. 3). Sphenethmoid 
well-ossified extending between nasals dorsally and 
between vomers ventrally, overlain dorsolateral^' by 
nasals. Prootic and exoccipital completely fused; 
exoccipitals separated dorsomedially by calcified 
plate extending anteriorly to form posterior margin 
of frontoparietal fontanelle. Crista parotica 
moderately short and stocky, overlain laterally by- 
poorly expanded otic ramus of squamosal. 
Frontoparietal fontanelle moderately extensive, 
circular, bordered laterally by poorly ossified 
frontoparietals which edge about 60^o of length of 
orbit. Anterior margin of frontoparietal fontanelle 
formed by sphenethmoid at level of anterior 25'Vo 
of orbit. Posterior margin at level of prootic. Nasals 
moderately broad, moderately separated medially 
with acutely tapering maxillary process not 
articulating with very poorly developed preorbital 
process of deep partes faciales of maxillae. 

Palatines moderately long, moderately slender 
and acuminate, terminating on sphenethmoid 



rig. 3. A, Dorsal and B, ventral views of the skull of Liioria pcarsonnvw <UA7 A I0V4). Scale bar = 5 mm 

between level of denligerous and posterior alary 
processes of vomers. Parasphenoid robust with 
broad cultriform process terminating behind level 
of palatines. Alary processes moderately slender, 
short, angled posterolateral^, not overlain by 
medial rami of pteiygoid. 

Pterygoid moderately robust; anterior ramus in 
contact with maxilla about Vi-way along length of 
orbit; posterior ramus short and acuminate; medial 
ramus expanded distalJy, in bony contact with 
prootic. Quadratojugal reduced to base of 
squamosal. Squamosals moderately robust with 
short, acuminate zygomatic ramus and poorly 
expanded otic ramus. Maxilla and premaxtIJa 
dentate. Alary processes of premaxillae robust, 
vertical. Palatine processes of premaxillae short, 
inclined posteromedially. 

Vomers slender, reduced medially (Fig. 3). Short 
dentigerous processes inclined slightly to midline. 
Bony columella present. Processus coronoidcus of 
mandible hooked. Pectoral girdle arciferal and 
robust. Omosternum and xiphislcrnum present; 
clavicles slender, curved, minimally separated 
medially; eoracoids robust, moderately separated 
medially. Bicapitatc scapula equal in length to 
clavicle, Suprascapula about U ossified. Well- 
developed humeral crest, 

Eight procoelous non-imbricate piesacral 
vertebrae. Relative widths of transverse processes 
111 > IV = II > V > VI = VII = VIII. Sacral 
diapophyses moderately expanded; ilia extend 

anteriorly to anterior extremity; urostyle bicondylar 
with dorsal crest extending aboul r3 its length. 

Pubis calcified; poorly developed ilia! crest. 
Dorsal prominence moderately developed, more 
lateral than superior; dorsal protuberance lateral. 

Phalangeal formula of hand 3, 3, 4, 4, Terminal 
phalanges clawed; well-developed bony prepollex. 
Radialc. os centrale postaxiale and os centrale 
preaxiale present in carpus. 

Phalangeal formula of foot 3, 3, 4, 5, 4; small 
bony prehallux. Os distale tarsale I, 2, and 3 present 
in tarsus. 

Variation: A further seven specimens were 
examined. Variation occurs in the degree of 
ossification of the sphencthmoid which can extend 
between and anteriorly to the nasals. The 
anterolateral edge of the nasal can be in contact 
with the dorsal edge of the pars facialis. The 
anterior extremities of the ilia extend about l />-way 
along the length of the sacral diapophyseal 

Comparison with other species 

L. peutsunianu is a member of ihc L citropa 
species group of Tyler & Davies (1978, 1985) 
comprising L. citropa, L subglandit/osa, L 
phyliuchroa, L pearsonutna and L. piperata. 

L. peasoniami differs from L citropa and /.. 
suhglandutusa by its smaller size and by the poorly 



developed submental gland From L. piperum, L 
pcursotiiana differs by the presence of a 
conspicuous cafithal stripe (Taint and narrow in L 
pipervfa) and by the absence of a conspicuous 
anteromedial flange on the otic ramus of the 
squamosal and greater ossification of I he vomers. 
L pearsoniano can be separated from L. 
phylhchroa by having a brown tympanum (green 
in L. phyilochroa). 

Key to members of the Ltroria utropa species group 

I. Submental gjand nm prominent 3 

Submental gland prominent , -2 

2. tympanum distinct 
Tympanum indistinct 

L. citrnpu 

, L subetandttlosQ 

3. Canthal stripe prominent - -5 

t'anlhal stripe indistincr. . I. piperatv 

4. TVmpanum brown i pew sum ana 

tympanum _ureen L phylhchroa 


Specimens have been observed in rocky mountain 
streams in closed forest (= ralfl&festfc closed forest 
with emergent Eucalyptus forest, or in thickly 
vegetated streams adjacent to closed fores!, in 
elevated areas of southeast Queensland. ' 
northeast New South Wales, 

Adult behaviour 

The macrohabitai was complex notophyll vine 
forest and sclcrophyll vine forest oi Webb (1959). 

In spring and summer adult male frogs weie 
collected during the day under logs, rocks, rotting 
leal litter and moist cavities in the soil immediately 
adjacent to the water edge. Ai night males were 

Fig, 4- Bridge girder over Kilcoy Creek (onnndale 
Raft£C& TIJC hibcrnaculum bl { uonu pcoruimatut tflD 
located In Itte arrowtd crack- 

observed calling from rocks, ferns, grass, dead 
branches and leaf liner in or near streams. The 
greatest height above water was approx. I nv Dry 
bulb temperatures taken near calling males were 
f3.9 a C-:4.S°C. Calling increased on warm nights 
during and immediately after rain. 

In winter /.. peursortiana forms aggregations 
under rocks, in cracks in rocks, in cracks in bridge 
girders and also in cracks behind waterfalls (G. 
Czcchura pers. comm,). Males and females 
aggregate together and an aggregation located in 
cracks between bearers on a bridge at the Kilcoy 
Creek study site (Fig. 4) was observed in the winters 
of 1976-1978. A sample of 139 taken on 7 
September 1976 had a sex ratio of 1 9'^W & °% 

The cracks between the bridge bearers were 
0.6-J.O cm wide in the front and tapered backwards 
(Fiji. 5). Not all ciacks wete occupied. All narrow 
openings other than those in the front of cracks 
were sealed off with mud from old wasps nests and 
silt seepage from tbe top of the bridge. Within the 
occupied cracks the mud had been pushed to the 
sides and backs of the cracks. 

Each frog adopted a pose similar to that of & 
clitoris illustrated by TVler (1989 plate 35). AJl were 
close together in groups in the cracks and all faced 
toward the opening. Dorsal and ventral surfaces 
were in contaa with the wood surfaces. The eyes 
were partially or completely closed when examined 
in situ by torch light. Frogs were very lethargic when 
disturbed or handled. 

In earry August 1978, 188 frogs were located in 
the hearer cracks. The aggregation had termed 
during May and hroke up tn September. It partially 
disbanded in August 1978 when weather conditions 
were overcast with light rain, but ij reformed 24 hrs 
later when cool, fine weather predominated. The 
only record of the break up of the aggregation 
during the three years of the study was on 7 
September 1977 (air temperature 13.9°C at 8.50 p.m 
after the first spring light rain) when some breeding 
commenced; males were calling at intervals and 
some females spawned. However most males were 
not giving the complete diphasic call (Straughan 
|96<i'), The aggregation had only partially broken 
up at this stage but by 7 October 1977 it had 
completely dispersed and frogs were located during 
the day in decaying vegetation and Under rocks and 
logs on the water edge. 

Relative humidity was high during wmler, and 
readings from close to the cracks during a typical 
24 hr period in .tune 1978 together with ambient 
temperatures in the cracks, in the water and in the 
outside air are shown in Fig, 6. 

There was no significant difference in body 
temperature between the sexes (t = 1.7094. df = 
86, 5,05 < p < O.fll), but the body temperatures 


k. r. Mcdonald & m. davies 

t i 

Fig. 5. Dimensions of the crack occupied by a hibernaculum of Litoria pearsoniana. Scale bar = 1 cm. 

100 -i 

~ 90 " 



* 80- 

,-. -•— . N /v 

14 -t 





3 11 





£, 10 


K A Jo 



>— •- 

^-•— •— 

l O — o. 

'° — o .o- 

\ ^° 

o — o — o—o^ 

/ ^ 

O A^ 

T—i — i — r 


"i — i — i — I — i — i — r 

12.00 3.00am 

t — i — r 

Time of day 

T 1 1 1— I 

12.00 3.00pm 

Fig. 6. Relative humidity in the hibernaculum over a 24 hr period in June 1978. Ambient temperature in the crack 
(closed circle) in the outside air (open circle) and in the water of the stream (triangle) over a 24 hour period in June 1978. 



differed between winter and summer (t = 71.023, 
df m 86, p < 0.005). 

Cloacal temperatures of a sample of frogs (N = 
47, x * 10.12 + 0.74°C) and of ambient air within 
the cracks and within 5 cm of each frog on 27 June 
and 26 July 1978 are depicted in Fig. 7A. These 
winter body temperatures were significantly 
different from ambient temperature (t = 4.758, df 
= 45, p < 0.005), the body temperatures being 
higher on average. There is no significant 
correlation between body temperature and ambient 
temperature (N = 47, df = 45, r * -0.08864, p 
> 0.10). Summer body temperatures taken on 17 
January 197S and 23 January 1978 also were 
significantly different from ambient temperature (t 
= 7.82, df = 39, p < 0.005). Cloacal temperatures 
of breeding frogs in summer (N = 41, x = 22.74°C 
± 0.93) and ambient air temperature within 3 cm 
of each frog are shown in Fig. 7B. Again there is 
no significant correlation between body temperature 
and ambient temperature (N = 41, df = 39, r = 
-0.18016, p > 0.10), 

Temperatures in two cracks lacking frogs did not 
differ from those in cracks with frogs, but the 
unoccupied cracks were not true controls as they 
were of differing dimensions and were not occupied 
by an equivalent non-living mass similar to the bulk 
of frogs in the other cracks. 

Breeding biology 

Males call consistently from early September to 
February with some spasmodic calling in March and 
April. Peaks of calling were observed to occur from 
October to early February, coinciding with the 
summer rains and the major breeding season. 

The call is a diphasic three-note call and can be 
likened to "Weeek Kuk Kuk". It lasts from 0.8-1.8 
seconds (Straughan 1966'). The waveform display 
of an advertisement call taken in the Jimna State 
Forest at Marumba Creek is shown in Fig. 8. Air 
temperature at the calling site was 1S°C, Call 
parameters are shown in Table L This recording was 
from a single male sitting on a rock above water, 
and may not be representative of the calls made in 
a chorus. 

Calling can vary in several ways. A very slow 
version of the first part of the advertisement call 
is sometimes heard early in the evening. Sometimes 
the first part of the call is made by one male and 
answered by a second by completing the sequence. 
The duration of these calls and parts of calls is quite 

Another call, consisting of the last two notes of 
the full call repeated several times, was noted in a 
general chorus recording. We cannot comment 
further upon the call data in the absence of 
appropriate temperature measurements. 

m n 

A»r Twnp»r*n*« 

Fig. 7. A. Cloacal temperatures of Litoriu pearsoniana and ambient temperatures in the crack on 26 June and 27 
July 1978. B. Cloacal temperatures of breeding Litoria pearsoniana and ambient temperatures in summer. 



TABLE 1. Characteristics of the biphasic call o/Litoria pearsoniana taken at Marumba Creek, Jimna State Forest, 
Qld. Air dry temperature at catling site was 18°C. 


No. of 

Pulse repetition 
rate (pulses/sec) 



Complete call 





Introductory note 


c. 377 l 


2280, 2680, 3080" 

First repeated note 





Second repeated note 





1 Back calculated from note duration and the pulse - Three peaks of equal intensity probably representing 
repetition rate measured from 20 pulses and pulse emphasized size band frequencies generated by the 

intervals taken from near the middle of the note. 

modulating frequency of c. 400 H2 (the pulse repetition 
rate of the call). 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 

Frequency (kHz) 

50 75 100 

Time Ims) 



— i — 






— i — 



Time tms) 

Fig. 8. Waveform display of a calling male Litoria pearsoniana at Marumba Creek in the Conondale Ranges. .Mr 
temperature at the calling site was 18°C. A = Power spectrum of the introductory note; B = Last segment of 
introductory note, showing pulses; C = Complete call. 



Gravid females were found in the winter 
hibcrnaculum from .lure to August, Ova were at 
various stages of development with some females 
having the body eavity fully occupied by eggs. 

Litoria peanonumu was the firs! species of frog 
to spawn of the eight species (Atfefotus brevts, 
Mixophyesfasciotatus, M. iteratus. Rheohairuchus 
stfuSt rauductyttis dlurnus, Litoria chhtis and L. 
iesueuri) al rhe study site in Kilcoy Creek. A female 
which spawned in ihe field on 15 November 1978 
and retained in the laboratory possessed large 
pigmented ova on 7 December J978 suggesting a 
capacity to breed more than once in a season. 

Axillary amplexus takes place adjaeent to pools 
conneeted to or separated from creeks, After 
amplexus is achieved at or near the male's calling 
site, the female moves to the water and adopts a 
position in which about Vi of her abdomen and \A 
of that of the male is submerged in the water. When 
spawning, the female lakes a semi-upright position. 
clasping leaves, rocks or twigs. Spawning usually 
takes place at night, bur has been observed at 
midday on an overcast day in a shady area of the 

Eggs are deposited in still, shallow pools adjacent 
to, or connected with, the main stream. The greatest 
depth of water in which ova were deposited was 35 
mm. Over the period 1976-1978, spawning 
commenced in early September, although on one 
occasion (8 August 1978) breeding occurred earlier 
in unusally warm conditions with an overcast day 
and light rain. When cooler weather returned 24 
hrs later, the winter hibcrnaculum reformed until 
September. The eggs laid on 8 August 1978 were 
at stage 15 on 17 August 1978 and had not hatched. 

Eggs are 1.1-1.3 mm in diameter and are 
individually capsulatcd in a cleat jelly 3.0-3.5 mm 
in diameter. They are attached in a mass to twigs, 
rocks, leaves and vegetation, Eggs have a dark 
brown animal pole and an off-white vegetal pole. 
Macruscopieally they appear to be black. Silt settles 
on the jelly capsule in one to two days giving it a 
grey or brown appearance and concealing The 
developing embryo. Eggs arc laid 5-S at a time, with 
occasional groups of up to 12, and can be along 
twigs and rock surfaces or in clumps on the bottom 
of a pool. The longest row oi eggs measured was 
24 cm. Eggs arc usually clumped together rather 
than strung out over such long distances. Spawn 
clumps comprise 363-732 eggs ( - = 445, n = 10). 


Initial development is rapid, neurulation 
occurring in 2-3 days with hatching occurring 3-5 
days after spawning in late September. The eggs 
hatch al stage 19. 


Fig. 9. A, Lateral and B, dorsal views of a tadpole of 
Litoria [n'urso ttiunu at Stage 37. Scale bar = 5 mm. 

Fig. 10. Oral disc of a tadpole of / rWW PWSOtitANL 

S|ay.e 37 SCAle hjr = I mm. 

The following description is of a tadpole at stage 
37. Body broader than deep with greatest breadth 
posterior to eyes (Fig. 9). Mouth ventral (Fig. 10) 
with two upper and three lower rows o\' labial iccth. 
The second upper and first lower row have a median 
gap, 1-abial papillae surround lateral and posterior 
margins of mouth. 

Dorsal surface of body brown. In later stages of 
development some specimens have dark spots 

Spiracle sinistral and vcntrolalcral (Fig. 10). Anal 
aperture dextral, opening adjacent to ventral fin. 
Tail moderately thick, deepest in anterior l A, Tip 
rounded. Neuromasts of lateral line lightly blotched 
with brown. Fins transparent with clusters of 
metanophores anteriorly and superiorly. Greatest 
depth of fin is posteriorly. Ventral surface of body 
unpigmentcd. A light golden appearance is 
characteristic of early stages (i.e. 25-28). 
Metamorphosis of tadpoles reared at ambient 
temperature from spawn collected on 27 September 


TABLE 2. Measurements (in mm) of single larvae of Mtoria pearsoniana. See text for abbreviations. 
















































































































































































J. 28 








1977 was completed between late December 1977 
and early January 1978: a larval life of 2-2V2 

Mean snout-vent lengths of seven newiy- 
metamorphosed individuals was 9.9 mm 
(9.3-11.1 mm). Colour was dark brown with a 
reticulated appearance. No green pigmentation was 
evident. Newly-metamorphosed individuals were 
observed in the field in January and February. 

Measurements on a developing series of tadpoles 
are provided in Table 2. 


Litoria pearsoniana has a distribution in 
preferred habitat from northeastern N.S.W. (vicinity 
of Lismore) to the vicinity of Kenilworth, southeast 
Qld, with an isolated population on Kroombit Tops 
(Czechura 1986) (Fig. 11). The species is restricted 
to elevated areas, and has not been located in lower 
coastal country. Distribution appears to be 
influenced by the presence of a combination of 
closed forest or thick vegetation, flowing rocky 
streams and elevation. 

• •£ 

•- • 

Brisbane" \ 


Fig. II. Distribution of Litoria pearsoniana in northern 
N.S.W. and southeastern Queensland. 



Conservation status 

Ai the rime or (his study (1976-1978), the species 
was exceptionally abundant (using the criteria of 
Kirkpalrick & Lavety 1979). However, (fie species 
declined at the end of rlir decade and in December 
1983 at the site at whkh 50 L pearsoniana were 
collected and cheeked for colour variation in |978. 
only five specimens were seen and heard over a 
period of V/i hrsv At this time no confirmed egg 
masses of L. pearsoniana were observed. 

Oilier species of frogs have disappeared from this 
area including the Gastric brooding frog 
Rheobatrttchus sifas (Ingram 1983) and the 
southern day frog lhuda<tytus diumus (Czchura 
19&4). We have he further data on abundance of 
the ipecies and hence are unsure whether the 
populations have "declined" at other sites along 
their dislribution or of the status of the Conondale 
Range populations at this time. 

Material examined 

SAM Rl 7583-5, Wanie N.P., Sprmgbrook; NPWS 
N!5760-2> N15765-7. N1577t^St. N17199, N1727I-4, 
NI7276, NI727£, Nl?2is3, NI7285-6, NI7287-8 
NI7290-4, N17569-74, Nl 7587, N28004, ConorMale N.P„ 
Kilooy Creek Bridge; NI7087. Conondale Ra. BeJUhorpe 
S.P.. Sandy Creek; A320, AJ23, Mr. Glorious; A468-47I, 
'IWin F-aJIs, Warrie N.P.; A476, Goomoolara Kails. Warrie 
N.P: A326, M2012-2*. Warrie N P.; A357, AB59-60, 
Cunningham's Gap N.P.; A352* Giraween N.P.; A758-76U 
kondahlia N R; N17087. ConondarV Ra, Sandy Creek, 
Bcllrhorpe Si\; NI7384. i75IO, Kundys Hut, Murumbi 
Ck, Jimna S.F.; NI75(V0->, Ea*t Branch, Kilcov Creek. 
M78S2-4. Munimba Ck, Jinma S.F.; QM J30879; J37641, 
J40420, J40425, 340428. J40447. Eden Ck Falls. 25 km 
SE Woodenbong, N.S.W.; J30&S5, >37fc37, 140418, 
t40*?5-4» Undercllff. N SW,; J3I478, |] 4 hn W Ballina, 
N.S.W.; J31494, IVeed Plateau, Qld; J3554U, Ml Clunic 
N.S.W., J37647-B. J4O50I, Mackintosh's Kd, fir 
Woodenbons, N.S.W; .140419, .140427, back Creek Rd, 
Uitumgab Slate tore* (20°25'S, 152°42 t); J46935, Snow 
Ck, Upper Cooper Ck (28°33'S. IS3 & 23E). UAZ A87, 
Mt Nebo; AS8-9, Warrie N.P., Sprinabiook; B42I, AI034, 
AI 454-5, Conondale Ra 


Luoria pearscniana is closely related to ochci 
members of the L. cilropa species group as defined 
hy Tyler & Davtes (1978, 1985). Jt shares with these 
species a number of features including a submental 
gland and the habit of tanning winter aggregations, 
At choice ol breeding sites, the melhod of egg 
deposition (Tyler & Ajisus 1975; Harrison 1922). 

Larvae of L. pearsoniana show typical hylid 
characters in the dorsolateral position of the eye and 
venuolateral spiracle. However, the gentJv rounded 
tail tip is not typical or' hylids tttanks el ai 1983). 
The toot h row formula is typical of many Australian 
hylid tadpoles (Martin & Watson 1 971 \ and suniJar 

to that of L cJtropa although differing from that 
species in possessing labial papillae Lhat entirely 
surround the oral disc The oral disc of L 
iubgtatictuiosQ lacks tooth rows and comprises a 
funnel of papillae of varying lengths filler & Anstis 
1975). Tadpoles o! L. piperita and L phylfochroa 
have not been described. 

The tadpoles of L. pearsoniana have more lotic 
adaptations in that rhey are not a high finned 
neck tonic lype typical of many Australian hylid*. 
(Banks et ai. 1983). 

The call of L. peanonUtnn h complex and we 
present (he data here to provide a basis for 
elaboration by other workers. 

The observations on overwintering aggregations 
reported here are the first detailed for an Australian 
frog species, and .suggest that the frogs actively seek 
appropriate microenvtronments in which to 
overwinter. The full details of siie selection remain 
obscure, but the data indicate that the amplitude 
of temperature fluctuations and the relate 
humidity conditions within the ratcrohabitat are 
important factors. The cracks appear to stabilize 
both temperature and humidity and the 
macrohabitat (dense -closed forest and associated 
perennial streams) reduces extreme fluctuations in 
air temperature and humidity that would be 
experienced in more open vegetaiion (Oreenslade 
& Thompson 1981). 

Position and posture within the cracks abo are 
important factors in thai crowding and maintenance 
of the limbs against the body reduces exposed 
surface area and this consei ves moisture (Johnson 
1971; Tyler 1976. 1989; Hcatwolc 1963; Heatwolc 
etaL 1969>. 

Body temperatures of inactive frogs in winter 
were less than 2°C above the temperature in the 
crack over a 24 hr period. The air within the crack 
fluctuated through l°C whilst that outside varied 
by 5°C. The significant difference between body 
temperature and ambient air temperature for both 
summer and winter implies some form of control 
over body temperature by the frojis. 

Populations of species of frog such as t~ 
pearsoniana which form winteT aggregations can 
become extremely vulnerable during these periods. 
Complete or partial destruction of aggregarion sites 
could result in the elimination of a local population 
whilst destruction of macrohabitat would subject 
any population remaining to adverse changes in 
temperature and moisture fluctuations. 

The possible decline of the species In the 
Conondale Ranges is cause foT concern as Ft mirrors 
declines in other species in that area and elsewhere 
I iyter in press). Such declines may be indicative of 
major environmental problems a»>d a* <uch, deserve 
carefttl study, 



It should be noted thai amongst l he material 
examined in (his study were five specimens I'rom 
Barrington Tops, N.S.W. (QM J34236-9, J34246). 
Ihe type locality of Litoria phyliochroa 
bftrrinstonensis. These specimens have green 
tympana and are identified as L phyliochroa. 
However, in the absence of accompanying call data, 
we are not prepared to comment further on Ihe 
surus of L phyliochroa barcingionensis. 


S. C/after, J. S. McEvoy and Dr J. D. Miller ar* 
tiianVed for assistance in Ihe field Dr G, F Watson 
ran Ihe »onagrum and analysed the call while G. 
Czech lira, Dr ft. S. Seymour and A/Prot. M. .1, 
Tyler provided critical comment for which we are 
grateful. Patrick Couper is thanked for the loan of 
material from the Queensland Museum. Lorna 
Lucas typed ihe manuscript, 


B*\KS, C &, BlRKETT, J, R., DUVN, R, \V <& MARTIN. 

A, A. (1983) Development of LHoriv tnfrufrvnaii} 

(Anura: Hylidae). nans. R. Sac & AusL 107(4). 

B\ftK£R f L Hi GklGG, G. (1977) "A field guide to 

Australian frogs". iRigby, Sydney.) 
Cogger. H. G. (19751 "Reptiles and Amphibians of 

Australia", (Reed, Sydney.) 
. , Cameron, E. & Cogger , H. M. (1983) 

"Zoological Catalogue of Australia. I. Amphibia and 

Reptilia." fA.G.PS., Canberra.) 
Copland, S. X i I960) A ngw tree-frog (genus Hvta) from 

Queensland. Proc. linn. Sac. N.SM-: S5(l). 154-156. 
(1961) A new name for Hyla pearsoni, preoccupied 

(Amphibia). Ibid, 86(1), 168. 
C?£CHURA, G. V. (1984) Trie Blackall-Conondale Ranges; 

Frogs, reptiles and fauna conservation. In G, L, Werren 

& A. P. Kershaw (Eds) Proceedings of workshop "The 

present, past and future of Australian ramforesls". 

(Monash University, Clayton.) 
(1986) Distant exiles; frogs and reptiles recorded 

from Kroombu Tops, Southeast Queensland. QM Nat. 

27(1-4), 6i_67. 

Fkost. D. R. (Ed.) (1985) "Amphibian species of ihe 

world. A taxemomic and geographical reference". (Allan 

Press & A.S.C., Lawrence, Kansas.) 
Gosnek, K. (I960) A simplified table for staging anurajt 

embryos and larvae with notes on identification. 

HerpetQtQgiw 10. 333-363. 

GXEENSLADE, P. J. M. & THOMPSON, C. H. (1981) Am 

distribution, vegetation and soil relationships in the 
Coolooia-Noosa River -irea, Queensland pp. 192-207. 
In A. N. Giili&on & D. J. Anderson (Eds) "Vegetation 
Classification in Australia". (CS.l.RO. Sc A.N.U. Press, 

Harrison, L. (1922) On the breeding habils of some 
Australian frogs. Ami. Zool. 3, 17-34. 

Hcatwole, H. (1963) Ecologic segregation of two species. 
of tropical frogs of the genus Eleutherodaavlm. Caritx. 
J, Sci r 3, 17-23. 

ToKRKN, F.j Dh Ausun, S. H. <5i HPAtvv'Ot.h, A. 

0969) Studies on anurAn water balance. I. Dynamics 
of evaporative water loss by the Coqwi, 
Eicutheroduct vlus po/toricertsiz Cornp. Biochem. 
Physioi 28, 245-269. 

Inokam, Cr. I- (19831 Natural History, pp. 16-35. Irt 

M. J. lyler |F.d> 'The gastric brooding frog" (Croom 
Helm, London.) 

& Covacevich, J. <!981j Frog and replile type 

specimens in the Queensland Museum with a checklist 

of frogs and repriles in Queensland. A/em QJd Mm. 

211(2). 55-70. 
Johnson, C R. tl961) Thermal relatione in some 

southern and eastern Australian anurans. Proc. R Soc 

Q/d 82, 92-94. 
Kino, M, (1980) A cytoiaxonumic analysis of Australian 

hyltd frogs of the genus Litoria. InC. B. Banks & A, A, 

Martin (Eds) "Proceedings of the Melbourne 

Herpciologieal Symposium". (Zool. Board Viet., 

KmKPATRick, T. H. & Laveky, H, J. (1979) Fauna surveys 

in Queensland Qtd J. Agrie, Animal Set. 36, 181-188. 
Martin, A. A. &. Watson, G. F. (1971) Life history as 

an aid to generic delimitation in ihe family Hylidae. 

Copeia 197I{1), 79-89. 
McBvoy, J. S., McDonai o. K. R. & StARU-, A. K. 

(1979) Mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians oFlbe 

Kileoy Shire* Queensland. Old J. Agric. Animal So. .16* 

Mogul, J. A. (1961) The frogs of eastern New South 

Wales, Hull Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 121, 151-385. 
Tvi.hh, M. J. (1968) Papuan hylid frogs of the genus 

Hyta. Zool. Ye.rh. Leiden 96, 1-M3, 
(1971) The phylogenetic significance of vocal sac 

structure in hylid frogs. Uniw Kansas Pub!. Mus. Nat. 

Hist. 19(4), 319-360, 

(1976) "Ktoes". (Collins, Sydney.) 

_. ..(1989) "Australian Frogs" (Viking CVNc.l, 


(in press) Declining amphibian populations: a 

global phenomenon? An Australian perspective. Aiytes, 
& Annum. M. (1975) Taxonomy and biutitgy of 

frogs of the I.dorta citropa complex (Anura llvlidae). 
Hec. S. AuSh Mus, 17(5), 41-50. 

&. DaVES, M. (1978) Species groups within the 

Australopapuan hylid frog genus Uiona Tsehydt Aust. 

1 Zoot. Suppt, Set\ 63, 1-79. 
. & (1985) A new species of Litoria (Amtra; 

Hylidae) from New South Wales, Australia. Copeia 

(1985), 145-149. 
Webb. L, .1. (1959* A physiognomic classification <**' 

Australian rainforest. X tcot t 47, 551-570, 



byC. R. Twidale 1 , L. W. Parkin 2 & E. A. Rudd 1 


He contributed to our early knowledge of the stratigraphy of Fleurieu Peninsula and of the 
MacDonnell Ranges, but is best known for his investigations of the Simpson Desert, which he 
named, and particularly of the age and origin of sand ridges or longitudinal dunes. Many of his 
conclusions have been modified as a result of later research, but his astute observations and 
imaginative explanations have earned him an honourable place as one of the very great explorer 
scientists of this State. 

KEY WORDS: Madigan, Simpson Desert, sand ridges, Lake Eyre, Fleurieu Peninsula, MacDonnell 
Ranges, aerial reconnaissance, evolution of dunes. 

TrammiHtfiK of th* Koyoi Sonety oj V 4«tfAi 0^0). IUU). \<1 \&} 



by C. R. TW'LDALfc 1 , L. W. Parkin- & E, A. RwuV 


rvywJAi.6, C R., Parkin, L. W. & Reno, C. A. (1990) C. T. Madigan l s contributions lo geology in South 
ami central Australia, trans. R. SQC. s '- A$&t. 114(3) 157-167, 30 November, 1990, 

Cecil Madigan (1889-1947) was for many years a Lecturer in Geology in the University tit Adelaide. 
lie coniribuied lo our early knowledge of the stratigraphy of Hcuricu Peninsula and of the MaeDonnell 
Ranges, but is best known for hi- investigations of the Simpson Desert, which he named, and particularly 
of the age and origin of sand ridges or longitudinal dunes. Many of his conclusions have tieeti modified 
as a result of later research, but his astute Observations and imaginative explanations have earned him an 
honourable place as one or the very great explorer scientists of this State, 

Km Woros: Madigan, Simpson Desert, *and ridges, Lake Eyre, rieurieu Peninsula, MaeDonnell 
Ranges, aerial reconnaissance, evolution of dunes. 


The year 1989 marked ihe centenary of the birth 
of one of the pioneers of Australian geology, C. T 
Madigan. Madigan was one of the last of a 
generation of exploret-scienttsls who belonged to 
an heroic age, yet was active recently enough to 
be survived by many of those who srudicd under 
and worked with him. Madigan'* contributions to 
our knowledge Of the stratigraphy of the i-leuricu 
Peninsula and of the MaeDonnell Ranges, and of 
the nature of the sand ridye deserts of central 
Australia, are reviewed and placed in perspective, 

Cecil Thomas Madigan (1889-1947) was born at 
Renmark in the Rivcrland of South Australia. The 
son o( a struggling irrigation settler associated with 
the Chaffey brothers, he was one of a family or five 
(Parkin I9K6). The children were still young when 
their father died on the Kalgoorhe goldfields while 
attempting to redress the family fortunes, By 
working as a teacher with the Education 
Department of South Australia, Madigan *s mother 
contrived not only to tear her family, but also to 
see them through ro a tertiary education. Cecil won 
a scholarship to the University of Adelaide, taking 
a Diploma in Mining Engineering, which was later 
surrendered for a Bachelor of Engineering degree. 
Madigan was a brilliant student and alhlelc, and 
on graduation at the age of twenty-one, in 1910, he 
was selected as Rhodes Scholar lot South Australia. 
While in England, be was appointed by Douglas 
Mawson as meteorologist to the Australian 
Antarctic Expedition and, having arranged delerral 

1 Department of Geology and Gcopttygjcs, Unjvergty Of 

Adelaide, G P.O. Ho\ 498. Adelaide. S.Aust. 3001. 
■' Australian Mineral foundation. Adelaide. 

of his Oxford studies, he sailed for the Antarctic 
in the "Aurora" in 1911. In addition to his 
meteorological duties, Madigan undertook several 
exploratory sledging journeys from the base camp 
at Cape Denison, during one of which he carried 
out a winter reconnaissance of the ice pUiteau of 
Adelie Land, experiencing record conditions of cold 
and wind In the summer of 1912-13 Madigan led 
the Eastern sledging party which traversed the sea 
ice and coastline of what was later lo be named 
King George V Land, a journey of some eight 
hundred kilometres which took two months to 
complete. This undertaking coincided with 
Mawson 's ill-fated Far Eastern sledging journey 
during which Ninnis and Mcrlz both peiished, 
Mawson himselfstruggling back alone lo base camp 
too late to embark on the relief ship. Madigan was 
chosen as leader of the group of seven who 
remained behind For a second year pending the 
return of Mawson, or, failing his return, ro mount 
a search. In recognition ot his contributions to the 
expedition Madigan was awarded the King's Polar 
Medal in 1914. 

This brief period of Antarctic exploration was 
crucial to Madigan's later scientific life, for he 
demonstrated both to himself and to the world at 
large, his capacity lor organisation and survival in 
ihe most rigorous conditions. The exhilaration of 
treading where no one else had trod lay latent for 
several years but h was to emerge and flower once 
the unknown landscapes Of central Australia were 
within his reach 

On his return from Antarctica, Madigan *s Oxford 
studies were again interrupted, this time by the Rial 
World War. He joined the Royal Engineers, (Guards 
Division) rising to the rank of Captain in 1916, and 
served in France where he was twice wounded and 
twice mentioned in despatches. 



Upon demobilization, Madigan completed his 
studies at Magdalen College, Oxford, graduating 
B.A. in 191*) wilh First Class Honours in Natural 
Science (Geology). In 1920 he was appointed 
Assistant Geologist in the Sudan Civil Service where 
he served for two years, Meanwhile Mawson, who 
in 1905 had been appointed Lecturer in Geology 
and Mineralogy in (he University of Adelaide* was 
promoted in 1921 to the Chair and almost 
immediately offered Madigan the post of Lecturer, 
an appointment which Madigan held from 1922 
until his death some twenty-five years later. 
Madigan had been awarded an Oxford M.A. in 
1922, and in 1933 his geological researches, 
principally in the MacDonnell Ranges of the 
Northern Territory, were recognized by the conferral 
of a D.Sc. from the University of Oxford, 

As a teacher Madigan was responsible primarily 
for Second Year students, conducting classes in 
most aspects of geology as then embraced in the 
academic curriculum, and, in addition, teaching 
one- term units in both mining geology and 
engineering geology. 

Initially his research loeusscd upon (he Fleuneu 
Peninsula, and can be seen as complementing the 
work of Howchin, Mawson and others, but in the 
late twenties his physical and intellectual energies 
were given greater scope by his journeys into central 
Australia, where folded and faulted terrains, like the 
MacDonnell and James ranges, excited his 
attention, and where the sand ridges of the Simpson 
Desert became an obsession 1 hat was to dominate 
his laier years. Madigan himself later named the 
Simpson Desert after A, A. Simpson, then President 
of the South Australian Branch of the Royal 
Geographical Society of Australasia and personal 
sponsor of the 1939 ground expedition that 
traversed the dune field. 

His University duties were interrupted by World 
War II when he was appointed Chief Instructor, 
w ith the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, in I he School 
oT Military Field Engineering at Liverpool, N.S.W. 
(Fig. 1). He retired from the Army in 1943, resuming 
his duties with the University of Adelaide, and, in 
particular, seeing to press the results of the 1939 
investigation of the Simpson Desert 

So much for the record - but what of the man? 
Madigan was tall, of impressive physique, 
handsome, and confident in any society. His student 
blues for rowing and boxing attest his physical 
M.tnjreand interest in fitness; attributes that stood 
him in good stead in his Antarctic and central 
Australian expeditions. While serving on the staff 
of the University of Adelaide, he took a great 
interest in student affairs, being involved in the 
Students' Union and in the Graduates' A>sou;if inn, 
of which he served as Chairman, 1943-4. He was 

I ig. I- Li Col. Madigan, early nincieen tomes (Royal 
Snooty of South AuMialia), 

instrumental in founding the Tale Society, an 
interdisciplinary society for natural science siudcnt.s 
which organized scientific field camps at various 
centres o\' interest in South Australia (Fig. 2). 

Madigan was awarded many honours and held 
numerous professional offices* including Fellow of 
the Geological Society of London; President of the 
Royal Societv of South Australia 1935, and Verco 
Medallist 1945; President of the Geographical 
Section of ANZAAS 1937, and a member ot the 
CoU[lC!l of the Royal Geographical Society of 
Australasia (S.A. Branch) 1939-1946. HI* 
community interests included l he Legacy Club, 
which he served as President, and the Boy Scouts' 
Association in which he attained the high office of 
Chief Commissioner for South Australia. 

Madigan \ many and varied activities made him 
well-known to ttie South Australian, and indeed to 
the Australian, public at large. His scientific 
reputation however rested on his contributions to 
the unravelling of the stratigraphy of Fleurien 
Peninsula and the MacDonnell and associated 
ranges ill central Australia, on his pioneering efforts 
m aerial reconnaissance and survey, his observations 


Fig. 2. Tate Society expedition to caves near Swan Reach on the River Murray, in 1937: left to right: B. Warhust, 
P. Nairn, B. Barrien, C. T Madigan, G. D. Aitchison, R. C. Sprigg, with U W. Parkin from right (A. F. Pilgrim). 

of Lake Eyre, and, most widely and enduringly 
appreciated, his work on the dunefields of inland 
Australia, particularly the Simpson Desert (Fig. 3). 

When Madigan entered the South Australian 
geological scene, the framework of the State's 
geology had already been established by such 
distinguished workers as H. Y. L. Brown, R. 
Lockhart Jack and Walter Howchin. L. K. Ward 
was active in his capacity as Director of Mines and 
Government Geologist. Mawson's interests were 
concentrated in the basement rocks of the Broken 
Hill and Olary districts and of the northern 
Flinders, on the stratigraphy of the Flinders Ranges, 
and on the ancient glacial sediments exposed in 
various parts of the State. 

Madigan was drawn to Fleurieu Peninsula partly 
because it had been only cursorily examined by 
previous workers, but also because, being then 
served by a railway as far as Willunga, it was 
relatively accessible at a time when motor cars were 
comparatively rare; in any case, neither Madigan 
nor the Geology Department possessed one, nor 
indeed did Madigan ever own either a car or a 
driver's licence. 

The Granites 















^ jr Murray R 

Harbor \^ 

Fig. 3. Map showing places and features mentioned in text. 



To plate Madigan 's Heurteu Peninsula work in 
the perspective of the lime it f$ necessary to retail 
that ai this stage Howchin had summarized his own 
work with the publication oF The Geology of 
South Au^r-alia" l)9lfl). Amongst many othei 
observations Howchin determined the strut (graphic 
succession ol the Mt LoRy Ranges and concluded 
ih;i( Ihe sirala lying unconformably ahove the 
highly-metamorphosed mhers exposed m several 
areas of (he Ranges were of Cambrian age, ranging 
from LOWCB Cambrian for those units now 
designated Adelaidean, through to Upper Cambrian 
for the fossiliferous (Arvhaeoeyathinae) limestones. 
The 1918 volume includes a eros^ section at Sellick 
Hill, m rhc north of Fleurieu Peninsula, which 
provided Madigan with a starting-point for his own 
investigations, Madigan rc-cxamined this section, 
describing each unit meticulously, and redrew it 
using his own revised lithology. He then extended 
the work along the coast to Cape Jcrvis and thence 
to Victor Harbor, running sections wherever rock 
exposures were adequate and, using the 
Archaeocyathinae horizon as a marker, traced the 
succession throughout the area (Madigan 1925). 

He compiled a geological map which appeared 
as a folded coloured plaie in this publication. He 
made the important observation thai the grey wackes- 
and associated rocks now known as the Kanrna/itoo 
Group overlie the Arcliueocyaihmac Limestone and 
arc therefore Cambrian or younger, whereas 
Howchin continued to regard them as Precambrian. 
Madigan obviously had misgivings about the details 
of his correlations lor he soon returned to the area 
and concentrated particularly upon the scarp of the 
Wlllunga Range, establishing the stratigraphies 
succession from the fossiliferous limestone to the 
well -identified Sninian tillite. He constructed u map 
on a scale ol I inch to the mile, showing the 
relationship of the major units, »n a paper resulting 
fmm this work (Madigan 1927> he drew aiioihov. 
to the anomalous altitude of the seciions in which 
the Protcrozoic Adelaide Series overlies the 
Areluteocyanthinae Limestone, and in a discussion 
of the problem tentatively canvassed rhe possibilities 
of discon form iocs, ovenhrusting, or overturned 
folds to account for 'he dip reversals. 

Although Madman's 1925 paper is entitled "The 
Geology of the Fleurieu Peninsula, Part J. - The 
Coast Irom Seliick*sHiIIto Victor Harbour" (with 
the English radier ihart the officially approved 
American spelling o( "Harbour"), the Willunga 
5c*rp paper and a bnel note on annelid trails and 
borings In beds below the Atefraeocyanlhinae 
Limestone at Myponga Jetty (Madigan I9?6) 
remain his only further contributions to the area. 
In a latet paper djscu- sine ibe age of formations 
mi the north coast of Kamviroo Island (Madigan 

1928) however, he returned to the structure ol 
Flcuneu Peninsula, referring to nts "temerity' 1 in 
suggesting the possibility of an overturned 
succession at the Willunga Scarp and-, by 
implication - and incorrectly - reversing the ages 
ol the annelid-bearing beds and coralline limestone 
he had mapped. Part II of the Fleurieu Peninsula 
paper sterns to have been overtaken by the diversion 
of Madttans Interest to rhe Northern Teiriioty 
which was in turn stimulated by the aerial 
reconnaissances he undertook in 1SQ4 


Tut use of aeroplanes for reconnaissance and 
photography is as old as the flying machine itself 
(see c.£. Walker 1951). .Aeroplanes were used by bolh 
sides during the First World War for general 
reconnaissance and artillery shotting, as well as Tor 
the strafing and bombing of enemy positions, And 
during, the early twenties O.G.S. Crawford and his 
colleagues in England began to realise the immense 
possibilities ol air photographs for the detection of 
archaeological site-, for they revealed patterns that 
aw flOl discernible on the ground. Even before the 
War. however, in 1909 ot thereabouts. Hubert 
Wilkins (from Mount Bryan, in ihe Burra district 
of South Australia) had, rather precariously, taken 
photographs of parts of southern Fngland peretied 
astride the body of an aeroplane between the 
cockpit and the propeliet, just - but only just - 
behind the propeller (see Thomas 1962), and in 1913 
Sir Henry Welcome, using a box kite as the vehicle 
for his camera, had obtained air photographs of 
an archaeological site he was excavating m the 
Sudan <0 aw lord 1953). 

As previously noied Madigan served on the 
Western Front during World War I and he must have 
been aware of the use heing made oi' aircraft for 
various purposes. He laier worked in the Sudan, 
and may nave heard of Welcome's ingenious effort 
there Whatever the background, Madigan 
pioneered the use of aircraft for scientific 
reconnaissance and aerial photography in Australia. 
Using a Westland Wapiti biplane erewed by service 
personnel, Madigan made nine (lights over central 
Australia in August of 1929. Basically he etiss 
vH'NScd what he later called the Simpson Desert, 
and determined i ha t the area contained nothing but 
desert, and largely dune desert . though he also flew 
•Act i ake Fyrc and made traverses cast and west 
ot Alice Springs in order to view the McDonnell 
Ranges (see Madigan 1931), Retook overlapping 
vertical photographs of many parts of the upland, 
and used the resultant mosaics as base maps on 
which he later plotted geological information 
(Madigan 1932a). This ts the first recorded 


application of aerial photography to geological 
mapping in Australia. 

Flying over the desert Madigan noted the 
extraordinary regularity and repetition of the sand 
ridges, likening I he view of the duncfields to "a Hat 
pink disc, rihbed from horizon to horizon by the 
red sandhills . . . "(Madigan 1930, p. 95). From the 
air Goyders Lagoon was "... a maze of 
watercourses, running in all directions in a black 
setting oi polygonum" (Madigan 1930 p. 99), He 
noted that the Simpson was much more vegetated 
than, say, the African deserts (Madigan 1930. p. 96). 
He was able readily to identify spinitcx by its 
"hollow tings, outward-growing masses from which 
the centre has decayed and disappeared" {Madigan 
1930, p. 95). The aerial view was revealing and 
Madigan *s splendid low oblique photographs grace 
many ol his papers and books. 

This series of flights confirmed Madigan in his 
dedication to the unravelling of the geology of 
central Australia, for all his later work was devoted 
to problems noted on these aerial traverses. In 
particular, his intellectual dedication to deserts in 
general and the sand ridge deserts in particular dates 
from this scries of aerial traverses undertaken in 
August 1929. 

Fig. 4. Madigan aboard a ihip of the de,*en in central 
Australia in The nineteen ihmics (E A Rudd). 

Madigan's Rights from Alice Springs along both 
the eastern and western MacDonnell Ranges 
encouraged him to plan field expeditions to ihe 
area. He and Mawson (Mawson & Madigan 1930) 
had carried out some preliminary geological work, 
using aboriginal names for the various srratigraphic 
units they recognised and mapped. Thus "Arunfa v 
is the name o^ a local tribe, and "t-aTapintine" is 
derived from Larapinta, the aboriginal name for the 
Finkfe in Ihe James Range. Many of these names, 
suitably redefined in some instances, have been 
retained and appear on modern geological maps of 
the region (Wells et ai 1970). In 1930 Madigan spent 
a month in the field, accompanied by a youthful 
and then recently graduated E. A. Rudd. His 
experience with camels in the Sudan in the early 
nineteen twenties suggested to him a means of 
wavering and mapping the western MacDonnell 
Ranges toward the Western Australian border, where 
the outcrops disappear under sand; and the same 
means of transport was used in the Simpson Desert 
crossing (Pig. 4). 

Tliis was the first systematic geological survey of 
the MacDonnell Ranges and Madigan carefully 
measured sections related to a key horizon, the 
Heavitrec Quart zite. The geological map he 
compiled depleted the structure and stratigraphy of 
the MacDonnell Ranges (Madigan 1932ft, !932b>. 

The 1930 expedition extended south of the 
MacDonnell Ranges to the Waterhouse and James 
ranges, his cross-sections being the first 
interpretation of the structure of the now imporran' 
Arnadeus Basin (Madigan 1932). The Horn 
Expedition (Tate & Wall 1897) had noted the 
anomalous course of the Finke River as it crossed 
the fold mountain ranges of central Australia and 
Madigan (1930, 1931) confirmed this observation 
He pronounced the Finke and adjacent rivers as ot 
great antiquity, which is correct, and r,l antecedent 
type, which, in the absence of evidence of uplift of 
the ranges relative to the intervening plains and 
valleys, is unlikely. 

During the 1930 expedition Madigan climbed Mt 
Sonder and claimed to have been the first European 
To have done so. It was an interesting facet of the 
explorer that he insisted on climbing alone although 
his youthful assistant was anxious to accompan> 
him! His work in the MacDonnell Ranges was a 
significant contribution to the geology of Australia 
at a very early stage of the mapping of the continent 
and a very cnicrprising project considering the 
remoteness of the area and ttie difficulties of travel 
in those days. 

In 1932 Madigan 's knowledge o^ and interest in 
central Australia led him to being commissioned to 
aase^S the prospects at The Granites, where a gold 
rush had developed. This was during the Depression 



and the lure lor gold had attracted a large number 
of people who wore ill equipped either mentally or 
physically to cope with this remote and harsh area. 
Madigan reported adversely on the gold prospects 
and a potential human disaster was thus largely 


In addition lo inlioducing Madigan 10 Ihe folded 
and faulted uplands of central Australia, the 1929 
aerial traverses took him over the most arid areas 
Of the Australian comment, and in particular over 
extensive fields of longitudinal sand dunes or sand 
ridges (Fig. 5). 

The age and origin of these dune deserts were 
to become hoih Madigan's pre-eminent intellectual 
pursuit and his major claim to enduring and 
international recognition. Not only were his 
observations of dunes perceptive but his 
interpretation of their origin was original and 
attained considerable notice and acceptance 
overseas (see e.g. Price 1950). Certain of his 
observations anticipated some that arc now 
regarded as crucial to the understanding o( 
longitudinal dunes and others broached problems 
which remain the subject of vigorous debate. 

Madigan (1936, 1937. 1938. 1946) wrote four 
papers specifically concerned with the sand ridges 
of central Australia. Though he had flown over the 
eastern part of the Great Victoria Desert he was 
mainly concerned with the Simpson Desert, taken 
here in its broader connotation and embracing the 
Tirari and the northern part of the Strzelecki deserts 
as well as the Simpson proper. In addition, many 
observations are recorded in "Crossing the Dead 
Heart" (Madigan 1946b). 

Of the papers, the first is perhaps the best known 
probably because it was the first comprehensive 
scientific account of an Australian dune desert, but 
also because it appeared In the prestigious 
Geographical Review published in New York by the 
American Geographical Society. Bui. it is 
unquestionably the 1946 paper, published, like all 
the scientific papers generated by the 1939 
expedition, in the Transactions o) the Royal Society 
of South Australia which stands as Madigan's 
sandridge testament. It contains a distillation of the 
observations, experience and consideration of all 
of Madigan's desert work. Its publication was 
delayed six years after the expedition by the 
intervention of the Second World War; and though 
there is much to be said for rapid publication, the 
enforced delay allowed time for reflection, and. 
more importantly, for the reading and digestion of 
Bagnold's epochal and still unrivalled "The Physics 
of Blown Sand" (Bagnold 1941). 

Madigan was a brilliant observer both in the an 
and on Ihe ground. His flights over the deserts 
convinced hitn of the essential parallelism and 
continuity of the sandridges (e.g. Madigan 1937) 
and he confirmed these findings on the ground. 
He took bearings on the sandndges in various parts 
o| the deseit and found that their trend nowhere 
varied more than 2° from 312° true (Madigan 


Fis< 5. Oblique air phutugrapli looking nonh along sand 
ridge* and uuinu in the Tirari Deterl, just cast of Madigan 
Gull and $f)Ut$ or Cooper freak Late Lvrc is m view 
mp left iRAAF) 

Tig. 6. Route followed by Madigan's parly dining the 
crossing of the Simpson Desert, 1939. 


1946a, Madigan i946b). In the course of the 1939 
expedition (Fig. 6) fie and Ins party crossed 626 
dunes between the Hale and rhe Mulligan rivers but 
they saw only one termination of a ridge. Most of 
the Y- or tuning fork junctions that are typical of 
the sand ridge desert are open to the south. He 
noted, as had Gauticr (1923. 1935) before him, that 
Ibedunefields occupy topographic depressions or 
B depocenircs" (see e.g. VVopfner & Tvvtdate 1967, 
1988) and .surmised that The desert is ... a great 
alluvial basin, which is still receiving sediment, 
coarser round the margins filter toward the take 
tEyrc) due to lessentne grade. This is surely the 
origin o[ the aeolian deposits" (Madigan 1946a, p. 

The essential fluvial provenance of the dune sand 
was confirmed by Carroll's 0944) mincralo^tcal 
studies; though later wwk has shown that many of 
the sand grains have complex histories, having been 
derived for instance from Permian glacial deposits 
and Cretaceous marine beds as well as sitcrete. But 
most reach the Lake Eyre Basin and are made 
available to Wind action by way o f the many nvcrs 
thai focus on Lake byte (see eg. Wopfner & Twidale 
1967 1. The red colour nf the dunes U due to a 
ferruginous patina formed an the sand grains. 
Madigan realised this and pointed uut that it forms 
only In arid conditions, and not, for instance, on 
brach *ands. He remarked (Madigan 1946b, p. 95) 
that the red patina "takes time to form, so that 
young dunes are usually wtiite or yellow", Near I he 
Diamantina River he noted thai sandy ridges which 
arc built up by sand from the channel are white, 
bui that they gradually become redder toward the 
interior (i.e. to the north). His practical bent also 
came to the fore, and enabled him to note that the 
red veneer was removed when sand grains were 
boiled in acid! (Madigan 1946h). 

Despite the remarkable consistency and repetition 
of basic dune form, Madigan did not overlook the 
complexity of the desert, for besides sandridges he 
encountered salinas and claypans, alluvial Hats and 
gibber plain*. He noted the various folttW of dune 
crests and he and his party were fofoefullv reminded 
rhat no desert is rainless wlten, not for the fust time 
during the 1939 crossing, they experienced rain, and 
completed <he trek into Birdsville along inlerdune 
corridors and floodplains heavy with mud. 

Madigan observed that the wndridges vary an 
height between about nine and 30 m above the 
adjacent Inlerdune corridors. (His now known (hat 
some of the Simpson Desert dunes arc 50 m high, 
but the 1939 expedition did not encounter these 
higher features). He astutely noticed that there is 
a relationship between dune height and spacing 
normal to dune trend (sec also Twidate 1981) Thus, 
he recorded that near An dado, on the western side 

of the desert, ihere ate five small ridges which Hand 
on average 123 m apan, in contrast wir.n some large 
ridges near the eastern margin separated by 
corridors averaging about 910 m width [Madigan 
1946a), The lower slopes or phnths of the dunes are 
quite well vegetated (mainly spmitcx and cancgrassK 
though dune* more tlian ahoui 15 m high haw 
crests essentially devoid of any plant cover. The 
ridges are asymmetrical in cross section, with the 
western slope more gentle than the eastern. And this 
is generally correct, although later more frequent 
observations and repeat photography of the same 
sites have demonstrated that following strong 
southwesterly blows the asymmetry may be reduced 
or reversed (see e.g. Wopfner 6c Twjdate 1967, at PI 

On the formation of the sandridges, Madigan 
0930, 1936, 1946a. 1946b) followed Aufriere(192a) 
in relating dune trend to dominant wind and, as 
in the Simpson 4 *the great majority of sand-raovuut 
winds are southerly" (Madigan 1946a, p. 59), the 
NNW (rend of the dunes is due to transport and 
deposition under the influence of these prevalent 
strong winds. Madigan vehemently reasserted bis 
earlier-stated views that the longitudinal ridges 
originated as small wavy ridges or strips of sand 
which coalesced downwind into fewer, larger 
suaight ridges (Madigan 1936, I946aj, Afterreadins 
and reflecting on ftagnoldfc observations and 
experiments, Madigan (1946a) concluded that the 
initial sand strips had evolved as a result of 
transverse instability in the airflow. He denied that 
longitudinal dunes evolve under the influence of 
cross winds from barehans,. as had been suggested 
by Bagnotd, pointing out thai there are no barehans 
in the Simpson, or indeed in any of the Australian 
dune fields te.g. Madigan 1937), 

In Fact, ephemeral barchanoid forms are 
occasionally developed in the Simpson Desert (e.g. 
Wopfner & Twidale 1988) and Lancaster (1980) has 
described from Namibia evidence strongly 
supportive of Bagnold's mechanism; but, by and 
targe, Madigan was right in respect of the Simpson 
Desen sandridges and, indeed., of most fields of 
longitudinal dunes. 

Madigan considered that the dune* have extended 
not only downwind, but also upwind as sand was 
plastered against the upwind Uils of dunes; the 
former would be widely accepted as demonstrated 
by repeal observations (see e.g. Wbpfner & Twidale 
1958), but the latter is dubious. He suggested that 
lateral winds built up the ridges, which, when «hey 
reach a critical height act as obstacles which prevent 
further sand transport, so that Ihe interdune 
cm ridors tend 10 be swept clean of sand; "All sand 
becomes trapped on the ridge and travels along it n 
(Madigan 1946, p. 59). 



Most of Madigan's basic observations stand, buo\ 
just as the 1939 expedition compelled Mm 10 
abandon some of his earlier conclusions, so some 
of his speculations have perfoicc had to be modified 
in light of later knowledge, For example, the 
avadahle data suggest thai the wind regime in the 
Simpson is bidirectional or bimodal, the strong, 
sand-moving winds Wowing from southeast and 
southwest (nrooKficlti 1970). This b consistent with 
the infernal structure of the sandridges which was 
well exposed by seismic tracks cut lattiudinally 
across the Desert during the early nineteen sixties: 
cross-bedding clearly indicates winds from bod) 
southeast and southwest, and this in turn finds 
support in the temporally varied asymmetry of the 
ridges f Wopfner & Twidale 1967: see also McKee 
& Tibbttts 1964). 

Again, Madigan asserted that the desert was "in 
ctruitibruim^aDd not extending downwind into the 
ibko-Taritou-Jei vis region. He overlooked the 
parrel "circulation"- of sand that returns the wind- 
blown materia! to the desert and to the Lake fcyre 
region by way or" such rivers as the Hal<; Hay* Todd, 
Gcorgina and Dtamamina. Also, he was unaware 
of the importance of source bordering dunes 
(mounds, luneites) and other obstacles in the 
initiation of sand ridges (see eg. Twidale, 1972, 1981; 
Dulhunty l9$3a>. 

On the other band some of Madigan's 
observations have been overlooked and underrated, 
hor example, thai longitudinal dunes develop under 
the influence of bimodal winds has been suggested 
by various workers fe.g. Wopfner & Twidale 1967; 
TWidale 1972, 1981) based on analysts of internal 
structure and on direct observations of changing 
asymmetry and sand movement, but it is Tsoar 
<1978> 1992, 1983) who has, by field experiments, 
demonstrated thai the mechanism involves the 
•tresUl deflection of wind from each of the 
seasonal modal directions, to flow parallel to the 
cje.utinc on the lee side of the dune" (Tsoar 1988, 
T\ 597), Although Tsoar's work is properly referred 
to and praised ia Thomas* recent review concerned 
with linear dune development (Thomas 1988), 
neither author mentions Madigan's 1939 
observation that; 

"At Andado, when the wind was about 30 m p.h ftom 
the lOiuliwcM and die crest* were 'Smoking", ii was noted 
that on me side of ibe crest, the wind at the surface was. 
Mowing along the riOge and even upward toward ihe 
summit and carrying sand northward* and upward* along 
tlic jflcep ilip-ilopc" (Madigan 1946a, p. 61| 

Nevertheless Madigan's work on sandridge 
development was well received by the iniernauotm! 
scientific community. 

Madigan's views on the age of the dunefields 
stand in marked contrast with his emphatic 
certainty te&ardinjt the evolution of dune*. Hi* 

statements on the subject are equivocal and in 
places contradictory, though un balance, and faking 
his indirect as well as his explicit statements into 
account, he seems to have favoured a recent and 
continuing age for the forms. On the other hand 
such ambivalence is probably justified, for, as wilt 
be recounted, the evidence concerning the age of 
the dunes is seemingly contradictory and (he 
question is -still being argued. 

Madigan considered (he silcrete which still 
occupies large areas of central Australia lo have 
been of late Caino7oic age, having been formed as 
the B-hofizon of a soil dunng what he called 
"genial" periods of the Pleistocene {Madigan 1938, 
p. 27, p. 56), He then suggested that the dunes are 
relic Staling that they formed during a changeover 
from pluvial Pleistocene vegetal ion to the present 
desertic cover of spinifex and cancerass (Madigan 
1946a). He attributed the "live" sand oT the Cooper 
and Diamantina to the depredation of the rabbit. 
and to (over) stocking (Madigan 193$, p. 27). "Vet 
he Mated (Madigan 1946a) that the smaller dunes 
and the flanks of the larger ones are fixed but that 
the crests of the latter are active, and thai sandridge 
building has been greatly slowed down though it 
is still not qmtedcad. He speculated (Madigan 1938) 
that the desert must surely have been more arid 
when the sandridges formed. Yet "No valid reason 
presents itself to justify ihe widely held view ibat 
aridity was gieatct in the past when the sandridgeN 
had iheir birth", pointing to the lack of evidence 
for water table lowering or retreat of vegetation (t^g. 
Madigan .1938, p. 26). Some of these and other 
statements can be v and have been, taken to suggest 
that Madigan considered the dunefield lo be stable 
and a relic of the recent pavt (eg Sprigg 1979, 1980). 
Some, however, can be construed as indicating a 
belief in the essentially modern age and activity of 
the dunes. 

Jf aridity is taken to favour dune activity, then, 
according to Madigan (1946a, p. n2) ^aridity may 
have reached its maximum" and elsewhere he 
dismissed the possibility of pluvial/and alternation* 
during ihe Pleistocene* and considered that there 
had been a swing to aridity beginning at the close 
ol the Pleistocene gJaeiation (Madigan, 1946a). 
Again: 'The origin and history of the Simpson 
Deseri sandridge . . , originating when aridity set 
in during the late Pleistocene by wind action on the 
alltnnal deposits, pjuunly unconsolidated, on the 
great plains of the Lake Evtv Basin" (Madigan 
1946a, p. 59). 

Madigan was evidently unaware of Rateliffe>> 
0936, 1937) studies of the southern and eastern 
parts of the Jescrt which clearly demonstrate the 
contemporary movemenl of dunes. Modern, though 
probably spasmodic, movement of dune ridges has 


been measured (Wopfner & T\vidalc, 1988) and is 
supported by many t ypcs of indirect evidence. Over 
wide areas the sandridges overlie fossjliferous 
alluvial or lacustrine sediments of late Pleistocene 
or even early Holocene ace (Wopfner & Twiddle 
l%7. I98K; Mabbull& Sullivan !968;Twidale 1972, 
1981). Elements of an older duncfield have been 
noted (Wopfner & Twidale 1967, 1988), and the 
possibility of pluvial and arid alternations during 
the Pleistocene cannot readily be ruled out For 
instance, the ancestor of Lake Eyre, Lake Die/i, was 
an immense body ot water during the late 
Pleistocene fey ffiitg 1956; LoOTer &. Sullivan. 
1976; Dulhunty 1983b), so> if the climate has 
changed during the Holocene or Late Holocene it 
is surely strange that dune trend is not in process 
01 adjustment? 

1 1 is clear from Madigan's comments and 
conclusions that he did - at times perhaps'* - believe 
that the dunes are still active. Implicit in his 
observation that the dunes bordering the 
Diarnantina near Birdsville are white and therefore 
young is the conclusion that they are ijit rini icailv 
contemporary. Similarly ihe deflection of sand over 
the smoking dunes at Andado. and the occurrence 
of small wavy strips or ndges, surely also imply 
essential contemporaneity? 

The reason for Madigan's confused and 
confusing statements about the age of the dunes 
is that the problem is itself confused and confuting* 
By and large, however, he added immensely to our 
knowledge of sand ndges both in the Simpson and 
in other parts of the world In 1950 the late 
Armstrong Price published a lengthy review of then 
recent work on dunes in the Sahara and rn central 
Ausualia. He concluded that "The chief 
contribution of Madigan s Mudy of sand dune- is 
its seemingly satisfactory explanation of the origin 
and development of longitudinal dunes, based on 
Baenold's wind-tunnel experiments and on his own 
field work and study o\' the literature" (Price 1950, 
p. 465). 


Madigan's interest in and exploration of Lake 
Fyre began with his flight across (he salina in 1929 
as part of his aerial reconnaissance oT central 
Australia. The plane Hew low over the salt ctum, 
loiiihing down to leave wheel tracks, though not 
landing on the soft surface, Mound springs WW 
noted and photographed on the western sideol the 
lake but no other water was sighted (Madigan i930), 
After the 1939 crossing of the sand ridge desert. 
Madigan and his party returned to Marree from 
Birdsville along the eastern shore of Lake Eyre 

During Ihese land traverses Madigan was his 
usual busy self Little escaped his notice. The 

thickness of the salt crust and the slight but definite 
slope of the lake bed (see e.g. Dulhunty 1987) were 
determined at several places. It was observed ihar 
where the shore trended latitudinally the sand ridges 
approaching from the south terminated "abruptly 
and steepry" on the shore, whereas those to the 
north of the lake bed rose gentl> over gypseous 
slopes io merge with the dunes beyond (Madigan 
1946a, p. J 39). 

Shallow, but quite extensive, bodies of water were 
Nccn on the lake bed m IS39, but Madigan formed 
the opinion that the "lake is never covered all 0VW 
with water at any time" (Madigan 1946a, p. 134). 
This conclusion has been shown to be incorrect 
several times over the pasi 40 years (see e.g. 
Bonython Si Mason 1953; Kotwicki 1986) and is 
likeiy to be repudiated again this year (1990). 
Nevertheless Madigan contributed 10 the Qftgofog 
investigation of Lake Eyre, and Madigan Gulf, a 
major embay mem forming the southeastern pan 
of Lake Eyre North, is named alter ium. 


In physique, character and personality, t. T. 
Madigan was a man of great stature. His was a 
questing mind, wide-ranging ycl tenacious, 
imaginative yet rigorous. 

His winter sledge journey on The ioe plateau of 
Addie Land was an extraordinary test of strength, 
stamina and character, and his uasct.s in central 
Australia, whether by air or on the ground* and 
undertaken under conditions that would today he 
considered arduous, still stand as truly remarkable 

Even in Australia, Madigan's field work was 
constrained both by the absence of base maps other 
than pastoral maps, by the absence of good roads 
and by rhc travel limit ations Df horse, camel or foot. 
Eventually he pioneered aerial reconnaissance and 
acnal photography, and he lived to see the Almost 
universal availability \i\ four-wheel-drive vehicles tor 
outback work, but most of his field work was of 
the heroic type, and he became a considerable 
bushman, utterly at ease in the field situation (Fig. 

Madigan's values and standards were those of -a 
bygone age hut are none the worse for that. He was 
strongly and actively patriotic He believed in 
physical fitness. He lived by the idenl of service. He 
possessed a great sense of humour. As a teacher he 
Was stimulating, as well as innovative, and always 
considerate of his students. He was Ol a practical 
bent, and he made sure that his students became 
aware of the mining, engineering and economic 
aspects of their discipline. Mndigan WS * natural 
leader, and as the years passed he found irksome 
his position as second in command tu M&W5041, 



Fig. 7. Madigan in camp, MacDonnell Ranges, 1930 (E. A. Rudd). 

himself also a striking personality. Perhaps 
inevitably, an element of tension developed between 
them. As a departmental staff of only two for much 
of their joint careers, their respective roles were in 
some measure resolved, particularly in respect of 
their research areas, when Madigan elected to 
concentrate his energies on central Australia and on 
the problems posed by sand ridges. 

It has been said that the geomorphological study 
of deserts has been bedevilled by the enthusiastic 
amateur responsible for an "unpalatable farrago of 
descriptive data" derived from rapid reconnaissance 
surveys (Cooke & Warren 1973, p. 5). Desert 
landforms and particularly mobile sand dunes are 
attractive, even spectacular, features. Their nature 
and origin inevitably raise questions in the questing 
mind and it is not surprising therefore that 
"enthusiastic amateurs" or laymen have been drawn 
into over-imaginative and even imprudent 
speculations. Charles Sturt, for instance, was 
puzzled by both the stony desert and the sand dunes 
he encountered during his journeys in the interior 
of Australia in 1845. He suggested that the dunes 
were gigantic ripples formed on an ancient sea floor 
and later exposed (Sturt 1849); an interpretation 
that is untenable but at least based in natural 

processes rather than divine intervention. But 
scientists Jike Madigan, though not trained 
geomorphologists were nevertheless well equipped 
to make perceptive observations and draw astute 
inferences from them. 

In this regard it is interesting to note that 
Madigan, like Bagnold, was trained in engineering, 
a discipline not inimical to close observation and 
the linking of natural processes and their results. 
Furthermore it can be argued that lacking the 
prejudices and constraints that inevitably result 
from any formal training in a discipline, such 
"outsiders" have some advantages in that they are 
more likely to develop unorthodox explanations (see 
e.g. Carey 1976). 

Madigan was a man of eclectic interests. 
Possessed of a keen eye and abiding curiosity, he 
had the ability to get to and work in uncomfortable 
places. He was one of the last of the great scientific 
travellers. He notably advanced our knowledge of 
central Australia, so much so that his name will be 
forever linked with the sand ridges of the Simpson 
Desert to which he directed so much time and 
energy and to the nature of which he brought 
illumination and understanding. 



AiiRitRE, I (1928) L'utieniaUon des dunes 

COiHitientatVs. Rept. Piou Utb Intern Geugrl. Cong r. 

Cambridge, no. 220-231. 
BkWfiLO, R. A, (1941) "lite Physics of Blown Shnd" 

(Merhuetu London). 
Bgnvthon, C. W. & Mason, B. (1951? The filling and 

drying of Lake Eyre. Geogrl. J. u9, 321-330 
BtcottwcLD, M. (1970) Dune trend* and wind regime in 

central Australia Zeitsvh. Geomorph. Snpjp/.-Band Mh 

Carey. S. W. (1978] "The Expanding Earth" (Ebevjer, 

Orroll, D. (1*44) The Simpson Desert Expedition 

1939. Scientific Reports 2. Geology-Desert Sands. Huns. 

A?. Soc S Aust. 63, *9-59, 
Cooke, R. U. & W*kr£jm, A. (1973) 'Xieornc'rpliulngy in 

Deserts" (Batsford, London). 
Cvtwtmo, O, Q, S. (1953) "Archaeology in the Field" 

4Phoenk House, London). 
DuiituNi Y, J. A. (1983a) Lunelle* of lake Eyre North, 

South Australia. Tram. £. Soc S. Auyt W7, 219^-222. 
M983D) LakeOieri and its Pleistocene environment 

01 v-d mentation. South Australia. Jour, Proc. R, Soc, 

New Somh riWes Hft\ 11-15. 

1987) S.-i liny bed instability and geodetic studies 

OB Lake Evrc, South Australia. Trans. R. Soc 5. Auit 

Ill, 183-188 
OM.rtnw, £- K <I935) "Sahara, (he Gteal Desert" 

(translated D. F. Mayhew) (Cktagon ftaofcs, New tt>rk). 
Howthin. W. 11918) "The Geology of Souih Australia" 

(South Australian Education Department, Adelaide). 
Kino. D. (J956) The Quaternary stratigraphtc record ar 

Late Eyre Morth and the evolution of (tie existing 

topographic forms Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 79,93-103. 
KoTWiCKt, V. (I9B6) floods of Lake Eyre* (Engineering 

and Waier Supply Department, Adelaide). 
Lancamth, N. (1980) The fotmaiioa of setf dunes from 

barchans - supporting evidence tor Bagnold's model 

from theNamib Desert. Zeiisch. GfomorpK 24, (60-167. 
LOErriEk, E. & Sullivan, M. E (1979) Lake Dieri 

resurrected: art interpretation using satellite imagerv. 

Ibid 2X 233-242. 
Msebl'tt, J. A. & Sullivan, M. E (1968) The formation 

of longitudlitsl sand dunes: evidence from the Simpson 

Desert. Austr. Geogr. 10, 483-487. 
a/LaimgaN, C- T. <1925j The Geology of the Ktetl/leu 

Peninsula Part I, The toad IromSellick^HilJ toVicioi 

Harbour. Trans. R. Sac. 5, AusL 49, 19S-2I2. 
i 19261 Organic remains from below Hit 

Anhacocyathinne Limestone at Mvpouga Jetty, South 

Ausitalia. Ibid 50, 31-35. 

(1927) The Geology of the Wilfunga Scarp. Ibid 

51, 398-409. 

(t*2H) Preliminary notes on new evideuceas to the 

age of formations on the norlh coast of Kangaroo 

bland. Ibid 52* 240-216. 

11930) An aerial reconnaissance into the 

southeastern portion of central Australia. Proc, ft 
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VOL. 114, PART 4 



byS. Barker* 


Castiarina diver sa (Kerremans) 1900 is resurrected from synonymy and together with C elderi 
(Blackburn) 1892 is redescribed and illustrated. The following ten new species of Castiarina 
(abdita sp.nov., aurantia sp.nov., creta sp.nov., daedalea sp.nov., galactica sp.nov., 
indigohumerosa sp.nov., indigoventricosa sp.nov.; nota sp.nov., palliata sp.nov., rediviva sp.nov.) 
are described and illustrated. 
KEY WORDS: New species, Castiarina, Coleoptera, Buprestidae. 

7ruti\ u <it»n* t>) ' {tin Royal ^niciy oj S. \u\t.. (1990), 114(4), my 178 


by S. Barker* 


HARkrK, S (1990) New species of CasOarina (Coleoptera: Bupicstidae) and reJcscripitons of C. diversa 
(Kerrernans) and C e7i/eW (Blackburn). Trans. II Soc. S, Aust. 114(4) 169-178. 30 November, 1990. 

Castmrirm diversa (KVi renins) 190/1 \>. rrnurreclcd from synonymy and together wild C cldert (Blackburn! 
IK92 is redesenbed and illustrated. The following ten new species ot Casfiartna (abthta sp.nov., aurantia 
ffp iiov., cne/t? sp.nov„ daedalva sp.nov., gataettca sp.nov.. inittzohumetow ap.nov . irulieavenfrieoxa sp.nov.; 
nota, palltaia sp.nov., retHvivj ffp inn ) ;ne described and illustrated. 

Kt\ WoittyS: New species, Casnonnu, Coieopieia. Bupreslidae. 


Iq her revision of the tribe SUgmoderini 
(Rnprestidae), Gardner (1990) elevated the three 
major sub-divisions of Sihtnodent to separate 
genera. Of fhe Australian genera, Stigmodera is 
closely allied to Thetnogrtarha, Calodema and 
Meiaxymotphu whde Custtuntta stands alone. A 
scries of Cast'turinu specimens collected in W A hy 
Mr M. Powell, were compared wilh the male 
hololype of C. elderi (Blackburn), Although some 
specimens belonged in that species, the rest 
represented three separaie taxa, one of which was 
C. diversa (Kerrernans) dearly noi a synonym of 
C elderi. The other two are described and 
illustrated, together with another species in irtc C 
elderi complex loimd in South Australia, and seven 
other species, C elderi and C diversa are 
redeaetibed and illustrated. 

Materials ;nui Mcfhods 

Male genitalia were prepared and displayed by 
tbl method described by Barker (JV87), AH 
specimens were measured using a dissecting 
microscope with a 'bomb-sighr' crosshair in the 
eyepiece and a circular micrometer aitached to the 
siase for maximum accuracy'. The measurements are 
presented as a mean and standard error 
Abbreviations used in the text for museum and 
private collections following Watt (1979) are: 
UMNH British Museum (Natural History), 
1 orulon; RMBB Royal Museum Belgium* Brussels; 
SAMA South Australian Museum, Adelaide; 
NMVA Naiional Museum of Victoria, Melbourne; 

* Oepartment of Zoology. TJnivetsnv of Adelaide. G.P.O. 
Box 498, Adelaide, S. Aust. 500! 

WAMA Western Australian Museum, Perth; WADA 
Department of Agriculture, South Perth; GBVA Mr 
CJ. CI, Burns, Mornington; HDWA Mr H. Demar/, 
Wanneroo; MPWA Mr M. Powell, Melville; MHSA 
Mr T. M. S. Hanlon, Sydney; RMNA Mr. R. Mayo, 
Narara; ASSA Mr A, Sundholm. Sydney. 

Castiarina elderi (Blackburn), 1 892 

Stigmadera elderi Ulackburn, 1892: 3& Kerremans, 
1903212 (etfm lapsus). Carter, 1916: *7, 90, 10t, 1929: 
244; 1931: 35n. Obenberger, 1934 701 Barker, IV79; |7; 
1983: 154; I9Hfi: M) 

Sfixmiidera diversa Kerremans, 1900: Carter, I9lfi. K7, 
I0t (new syn.); 1929; 294; I93J; 356. Obcnhere,er, 1934: 
702. Barker. 1979; 17. l9Nf 7 : 30, 

Jiololype, o\ Victoria Desert, Sept., Mr Helms, 

Colour. Head blue, nasally dark blue with large 
yellow frontal spot. Antennae blue. Pronotum 
medially dark blue, laterally yellow, The shape of 
the central blue mark was described by Blackburn 
(1892 p.37) 'as resembling that o\ a bust of a human 
figure with the head and the arms truncated, the 
neck reaching to the front margin of the segment.' 
Scutelluxn blue. Elytra yellow with the following 
dark blue markings: narrow basal margin; prc- 
rriedial fascia not reaching margin, ends angled 
anteriorly Yesembling the shape of a boot on each 
side' (Blackburn 1892 p.37); broad post-medial 
fascia; apical mark. Fascia and apical mark 
connected along suture. Ventral surface yellow with 
dark blue sutures and edges of abdominal segments, 
S v , S |( S ti with lateral daik blue spots on each side. 
Legs blue. Hairs silver. 

Shape and sculpture. Head closely punctured, no 
median sulcus, very short muzzle. Antennae 
compressed, antennomeres: 1-4 obconic. i-il 
toothed. Pronotum closely punctured, narrow basal 




I I 


Fig. 1. Photomicrographs of male genitalia of Cflj//or//M7 spp. A, Cast iarina galact tea 
sp.nov., B, C. pallidiveniris (C & G), C, C. creta sp.nov., D, C. aurantia sp.nov., 
E, C. diversa, (Kerremans), F, C. elderi (Blackburn), G, C. rediviva sp.nov., H, 
C, indigohumerosa sp.nov., I, C. atricollis (Saunders), J, C. paUiata sp.nov., K, C. 
nota sp.nov., L, C. crux (Saunders), M, C. abdita sp.nov. N. C disiinguenda 
(Saunders), O, C indigoventricosa sp.nov,, P, C. jeanae (Barker), Q, C. daedalea 

fovea; apical margin projecting medially, basal 
margin almost straight; laterally angled inwards 
from base, then rounded from base to apex (widest 
medially) rounded to apex. Scutellum seutiform, 
without punctures, glabrous, flat. Elytra punctate- 
striate, intervals convex, punctured; laterally angled 
out from base, rounded at humeral callus, concave, 

rounded posteromedially and narrowed to trispinose 
apex; small marginal spine, larger medial spine, 
small sutural spine, margin rounded between spines, 
apices hardly diverging. Ventral surface with shallow 
punctures, edges of abdominal segments glabrous, 
few short hairs. S ? : truncate both sexes, medially 



Site Males, 1 1.0 ± 0.10 k 3.9 i 0.05 mm (8). 
Females, 12.0 + 0.21 k 4.3 i 0.09 mm (5). 
Male 'genitalia. (Pig. IF). Parameres diverging from 
basal piece, rounded posteromedial!^ parallel-sided, 
rounded to apex, Median lobe pointed, sides acutely 
angled away. Apophysis of basal piece medium 
width, flattened at apex. 
Distribution; W.A.; Great Victoria Desert. 

W* Wb w c 

I ifr 2. Habitus illusmuinns ul the following Cusuannu 
-ipccifv A, C>y/wmtft>W<v7 (Blackburn), II, C diversa 
fKfci remans). C, C.rvdivivu up nov., n. (\ ( ps/u sp.nov., 
h, C wluLiKii gp.ftO* (•, C auranliu sp.nov., O, C 
ahrJitosp rtov,. H. C indigofwmerosa sp.nw., I, C fto/fl 

Remarks, The type series in SAM A consists of; 
male holotype labelled Victoria Desert, Sept., Mr 
Helms, Type and is clearly the specimen described 
by Blackburn; 1 & and 2 9 Q specimens labelled 
'Kalgoorlie, Type/ which belong to another species 
described herein. The holotype was until leccntly 
the only specimen known of this species. 1 have 

examined a series collected by Mr M. Powell on the 
flowers of Hetiltasp, from the southwestern edge 
of the Great Victoria Desert. 

Castiarina diversa (Kerremaus) 1900 

Stigmadera diverse Kcrrcmans, 1900: 317; 1903: 207. 
Holotype. ?-, Australia, French, BMNH. 
Colour. Head; blue, basally dark blue or bronze- 
green, yellow frontal spot. Antennae blue. 
Pronotum dark blue or bronze, laterally yellow. 
Scutellum dark blue. Elytra yellow with orange 
margin and following dark blue markings: narrow 
basal margin; pre-medial fascia not reaching 
margin, ends projecting and angled over humeral 
callus; post-medial fascia reaching margin; apical 
mark. Ventral surface yellow, sutures and edges of 
abdominal segments blue or green, S., 5L S, with 
lateral blue spots on each side. Legs blue or green. 
Hairs silver, 

Shu pe and sculpture. Head closely punctured, no 
median sulcus, very short muzzle, Antennae 
compressed, antennomeres: 1-3 obconic; 4 
: .--toothed; 5-11 toothed. Pronotum closely 
punctured, small basal fovea; apical margin broadly 
projecting medially, basal margin bisinuate; laterally 
parallel-sided, then rounded to apex (widest 
medially). Scutellum scutiform, without punctures, 
glabrous, Hat. Elytra punctate striate, intervals 
convex, punctured; laterally angled nul from base, 
rounded ai humeral callus, concave, rounded 
posteromedial]]? and narrowed to trispinose apex; 
sharp marginal spine, larger medial spine, smaller 
sutural spine, margin rounded between spines, 
apices hardly diverging. Ventral surface with shallow 
punctures, edges of abdominal segments glabrous, 
few short hairs. S,: male truncate; female, 
truncate, slightly indented medially. 
Size. Males, 8.5 i 0.19 mm * 10 ± 0.07 mm (10). 
Icmale.s, 8.8 * 0.24 * 3.2 t 0.08 mm (5). 
Male genitalia. { Ffg. IF). Pararneres slightly 
diverging trom basal piece, rounded 
posteromcdially, then more or less parallel sided, 
rounded to apex, Median tobe blunt, sides angled 
away. Apophysis of basal piece medium width, 
narrowed, rounded ar apex. 
Distribution: W.A.; Wubin, Morowa, Yalgoo, 
Kalgoorlie, Mt Magnet, Norseman, Zanthus. 
Remarks. Barker (1979, 1986) followed Carter (1916, 
1929, 1931) and Obenberger (1934) in listing C. 
diversa (Kcrremans) 1900 as a synonym of C. etderi 
t Blackburn) 1892, Comparison of the holotypes of 
C etderi and C diversa indicates that the two taxa 
are not couspecitiv. C diversa (Fig, 2B) is smaller 
than C etderi (Fig 2A) and does not have the same 


& BARKfcR 

pattern an the pronotum. The t-lytra have a dark 
yellow margin, whereas C etderi nas pale yellow 
elytra. The malt geniulia o\~ C elder! arc broader 
than those of C diverse/ (Figs lb', LP) and 
distributions o) rhe two ta*a differ, Thus. J consider 
each a valid species Adults have been collected on 
the flowers of Leptosperrrtum sp. and Eremophita 

Costltriaa enu sp nov. 

ftotohpe, y, 48 km NH Cowell, S.Aum- i4 \ [989 

S. Barker. SAMA 1 2I23L 

Allotype. <;\ 10 km E JJ km post N Cowell, 

Whyalla Hway. 1.x. 1982, 5 Barken J Gardner H. 

Vanderwnude. SAMA J 21232 

Paratopes. S.Ausi.: 2 era. same data a* allotype, 

SAMA; 1 o\ ! 9, 53 km Nl Cowell, 13.xi. 1974, 

S. Barken SAMA. 

Colour Head bronze, pale yellow frontal spot. 
Antennae blue. Pronotum; medially bronze with 
yellow reflections; laterally pale yellow. Seiitelllim 
dark blue, fclytra pale yellow, lateral margin brown - 
orange with following dark blue markings; narrow 
basal margin; pre-mcdial fascia not reaching 
margin, ends angled anteriorly; broad post-medial 
fascia; apical spade-shaped mark reduced in some 
specimens to short pre-apiod fascia not reaching 
margin and mark around spines or expanded in 
some specimens to mark covering whole apex. 
Fascia and apical mark connected along suture 
Ventral surface pale yellow, sutures and edges of 
abdominal segments testaceous or blue. Legs blue. 
Hairs sllvei. 

Shape and Sculpture. Head closely punctuied, small 
median sulcus, very short muz/lc. Antennae 
compressed, antennomeres: 1-4 obconic, 5-11 
toothed. Pronotum closely punctured, small basal 
fovea; apical margin projecting medially, basal 
margin barely bisinuaie; laterally angled inwards 
from base, rounded to apex (widest medially >. 
Seutcllum scimTorm, without punctures, ylabrous, 
medially excavate. Elytra puiietate-stnatc, intervals 
convex, punctured; iaterally angled out from base, 
rounded at humeral callus, concave, rounded 
posteromedial^ and narrowed to trispinose apex, 
small marginal spine, larger median spine, small 
sutural spine, margin rounded between spines, 
apices hardly diverging. Ventral surface with shallow 
punctures, edges ol abdominal segments glabrous, 
sparse short hair, S 7 : male truncate; female 
truncate, slightly indented medially. 
SiZS; Males 9.8 - 0.4* > w + 0.20 mm (4). 
Females, 10,(1 T 0,62 - 3.6 i &Z2 frith (21 

Male tenttatia, (Fig. ]C). Parameres parallel-sided 
from ba&al piece, rounded outwards medially,, 
rounded to apex. Median lobe pointed, sides angled 
away. Apophysis of bftfiftl piece narrowed, rounded 
Ed ;me* 

Remarks. C CWu Sp.ndv, h closest to C efden, but 
differs in colour* distribution and structure of the 
male genitalia. All specuncus have been collected 
on Lephv.pcrmuw e>>ria<iuni (F, Muell) Cfteel 
Name derived from creta L 'chalk 1 . 

CMbtiurtna numath sp .nov 

Holoiype cr. Pindar Paddock, TallermgStn. WA.. 
ZI.JX.19Sd. 5. Barken WAMA 
Allotype. 9, 10 km NE Mi Magnet, W.A.. 
2O.ix.19S0, a Barken O. J. Williams, WAMA. 
Part/types. W.A. 3 <y s , 4 9 v, .same data as 
allotype, SAMA, WAMA: 2 ;- o\ same data as 
holotype SAMA; I Cf, J &, 36 km W Sandstone, 
2Qa\.19B5 1 MC PQWril MPWA.2 y& , Tailcrine Stt 
22/23 iv i-JXy. £ Barker. SAMA, I v. 77 km W 
Yatgoo, 22.ix.l980, Q G. Bums, GBVA; I u-, 62 
km \L vw.hii-. ? -, imso, 0". G. Bunts. GBVA; ! cr, 
42 km N Wubin. 11.1,1980, O, G. fl«riw, CBVA; 
2 9 9. 46 km N Wubin, 11 \.19yo t G. O. Bums, 
GBVA; 2 frtf, 4H km N Wubin, n s,|s\s(>, ft <;?. 
itor/1* GI3VA; 2 i r .-_,, 2 y V , 38.7 km N Wubin, 
I7.M.I0K7, ft ft fty^ GIJVA. 
Cb/OWE Head, apieally blue; basally dark blue with 
elongate yellow frontal -spot. Antennae blue. 
Pronotum; medially dark blue; laterally orange. 
Seutcllum blue. Elytra orange with the following 
dark blue markings: narrow basal margin; pre- 
mediai fascia not reaching margin, ends ptftjCAtJlg 
antctiorly to humeral callus; post-medial fascia 
reaching margin; apical mark with two yellow fipoti 
m some specimens, reduced to short pre-apical 
fascia in one specimen laseia and apical mark 
connected along suture. Ventral surface deep orange, 
si.<M.ircs testaceous en heavily marked dark blue, si 
S a< S 4 , Wftll lateral dar*. blue marks on each side. 
Legs blue. Hairs silver. 

Shane and siulprure. Head closely punc!ured. Vfiij 
small median sulcus, vetv ihort mutxte Antennae 
compressed, aalennumere-s: 1-3 obconic. 4 
lOCMfted; ?1I toothed. Prunoi urn closely punctured, 
small basal fovea; apical margin projecting medially* 
nasal margin barely bismuaie; laterally parallel 
sided at base, rtmnded to widest posterorucdiully, 
narrowed to .ipcx. Seutcllum sculifortm without 
punctures, glabrous. Hat. Elytra punctate-stnatc. 
inteivals convex, punctured; iaterally angled out 
from base, rounded at humeral callus, corn .,■■■. 
rounded postcromedially, tapered then rounded !c 



trispdnose apex; small marginal spine larger medial 
spine, small sutural spine, margin rounded between 
spines, apices diverging. Ventral surface with 
shallow punctures, edges of abdominal segments 
glabrous, moderately hairy, hairs medium length. 
S ? ; male truncate; female truncate, slightly 
indented medially. 

Size, Males, 10.4 t 0.14 mm x 3 7 t 008 mm (18;. 
Females 10.6 ± 0.21 mm x 5.7 ± 0.07 mm (10). 
Mate genitalia. (Tig. ID), Parameres diverging from 
basal piece, rounded anteromedially, parallel-sided 
then rounded to apex. Median lobe pointed, sides 
acutely angled away. Apophysis of basal piece 
medium width, narrowed, rounded to apex. 
Remarks. C. (7wrw«<'« sp.nov. is closest to C elderi. 
The adults of fhis species have been found 
associated with EremophUo* Thtyptomene and 
Schaltzw specie*. Their colour in life separates them 
from C elderi, but after death it fade* rapidly to 
pale yellow. The name is derived From aurantium 
L. "orange* 

Castiarina rrdirhx sp.nov. 

Holotype. o-,4kmW Zanthus W.A , 2I.X.1989, 
ML Powt% WAMA, 

Allotype. 9, *ame data &> holotype WAMA, 
Paratvpes. W.A.: I or, 3 9 9, same data as 
holotype, MPWA A SAMA; I or. 2 9 9, 
Kalgoorlic from type series of C. etderi Blackburn, 
SAMA. S.Au«.: 4 o* 0» € 4 9 9, 45 km E 
S.Aust./W.A. border. Eyre Hway, 22 H 987, A. 
Sundhotm & / Bugeja. ASSA & SAMA. 
Cofour, Head dark blue with purple reflections 
Antennae blue. Pronotum dark bJue with purple 
reflections. ScuteUum blue. Elyfra yellow with 
orange margin and following dark blue markings: 
narrow basal margin; pre-medral tascia not reaching 
margin, ends projecting over humeral callus; post- 
medial fascia reaching margin, apical mark (in six 
out of nine specimens enclosing a yellow spot on 
each side, in two solid, in one reduced to shot! 
fascia). Fascia and apical mark connected along 
suture. Ventral surface yellow with blue sutures and 
edjies of abdominal segments S,» S-, S, with lateral 
blue spots on each side. Legs blue Hairs silver. 
Shape and sculpture. Head closely punctured, no 
median sulcus, very short muzzle. Antennae 
compressed, antennomeres; 1-4 obconic; 5-11 
toothed. Pronotum closely punctured, small basal 
fovea extending forwards to middle as impressed 
tine; apical margin projecting medially, basal margin 
barely bisinuate; laterally parallel-sided at base, 
ruunded to apex. ScuteUum scuttforrn, without 
punctures, glabrous, flat. Elytra punciatc-striate, 

intervals com^x, punctured; laterally angled out 
from base, rounded at humeral callus, concave, 
rounded posteromedial^ and narrowed to trisptnosc 
apex; small marginal spine, larger medial spine, 
smaller sutuTal spine, margin rounded between 
spines, apices hardly diverging. Ventral surface With 
shallow puncture.*, edges of abdominal segments 
glabrous, hairs short. S ; : mate truncate; female 
truncate, slightly indented medially. 
Size, Males, 10.7 ± 0.24 * 3.9 i 0.10 mm {7). 
Females, 11.5 ± 0.36 * 4.1 ± 0.10 mm (10). 
Male genitalia. (Fig. 1G). Parameres slightly 
diverging from basal piece, rounded 
postcromedially, parailcl-sided, rounded to apex. 
Median lobe pointed, sides acutely angled away. 
Apophysis of basal pieoe medium width, narrowed, 
rounded to apex. 

Remarks. C redhiva sp.nov. is closest to C Men, 
It is a darker colour than G etderi, but lacks the 
distinctive dark mark on the pronotum. Mate 
genitalia are distinct, those ol C rediviva are 
narrowet than Those of C eideri (Ftg. IF) and a 
different shape. Recently collected specimens were 
taken on Eremophila species. Name derived from 
redh'ivurn L."reaewed*- 

Ca.\ti*rin$ galaetk-a sp.nov. 
FIGS 1A, 2E 

Holotvpe. cr t Mon Repos, Mosman Park. W A., 
27.xi.l954, S. Barker, SAMA 1 21233. 
Allotype- ■?, Mon Repos, Mosman Park* W.A. 
I2.xi.l957, S Barken SAMA I 21234. 
Paratype*. W.A.; I a, 2 09, Wanner u (sic), H. 
W. Brown, RMBB: I 9. Swan River, Zas, SAMA, 
I Cf, Cataby, 27.xi.l977, M, Powell, MPWA. 
Colour. Head bronze wilh green and purple 
reflections, large milky yellow frontal spot. 
Antennae green. Pronotum rnediatly bronze with 
green and purple reflections, laterally milky yellow. 
ScuteUum blue Elytra milky yellow with following 
dark blue markings: narrow basal margin; pre- 
medial fascia not reaching margin, extending 
anteriorly at ends to humeral callus, extending 
anteriorly on suture; posi-medial fascia reaching 
margin; pre-apical mark. Fascia aud apical mark 
connected along suture. Ventral surface milky yellow 
with green-blue markings on sutures and edges of 
ahdominal segments and green-blue lateral spot on 
each side of abdominal segments, S,, 5 V S tl . Legs 
green. Hairs silver. 

Shape and sculpture. Head closely punctured, ud 
median sulcus short muzzle. Antennae, 
antennomeres: 1-3 ohconic; 4 '^-toothed, 5-11 
toothed. Pronotum closely punctured, basal fovea 
extending 10 apical rnaTgin as impressed line, basal 



notches on each side more marginal than medial; 
apical maigin projecting medially, basal margin 
bbinuate; laterally parallel-sided at base, rounded 
10 widest part posteromedial I y, rounded and 
narrowed to apex. Scutellum scutiform, few 
punctures, glabrous, excavate. Elytra puna aie- 
striate, intervals convex and punctured; laterally 
angled om from base, rounded at humeral callus, 
concave, rounded posteromedial^ and narrowed to 
trispinosc apex; small marginal *pine, wide blunt 
medial spine> >wy small sutural spine, margin 
rounded between spines, apices diverging. Ventral 
surface wiih shallow punctures, edges of abdominal 
segments glabrous, few short hairs. S,; males 
truncate; females truncate and indented medially, 
Size. Males, 9.7 v 0.48 ; 3.5 ± 0.23 mm (4). 
Females, 11.0 ± 0.20 * 3.9 * 0.06 mm (3). 
Mate geniiatia. (Fig. 1A). Parameres parallel-sided 
basalfy, rounded postcrorjicdially, parallel-sided, 
rounded apically. Median lube sharp, sides acutely 
angled away Apophysis of basal piece medium 
width* rounded apieaJly. 

Remarks. C. galacuea sp.nov. is closest to C 
jmilutiveturis (C & G) but differs in the structure 
of the male genitalia (Figs 1A. IB» and in no* 
having a red elytra! margin. Adults are found on 
the flowers of Melaleuca huegeUi R.Bu Name 
derived from gala Gr.*initV. 

Castiarwa abdk* sp.nov. 
PICS 1M, 2G 

Hototype, o\ 30 km W Mullcwa, W.A., J2.ix.19JC7 t 
Af Powell d Jones. WAMA. 
Allotype. C, 114km S Billabong Road house. Great 
Northern Hway, 2fl.ix.l989, S t Barker. WAMA. 
Paratypes. W.A.: I 9. same data as hclotvpe. 
MPW\, 1 9, 34 km S Billabong Roadbousc, 
J5jx.1985, M Powell, MPWA; I Cr> 2 £9, 
"Rmindewa, H \V Brown, NMVA; 1 c* ( Carnarvon, 
H. W, Brown, NMVA. 

Colour. Head gTey-blue, muzzle blue. Antennae. 
antennomcrcs: 1-2 grey-blue; 3-1 1 bronze. 
Pronoiuiri £te>-blue medially; red laterally. 
Scu-.dlam blue Elytra Ted with the following blue 
markings; narrow basal margin; pre-medial fascia 
do! teaching margin, ends expanded anteriorly over 
humeral callus on each side ot represented by an 
elongate mark over each humeral callus and one 
on suturr; post-medial fascia teaching margin, 
convex anteriorly; prc-apical mark; mark covering 
apex, all marks connected along suture. Ventral 
surface: presternum mainly red, some sutures blue; 
mesn and mctastcrna predominantly blue; 
abdominal segments red Legs blue. Hairs silver. 
Shape and xaefpiurs. Head closely puuciujetL btoad 

median sulcus, short muz/Je. Antennae, 
antennomeres; 1-3 obconic; 4-1 1 toothed. 
Pronotum closely punctured, basal lovea extending 
anteriorly to middle as glabrous line; apical margin 
projecting medially, basal margin barely bisJnuate; 
laterally angled inwards from base, rounded to 
widest part posteromcdially, rounded and narrowed 
to apex. Scutellum scutiform. punctured, excavate. 
Ely Ira punetate-striate, interval convex, punctured; 
laterally angled outwards from base, rounded at 
humeral callus, concave, rounded posieromediaUy 
and tapered, rounded to bisptnose apex; hlum 
marginal sptne, small blunt sutural spine, margin 
rounded and indented between spines, apices 
diverging, apical margin suhterrate. Ventral surface 
with shallow punctures, edges of abdominal 
segments glabrous, moderately hairy, hairs short. 
S ? : males truncate; females rounded. 
Male genitalia. (Fig. 1M). Parameres parallel-sided 
at base, diverging posieromcdially. rounded to apex. 
Median lobe pointed, sides acutely angled away. 
Apophysis of basal piece narrow, rounded apical I v. 
Size. Males, 1 1.2 ± 0.32 / 4.2 i 0.11 mm (4), 
Females, 128 T 0.22 x 5.1 + 0.12 mm (5). 
Remarks. C ahdita xjxuqv, has been confused wiih 
El disiinguenda deferens (Carter). It is a larger 
species than C. distmguenda, male genitalia are 
broader apically <Fig. IN), the dorsal surface is 
convex (flat in C distinguertdu) and the clytral 
markings are blue (black in C distmguenda). Red 
coloration in C. disi'mguenda fades to yellow soon 
alter death whereas it docs not in C abdiia. Name 
derived from abdiius I /hidden * 

Cxatforina indtxohumeroxa sp.nov. 

Hototype. o\ Wiliare, W.A.. 24x1989, //. Demur: 

Aftonpe. 9, same data as Jiolotype WAMA. 
Paratypes. W.A.: 3 O'er, 8 9 y, same data as 
holotypc HDWA. SAMA; 4 cr cr, Willare, 21.V.I9K9, 
H. Demurs HDWA; I cr„ 9 Q Q f 10 km N Willare> 
H, Demarz, 22.V.1989 HDWA; 1 ?> Great Sandy 
Desert > 5:vi.l97K. P. M. Thomas. SAMA; I o\ Great 
Sandy De^e^, Ridge Rd, Ankcteli, 11.v.t977, A, 5. 
George, WADA. 

Colour Head blue. Antennae, antennomeres; 17. 
blue; 3-11 bronze. Pronotum and scutellum bright 
blue Elytra yellow with the following dark blue 
markings: BartOW basal maTgin; remnant pre-rncdial 
fascia represented by spui near each margin and 
larger spot on suture; broad post-medial lascta 
reaching margin; apical mark, the last two mark* 
connected along suture. Ventral surface <wd Ice? 
blue. Hairs stiver. 



Shop* and sculpture. Head closely punctured, 
median sulcus, very short muzzle, eyes bulbous. 
Antennae compressed, aniennomeres; 1-3 ubconic; 
4-1 1 toothed. Pronotum closely punctured, small 
basal fovea extending to middle as impressed line; 
apical margin projecting medially, basal margin 
barely bisinuate; laterally parallel-sided at base, 
angled outwards, rounded to widest part 
anteromedially, rounded to apex. Scutellum 
seuiilorm, glabrous. Hat. Elytra punetaic-striate, 
intervals convex, punctured; laterally angled out 
from base, rounded at humeral callus, concave, 
rounded posteromedial^ and narrowed to bispinose 
apex; sharp marginal spine, small sharp sutural 
spine, margin rounded and indented between spines, 
apices diverging. Ventral surface with shallow 
punctures, edges of abdominal segments glabrous, 
sparse short hair. S.: males truncate and slightly 
indented medially; females truncate and indented 

Size: Males, y.7 ± 0.20 * 3.3 + 08 mm (II). 
Females, 10.7 ♦ 0.16 * 3.6 t 0.06 mm (19). 
Mule genitalia. (Fig. IHj. Pararneres slightly 
diverging from basal piece, widened medially, 
rounded to apex. Median lobe poinied, sides acutely 
angled away Apophysis of basal piece medium 
width, rounded apically. 

Remarks. C, indigohumerosa sp.nov. is closest to 
C arncollis (Saunders) (Fig. II), but male genitalia 
are uarrower apically in C imiigothoracica and the 
median lobe is sharp (blunt in C atrieoltis). The 
head, pronotum and ventral surface of C, atricalih 
arc dark. The distributions of G indigohumerosa 
and C atricottis do not overlap. Name derived from 
huilga L. 'blue'; humerus L. 'shoulder' 

Castlarinn pallfata sp.nov. 
FtOS u. 4C 

Holotvpe. cr, Wilthorpe (mines). W.A., 6 X.19S0, 
M. Powell, WAMA. 

Allolype 9, same data as holoiype, WAMA. 
Paratyphi W.A.: 3 9 9, Port Samson, 2.i\.l967, 

/; H. Utter Baker, SAMA; 5 o* a, 5 9 9. same 

data as holoiype, MPWA, SAMA; I cr, 4 9 9, 
I'ortescue Roadhouse, 23.viii.l987, M. Puweli 
MPWA; 2 (7t/, 2 7 9. 132 km E Namnarra,, MPWA. 

Colour Head dark blue, Antennae black with 
bronze reflections. Pronotum and scutellum black 
Elytra orange with the following black markings, 
narrow basal margin; pre-medial fascia represented 
by a small spot on the suture and one on each 
elytron; post-medial fascia reaching margin, 
projecting anieriorly 00 suuue and in middle of 
each elytron, mark covering apex in males, Hi most 

females reduced to spade-shaped mark and around 
apical margin and spines. Fascia and apical mark 
connected along suture. Ventral surface dark blue. 
Legs dark blue, tips of tibia and tarsomeres with 
bronze-green reflections. Hairs silver. 
Shape and sculpture. Head closely punctured, 
median sulcus, very short muzzle, eyes bulbous. 
Antennae compressed, aniennomeres: 1-3 obconic; 
4-11 toothed. Pronotum shallow ly punctured 
laterally, sparsely punctured medially and slightly 
glabrous, basal notches represented by a glabrous 
area on each side more marginal than medial, apical 
margin projecting medially, basal margin bisinuate; 
laterally parallel-sided at base, rounded and 
narrowed to apex, widest anteromedially. Scutellum 
seutiform, punctured, glabrous, flat. Elytra 
punctate-striate, intervals convex, more so laterally 
and apically; laterally anelcd outwards from base, 

hg. 3. Habitus illustraiion of Castiarina wdiy.ovcntricvsa 

rounded at humeral callus, concave, rounded 
posteromediatly and narrowed to bispinose apex; 
large blunt marginal spine, very small sharp sutural 
spine, margin rounded and indented between spines, 
apices hardly diverging, Ventral surface with shallow 
punctures, edges of abdominal segments glabrous, 
sparse short hairs. S ; : truncate in both sexes, 
slightly medially indented. 

Size Males, US t O.iy < 4.1 t 0.05 mm (9). 
Females, 12.9 4 0.24 i 4.5 ± 0.10 mm (15). 
Male genitalia (Fig. 1J). Pararneres gradually 
diverging from base, rounded at apex. Median lobe 
pointed, sides acutely angled away, Basal piece 
medium width, rounded at apex. 



Remarks. C. pulliata sp.nov, is closest to C 
ainculiis. The pionotuui, scutellum and elytral 
markings in C paHiata are black (dark blue in C 
QtricolliSj. Male genitalia differ (Figs II, 1 J), those 
in f [ alricollis being shoiler and wider, The elytra! 
colouring fades to pale yellow soon after death. The 
name is derived from paltisrus L. 'cloaked \ 

t u,. 4 H.Hni-.. .MM-.I..IMM.V i.i ?hr follOWJM ( .rhunnu 
SpCLier A, Castiartna dacdatett sp.nov. male, U, C. C 
dacdaha >p.nov. female, C, C paihatu sp.nov. 

f jsfr'iiriVifl no/a sp.nov. 
FIGS IK, 21 

Holotype. 0% 46 km SW Whvalia, S.Aust., 
14 k 1989, & /torAvr. SAM A I 21235 
f\tmr-fje\- S. Ausi.. 3 :/rr, 56 km E Kioiha, 
lb.xi.1979, R Harold, MHSA& ASSA; J o*. SO km 
NF Cowed, UJMB, S tftfrAfr, SAMA; I v\ 2J 
km E.Kimba. 26 \.1982. S. &w*e/; SAMA; I o\ 
40 km NE Cowcll, I4.X.1989, S. Barker; 1 c, 
Scrubby Penfc GflWldf Ra., 4.xt.l9S9, & Barker, 
SAMA; I cr.PinkawillinieCP.ZxvlvS^./ fhtfega 
& A. Sttndhohn, ASSA. 

Colour, Head bronze, muzzle blue Antennae, 
aniennomeres: 1-2 blue; 3-11 bron/e. Pronotum 
bronze. Scutellum blue. Elytra orange with the 
following dark blue markings; narrow basal margin; 
elongate mark over each humeral callus; post 
medial fascia usually reaching margin; pre-apical 
spade-shaped mark; mark along suture from 
scutellum to apices. All marks connected along 
sul urc YVmral UWfaK bron/e. legs; lemora and 

tibia blue; tarsomeres bronze-green. Hairs silver, 
Shape and sculpture. Head closely punctured, 
median sulcus, short muzzle. Antennae, 
aniennomeres; 1-3 obconic; 4-1 1 toothed. 
Pronotum closely punctured, minute basal fovea 
extending forwards io middle as glabrous line; 
apical margin straight, basal margin bisinuatc; 
laterally rounded from base to apex, widest 
posteromedially. Scutellum sculiform, glabrous, 
flat. Elytra puuetate-striate, intervals convex more 
so laterally and apically than elsewhere, lightly 
punctured; laterally angled out from base, rounded 
at humeral callus, concave, rounded 
posteromedially and narrowed to bispmosc apex; 
small sharp marginal spine, minute sulural spine, 
margin rounded and indented between spines, 
apices hardly diverging, apical margin subserrate 
Ventral surface wth shallow punctures, edges of 
abdominal segments glabrous, hairy, hairs medium 
length. S 7 : male truncate and slightly indented 
medially; female unknown 
Si$R Males, 11.6 ± 0.25 * 4.4 + 0.13 mm (9). 
Mate genitalia, (Fig. IK). Parameres diverging from 
basal piece, rounded to apex. Median lobe pointed, 
sides obtusely angled away. Apophysis of basal 
piece medium width, rounded apically. 
Remarks. C. nota sp.nov. is closest to C. cru\ 
(Saunders). Male genitalia are narrower than in C. 
£Tw.v(Fig, IL) in which the parameres are widened 
medially and broader apically. C. crux has blue 
markings on the elytra and is found in I he Little 
Desert. Vic, whereas C. nota has dark blue 
markings and oecuis on the Upper and Lower Hyrr 
Peninsula, s.Aust Named derived from nota L. 
Inark or sign.' 

Cusiiarina indieo\rntricf>su sp.nov. 
FIGS 10, 3 

Holotype o\ Currarong, N.SAV., 3.1.1990, T M S 
Hunlon. SAMA 1 2|j9£ 

Alloiyfse. ■?, -.ante data as holotype, SAMA I 2)237 
Paratopes, N.S.W.: 11 crcr, 5 9 V, same data as 
holotype; 3cro , ,49v, Currarong, 15. i. 1990, R. 
Mayo, RMNA; 6 ©■ C?, 7 Q v , CU| rurong, 6.1.1990, 
A. Sundhohv. ASSA. 

Colour. Head blue. Antennae bronze. Pronotum, 
scutellum, ventral surface and legs blue. Elytra pale 
brown medially, yellow laterally with the following 
black markings; narrow basal margin; very narrow 
sutural margin; spines. Hairs silver. 
Shape and sculpture. Head shallowly punctured, 
broad median sulcus, short muzzle. Antennae, 
antennomeres: I 3 obconic; 4-11 toothed. 
Pronotum shallowly punctured, basal fovea 
extending to middle as glabrous line, basal notches 



more marginal than medial; apical margin 
projecting medially, basal margin bisinuaie; laterally 
parallel-sided at base, angled outwards, rounded to 
widest before middle, tapered to apex. ootso- 
ventrally flattened from base to middle. Scutcllum 
scutitoim, glabrous flat. Elytra punctate-siriaie, 
intervals convex and smooth, laterally angled out 
from base;, rounded at humeral callus, concave, 
rounded posteromedially and narrowed to bispinose 
apex; long sharp marginal spine, smaller sutural 
spine, margin rounded and indented between, aprces 
diverging. Ventral surface with shallow punctures, 
edges of abdominal segments glabrous, moderately 
hairy, hairs medium length. S 7 : males truncate; 
females truncate, mediallv indented. 
Size. Males, 19.6 ± 0.25 * 7.5 ± 0.11 mm (21). 
Females, 20.7 ± 0.35 x 8.1 ± 0.14 mm (17). 
Male genitalia. (Fig 10). Heavily chiiinized. 
Parameres parallel-sided from basal piece* pinched 
In, rounded premedially I hen parallel-sided. 
rounded to apex. Median lobe pointed, sides 
obtusely angled away. Apophysis of basal piece 
broad, apically rounded. 

Remarks. C indigovenlricosa sp.nov. is closest to 
C jeanae (Barker), but the colour of the head, 
pronotum and ventral surface is blue whereas >i is 
usuaUy green in C jeanae: C\ indlgoventricosa 
occurs in coastal malice heath in N.S.W, whereas 
C jeanae is found in high altitude further inland. 
Male genitalia also differ (Figs 10, IP) the 
paramcrei being broader medially in C jeanae. The 
name is derived from indigo L. 'blue": venter I . 

coalesced leaving rwo red spots on the lateral margin 
and one medial but not touching suture and a 
narrow red pre-apical fascia. Ventral surface and 
legs dark blue. Hairs silver 
Shape and sculpture. Head closely punctured, 
median sulcus, muzzle medium length. Antennae, 
antennorneres: 13 obconic; 4-1! toothed 
Pronotum closely punctured, basal fovea extending 
forwards to middle as glabrous line; apical margin 
projecting medially, basal margin barely bisinuate; 
laterally parallel-sided at base, rounded, widest 
posteromedial!^ tapered to apex, dorso-venlrally 
flattened from base to middle. Seutelhiro scutiforrn, 
glabrous, excavate. Elytra punctate-srriate, intervals 
Hal medially, convex basally, smooth; laterally 
angled out from base, rounded at humeral callus, 
concave, rounded posteromedial^ to 
apex; small marginal spine, small sutural spine, 
margin rounded and indented between, apices 
diverging, apical margin subserrate. Ventral surface 
with shallow punctures, edges of abdominal 
segments glabrous, moderately hairy, hairs long. 
S 7 : truncate both sexes. 

Size, Male, 17.7 « 7.0 mm (I), Females, 17.4 ± 0.5S 
* 7.1 i 0-21 mm (2). 

Male genitalia, (Fig. 1Q). Paramercs parallel-sided 
at base, gradually widened posteromedial!}; 
rounded at apex. Median lobe pointed, sides 
obtusely angled away. Apophysis of basal piece 
medium width, rounded at apex. 
Remarks. C dartiotea sp.nov. does not closely 
resemble any other described species. The name Is 
derived from daedaJus L. skillfully made in the- 
manner of Daedalus, ihc Athenian artificer.* 

Czsttorins daedstlea sp.nov. 
FIGS 1Q, 4A, 4B 

Holotype. o\ Currarong. N.S.W. , &.US90, A. 

Sundhotm. SAMA 232iB. 

Allotype, 9, Currarong, N.S.W., 29.xii.l9S9. S. 

Latnond t SAMA 21239. 

Parutype. N.S.W.: 9 , Currarong, 3-J.lWffi T M. S. 

Hunlon, MH5A. 

Colour, Head, antennae, pronotum, grey-blue. 

Scutcllum dark blue. Elytra red with the following 

dark blue markings: remale with basal margin 

narrow laterally, broad mediallv; broad pre-mcdial 

fascia reaching margin; broad posl-medial Fascia 

reaching margin; mark covering whole apex, all 

marks connected along suture- Male; the fascia are 


1 wish to thank the following for assistance: Dr 
E. G. Matthews and Dr G. Gross SAMA; Miss 
C. M. H. von Hayek. BMNH; Dr T: R. Houston, 
WAMA; Mt K. T. Richards, WADA; Dr K. Walker 
NMVA; DrR Dessart and M. J. Cools. RMBB; Mr 
G. G. Burns, Mornington; Mr H. Demarz, 
Wanneroo; Mr T. M, S. Hanlon, Sydner Mr R. 
Mayo, Narara: Mr M. Powell, Melville; Mr A. 
Sundholm, Elizabeth Bay; Mr S. Watkins, Cnparra; 
Mr D. J. Williams, Mr P. G. Kempster and Ms H. 
Vauderwoude, Department of Zoology, University 
of Adelaide. 




Barker, S. (1979) New species and a catalogue of 

Stigmodera (Castiarina) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). 

Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 103, 1-23. 
(1983) New synonyms and new species of 

Stigmodera (Castiarina) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). 

Ibid. 107, 139-169. 

(1986) Stigmodera (Castiarina) (Coleoptera: 

Buprestidae): Taxonomy, new species and a checklist. 
Ibid 110, 1-36. 

(1987) Eighteen new species of Stigmodera 

(Castiarina) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Ibid 111, 

Blackburn, T. (1892) Further notes on Australian 

Coleoptera with descriptions of new genera and species. 

Ibid. 15, 207-261. 
Carter, H. J. (1916) Revision of the genus Stigmodera, 

and descriptions of some new species of Buprestidae 

(Order Coleoptera). Ibid. 40, 78-144. 
(1929) A checklist of the Australian Buprestidae. 

Aust. ZooL f, 265-304. 

(1931) Notes on the genus Stigmodera (Family 

Buprestidae). Together with descriptions of new species 

of and a retabulation of the subgenus Castiarina. Ibid 

6, 337-367. 
Gardner, J. A. (1989) Revision of the genera of the Tribe 

Stigmoderini (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with a 

discussion of phylogenetic relationships. Invertebr. 

Taxon 3, 291-361. 
Kerremans, C. (1900) Buprestides nouveaux et 

remarques synonymiques. Anns. Ent. Soc. Belt*. 44, 

(1903) Genera Insectorum,, Coleoptera; 

Serricornia, Fam. Buprestidae. Fasc. 12b; 12c; 12d. Pp. 

Verteneuil & Desmet, Bruxelles. 
Obenberger, J. (1934) Buprestidae I. in Coleoptorum 

Catalogus, Vol. xii (Junk, Den Haag.). 
Watt, J. C. (1979) Abbreviations for entomological 

collections. N.Z. Zoot. 6, 519-520. 



by David C. Lee & Keren J. Shepherd* 


Magnobates Hammer, 1967 is redefined to include two species previously grouped in Lauritzenia 
Hammer 1958. Two new species, from soil and litter in savannah woodland and sclerophyll forest, 
are described: M. elongatus sp. nov., M. globulus sp. nov. They do not occur in drier South 
Australian sites. Relationships between some genera of Haplozetidae Grandjean, 1936 are 
discussed. A key to adults is given for the five species of Magnobates: this is its first record from 

KEY WORDS: Magnobates elongatus sp. nov., M. globulus sp. nov., Lauritzenia Hammer, 
Haplozetidae, Acarida, soils, South Australia. 

Iwnsavltfm* of ih* Ruyal Socirly Of & AlkSX., I19W), U4<4) f 17V ftfe 



by David C. Lee & Keren J. Shepherd* 


I Ft, D. C. & 5HF)'RfcRL>, K. J. (1990) Magnobates (Aearida: Cryptostigmata: Haplozetidae) from South 
Australian soils. Trans. R. Sot: S. Aust. 114(4), 179-186, 30 November, 1990. 

Magnobates Hammer, 1967 is redefined to include two .species previously grouped m Lauritzenia Hammer, 
l*J58. Two new specie?, from soil and litter in savannah woodland and sderophyll forest, are described: 
M. trtongatus sp. nov., M. globulus sp. nov. They do not occur in drier South Australian sites. Relationships 
between some genera of Haplozetidae Grandjean, 1936 are discussed. A key 10 adults is given for the five 
specie* or Magnobates: this is its first record from Australia. 

Ktv WoKras: Magnobates etongatus sp. nov.. M. globulus sp. nov., Lauritzenia Hammer, HaptoTtfictac 
Acarida, soils, South Australia. 


The genus Magnobates Hammer, 1%7 is 
examined as parr, of an ongoing study of 
sarcoptiform mites in South Australian soils, 
sampled from nine floraily diverse sites* An 
introduction to the relevant work on the advanced 
orlbatc mites (Planofissurae) is provided by Lee 

Magnobates appears to he closely allied to 
Hapiozetes Willmann, 1935 and Lauritzenia 
Hammer, 1958 in the Haplozetidae Grandjean, 
1936. Examination of the holotypes of the type- 
species of Magnobates and Lauritzema, and 
consideration of the thorough redescription of the 
type-species of Hapiozetes (H vindohonensis 
WHImann, 1935) by Grandjean, 1936, substantiates 
this relationship. The delineation of Magnobates 
from Lauritzenia is considered, resulting »n two 
species being newly combined with Magnobates, 
New species are recognised and described from the 
South Australian material. 

Materials and Methods- 
New material examined here, collected by D.C,L„ 
is mainly deposited in the South Australian 
Museum (SAMA), but also in ihe Natural History 
Museum, London (BMNH), the Field Museum, 
Chicago (FMNH) and the New Zealand Arthropod 
Collection, D.S.I.R., Auckland (NZAC). Established 
types examined are deposited in the Zoological 
Museum, Copenhagen. 

No new noiational systems arc introduced. All 
measurements are iu micrometres (fifft) and were 

* Div. of Natural Science, South Australian Museum, 

North Terrace, Adelaide, S. Aust. 5000 

made using an eyepiece micrometer at x25(> 


Family: Haplozetidae Grandjean, 1936 

Discussion' The Haptozeudae comprised oripodoid 
genera with hinged pteromorphs. Balogh & Balogh 
(1984) further resit icted the family to 18 genera with 
speculate hysteronoial foramina, and recognised 
four subfamilies on the basis of the number of 
genital setae, This definition of subfamilies. 
however, is not consistent with all species within the 
genera Hapiozetes Willmann, and Lauritzema 
Hammer. Further, the keys provided by Balogh & 
Balogh (1984) are inconsistent in their treatmem of 
pretarsal claws. Hapiozetes and Lauritzema are 
considered to be monodactyl, although some 
species of these genera have three pretarsal claws. 
These authors excluded Magnobates from the 
Oripodoidea without justification. 

The new material examined here has three 
pretarsal claws and keys to incabates by Balogh 6c 
Balogh *s (1984) criteria- However, they differ from 
Incabates by the discidium being quadrangular* 
ralher than triangulate, the proieionotal seta ,/l 
being lateral to seta cl rather than in front of ie, 
and the tutorium being laminar with a projecting 
anterior cusp rather than costate and without a 

These character states of the new species arc 
shared with Hapiozetes, Lauritzenia and 
Magnobates, which are here tegarded as an 
unnamed monophyletic group. They also share thj* 
group's synapomorphy of a hysteronotal foramen 
with a narrow retractile section of the duct near to 
its pore in The integument, usually accompanied by 



MAWomrm hapuozetid mites 


a hemispherical refraetile place. This is illustrated 
for Hapiozetes by Beck (1964) and Qrandjean 
(1936K and newly established as present on ihe 
holotype of [he lype species of Laumzenta and 
Magnobates (L, longlpiama Hammer, 1958 & M. 
ftagetilfer Hammer. 1967). It is further established 
thai these two type species arc similar to trie new 
Magnobates species in having a long curved alveolus 
wiih the somal sctal pores, three setae on genu II 
<v prevent) and a subreeiangulai discidium. 

The reliable delineation of the three genera 
requires a thorough revision of the cosmopolitan 
Hspfozdes, which may have four or live genital 
setae and one or three pterarsal claws, initially, I 
here distinguish the two genera confined to southern 
temperate regions from Hapiozetes by the presence 
ol three setae on genu (J, and ftom each other by 
the mimbet of pretarsal claws fLauntzenia with one 
cUw, Magnobates With three Claws). This requites 
the transfer of two specie* from Loitritzertio, as 
indicated in the remarks nn Magnobates. leaving 
Lauritzenia (from South America) av mouoiypic. 

Magnobates Hammer 

MuRfivbctfes Hammer, iyr.7, p. JO (type species b> 
monolypy: Magnobates Hagel lifer Hammer. 1967): 
Hammer 196*. p. 72; Balogn 1972, p. \M, Luvton 1985, 
PL 63. 
tauntzenia Hammer. 1958 <p*ru; Hammer l%8, p. 70. 

Definition: Hysteronotuin with 10 pairs {2-1, f>Z, 25) 
of setae and four pairs of normal (not fissurifonn) 
sacculalc foramina. Hystcronotal foramina with 
long, tubular saccule and short, narrow refract He 
Uucr near integumenl, convex refraetile 
hemispherical strucruie between these, Don-osejugal 
furrow entire. Translamella and prelamella absent, 
conspicuous laminar tutorium (between setae 
yt-32>. Rostral seta 0*') transposed laterally, beside 
rather than in front of seta zt. Pteromorph movable, 
with clear weakly sclcrotized basal line. Discidium 
sub rectangular, without custodium. Tibia I with 
large Notenidium (so2) on nearly flat dorsal surface, 
not tubercle, solenidiutn sol may or may not be on 
spur-like distodorsal tubercle., Tibia II with 
distodorsal spur. Genu II with three setae (v 
present). Trochanter IV with distodorsal angle 
Bounded and ridged, distovcntral crown with only 
anterior angulatelobc broad flange extending along 
entire venter of caput, Pretarsus with three claws, 
summer laieral claws with either antral subterminal 
tooth or rruneated tip. 

General Morphology; Soma! length range for 
adults: 330-1030. Soroal chaetotaxy: 2/, 2^. \s; 2J, 
6Z. 7$t%L tik 3///, usually 3 (rarely 2j IV; usually 
4 (rarely 5 or 6) JZg, 1% 2JZu, 3Sa. Leg chaciotaxy 
(solcnidta in parentheses): 1 — l> 5 N 3 (I), 4 (2), 2£l 
(2); H - 1, 5, 3 (1), 4 (1). usually 16 (rarely 15) (2); 
III — 2. 3, I (I), 3 (I), 15; IV — I, 2, 2. 3 (1>, 12. 
Alveolar canal of soma! setae usually dilated and 
long., narrowing at internal extremity to refraetile 
ihvg, sometimes twisted up in near cuticle, 
appearing like pore and sacculus near setal base, 
as described on Magnobates acutttostrum 
(Hammer, 19681 and M. rotund irostrum (Hammer, 
1968). Pteromorph may lie close to the pleural 
surface {Fie, 6) or be lifted away from il (Fig. 5). 
Sub-bothndial flange present. Apotfemes 1. II, 
ventroscjugal and III present, with wide tmdsiernal 
gap (greater than width of genital orifice) in 
venirosejugal apodeme. Subpedal and cirxumpedat 
ridges merging into single continuous line. 
Proximovcmral spur on libiae \ and II anU 
distodorsal sput on tibia U. Femur I without caput 
collar. Conspicuous veitiral flanges on ferauis tl 
and IV, on femur II margin angulatc enclosing right 

Distribution: Australia <Aa) and New Zealand (An). 
The three species from New Zealand were either 
from Lawn moss, a rotren branch or tree bai k In the 
north of Nonh Island, whilst in South Australia 
Magnobates was only recorded from the two 
moister sites that are in the savannah woodland and 
dry sclerophyll forest of the Mr Lofty Rangev 
Within Australia, Magnobates may prove to be 
confined to the moister southern temperate regions. 

Remarks: Magnobates was included in Ihe 
Ceratozeioidea when it was established, but the 
placing by Balogh 11972) and Luxton (198-5) in the 
Haplozetidae Grandjean, 1936 is followed with 
confidence, since Magnobates is veiy similar to 
Hapiozetes, as already indicated here. Although 
Magnobates may prove to he a synonym of 
Lauritzenia, il j$ retained, using the only 
distinguishing character available, the number of 
pretarsal claws. This requires two species to be 
moved from Lsturitzenia to be combined us in the 
list of Magnobates species. Magnobates includes 
five species as rollers: M. aeutirosiru/n (Hammer. 
1968) comb, nov., M. elongatus sp, nov., M. 
flageUyfer Hammer, 1967, M. globulus sp. nov.. A/. 
rotundtrostrum (Hammer, If^S) comb. nov. 

rig. I. Magnobates, ehngatus sp.nov, 

femrits. not «m uf 

Key *o Magnobates species (adults) 

I - Five or six pairs of genital setae (5 or WZg), 
Lamella wi<le, dorsally obscures tutorium 





behind seta z\ 

- Four pahs of genital setae (4/Zg) Lamella 
medium width, dorsally obscures tutnrium oidy 
behind seta J2. . . ... . .3 

2 - Soma longer than 600 pm. Soma! setae long 
(24 reaches 55, Sg longer than 0.5* genual 

shield) i 

. . . . ... A/, rofundirostrum (Hammer) 

- Soma shorter than 500 ^m. Soma! setae 
medium length {Z4 reaches hallway |0 S5, Sg 

shorter than 0,5 * genital shield). . 

M. acutirostrum (Hammer) 

i - Soma longer 1 han 900 /im. Sensory proteronotal 

seta z2 tapering without caput »,.,,. 

. , M. ftagellifer (Hammer) 

- Soma shorter than 500 j/rrt. Sensory protero- 
notal seta s2 with weakly swollen fusiform 
caput 4 

4 - Sensory proteronotal seta c2 with slim caput 
(greaiest width less than 3x stalk width). 
Hysteronotal foramen F5- with spherical 
saccule. On tibia I, solcnidiurnstfl distal to sol 
and on tubercle M. elongatus sp. nov. 

- Sensory proteronotal seia ^2 with medium 
width caput (greatest width mon* than 4 >: stalk 
widlh). Hysteronotal foramen £3 with T-shaped 
saccule. On tibia 1, soleniduirn so] level with 
sol and not ou tubercle ...... . 

...... M. globulus sp. uov. 

Mxgnubates elongatus sp. nov. 

TIGS 1-3 

type material: Holotype female (SAM A NI990242), 
plant litter, sparse moss and sandy soil, under 
scleTophyllous shrubs amongst messmate 
siringybark (Eucalyptus oblique dry sclerophyll 
forest, near summit of Mt Lofty (34*59 ? $» 
J38°45'E), Cleland Conservation Park, 9. v. 1974. 
Paratypes, eleven females (SAMA N 1990243 - 
NI990250, I-BMNH> l-FMNH, 1-NZAC) and 
thirteen paiatype males (SAMA N199U251 - 
N 1590260,. t-RMNH, l-FMNH. I-NZAC), as 

Female: Idiosomal length, 423, (12. 401-437). Leg 
lengths (femur-tarsus for 434>: 1-204, 111-175, 11-161. 
IV-205. Tibial maximum heights (for 434): 1-22, 
11-17, 111-17, 1V-17; 

Proteranoturn with lamellar margin Straight, sub- 
linear, Bothridium (base of seta ?2) with normal. 

Hg, 2. Mosnabotes efongatus sp.nov.* female, tleniitfii c*r 

short (less than 0.5 * diameter of aperture) anterior 
process and small sub-bothridial flap. Seta yi, Jl 
and <| smooth and slim.y'2 subequal in size to Zf>- 
Sensory seta zl with slim fusiform caput, greatest 
width less* than 3x width of stalk. Hysteronotuin 
with some very short setae (Z2, Z3» Z4) t not as long 
as fissure-like pore hfi. Foramina with globular 
saccules at end of short tubular ducts. 

Idiosternal setae smooth, slim and short, /3 and 
Sa3 longest, seta Ills longer than V//2, and /K3 
present. Pedotmum [I rounded distally, ventral 
ridge reaches posterior margin to form spur. No 
eggs observed. 

Legs short (mean femur-tarsus length: 43% of 
somal length). On fibia 1, sotenidium .vol nearly 
directly distal to sol and on distodorsal spur-like 
tubercle. Flange on femur I and II slightly bigger, 
mi\ on trochanter IV slightly smaller, than on 
Magnobares globulus. 

Male; Similar to female but utiosoma shorter* mean 
length, 392 (sclerophyll forest, 13, 380-403), 411.5 
(savannah woodland, 1). 

Referred material; Undesignated male (SAMA 
N 1990261), grass, moss, leaf litter and loamy soil 
under manna gum trees (Eucalyptus viminalt's) t 
savannah woodland. Chambers Gully (34°58'S, 
138°41 'E), Cleland Conservation Park, 

Remarks; The specific name eiongatus is derived 
from the Lai in 'prolonged 1 and refers to it* 
idiosomal shape (when pleromorphs folded down) 
compared with M. globulus. It can be distinguished 
from the smaller two New Zealand species (Af. 
acutiwstrum and A/, rofundirostrum) by having 
fewer genital setae, a narrower lamella and slim 
smooth proieroitotaJ setae and from M. flugelltfi'r 
by being smaller, The shrnness of the proteronotal 
setae and shortness of seta J2 is unique within 
Magnobates, but a short seta y*2 is found on 
Ltiuritzema longipluma Hammer, 1958, which also 
has solenidium sol of tibia I on a dorsodistal 

Majunobntes globulus sp. nov 
FIGS 4-6 

Type Material; Holotype, female (SAMA 
N 1 990262), grass, moss, leaf littet and loamy soil 
under manna gum trees (Eucalyptus vimirtalis) t 
savannah woodland. Chambers Gully (34°58'S. 
I3M°4I 'B), Cleland Conservation Park, 
Paralypes. two females (SAMA NJ990263. 
N1990264} and one male (SAMA NI990265), as 





Female: Idiosomal length, 341 (3, 336-347), Leg 
lengths (femur-tarsus for 336: 1-167, 11—149, 
111-145, 1V-176 Tibial maximum heigkls (lor 336); 
1-17, JX— 13, IU-12, 1V-13. 

Proteronotum with lamellar margin curved, 
convex. Bothridium (base of seta z2) with long (as 
long as diameter of aperture) anterior process and 
large sub-bothridial flap. Setae ./'l,./2 and <;! dilute 
and .stout, J2 unlike Z6. Sensory seta z2 with robust 
clavate caput, greatest width more than 4x width 
of stalk. Hysteronotal setae short but all longer than 
fissute-like pore ftf$. Foramina with small globular 
saccules at end of ducts, except ^5 where saccule 

Idiosternal setae often smooth, slim and short, 
but niidsternai coxite setae (files 1 and 2) stouter 
and clearly citrate, and 7/1 and fill as long as or 
longer than Is and Sa2. Setae HB shorter than all 
others, IV$ absent. Pedotectum II flat distal ly, 
ventral ridge not forming spur on posterior margin. 
Eggs, ellipsoidal, exochorion smooth, 129 g 86- 
136 * 57 (for 337 only, other rwo females without 

Legs medium-length (mean lemur-tarsus: 47^o of 
soma) length) and tibias medium-height (mean 
maximum height: 36% of mean length'!. On tibia 
I, solenidium sol nearly directly in from of sol t 
both on flat dorsal surface, not on spur. Flanges 
on femur I and lit slightly smaller, and on 
trochanter IV slightly bigger, than on Ma%nobates 

Male: Similar lo female but idiosorna shorter, 332. 

Remarks: The specific name globulus is derived 
from the Latin for 'bead' or 'small ball 1 , referring 
to its globular shape when its pteromorphs ate 
folded down, unlike M. etongatus. It is the smallest 
known species of Magnobates. The globular shape 
and the stouter ciliate proteronotal setae are similar 
to those of Af. aculirostrum, M. flageltifer and M, 
rolundi rostrum, and these character states may be 
primitive. The disposition of the solentdia on tibia 
I also is common within the Oripodoidea. The 
unusual T-shaped saccule of foramen F5 is unique 
within Magnobates, but is similar to that of 
Lauritzenia long'tpluma Hammer, 1958 and some 
species of Haplozetes (Beck 1964; Grandjean 1936). 


We are indebted to the Australian Biological 
Resources Study for funding the salary of K.J.S. to 
a grant to D.C.L., as well as to Dr Henrik Enghoff 
(Zoological Museum, Copenhagen) for making two 
types available. Thanks are also due to Ms Kirstic 
Jamieson for the notation and presentation of the 
figures and Mrs Debbie Lowcry for typing the 


Balogh, I (1972) 'The Oribalid Genera ot the World," 

'Akadcmiai Kaido, Budapest). 
& Baiooh, P. (1984) Review of the Onbmnloidea 

Thor, 1929 (Atari: Oribatei). Ada zoo/, hung, 34, 

Br-rt, L. (1964) Beit rage aw Kcnntnir, der neotropischen 

Oribaiidenfauna 4. Haplozetes und Pctonbates (Arach., 

Acari). Senckcnberg blot. 45, 161-183. 
ORAMMhAN. F. (1936) Observations stfi les Oiibates flflc 

scric). Bull. Mus. natn, Hist, ft<iwr, x Paris (2)8, 246-253. 
Hammer, M. (W8) Investigations on the oribatid fauna 

of ihe Andes Mountains, f The Argentine and Bolivia. 

Biot. Skr, 10(1), I-J29, 34 pts. 

(1967J Investigations on the oribatid fauna of Neu 

Zealand, Pact II, Ibid. 15(4), 1-64, 40 pis. 

(1968) Investigation* on the oribaiid fauna of New 

Zealand, Part 111. Ibid. 16(2), 1-96, 30 pts. 

Lee, D. C. (1987) Introductory siudy of advanced oribaie 
mites (Acarida: CryplOHigmaia: Planofissurae) and a 
redescription of the only valid species ot 
Constrict abates (Oripodoidea). Rec, S. Aust> Mus. 21, 

Lux ton, M. (1985) CrypiosiigWAia (Arachnids: Acari) - 
a concise review, fauna N.Z. 7. 1-106. 

Wi li mann, C. (IM5) Fauni.stisch-okologische 
Uiitersuchungcn im Anntngcrgcbiet IV. Die 
Milbcnfauna. I, Orinatej. ZovS Jh Syst 66, 331-344 

he* t-4, Magnobates, posterior aspect of right legs. 3, .VI etongatus sp.nov., legs I-TTT (feniur-preiarsus), leg IV 
(trochanter-pretarsus); 4, M, globulus .sp,nov^ leg. I (lemur-pretarsus). Only setae represented are posterior seia on 
Menu I, two solenidia on tarsus I, ventral seta ou fcmoia II (only seta v2), [V and trochanter JY. 






by Keith R. McDonald* 


Rheobatrachus vitellinus Mahony, Tyler & Davies disappeared from monitored sites in the 
Clarke Range, Eungella National Park, Queensland within 17 months of its discovery in January 
1984. The frog was confined to rainforest streams above 405 m in shallow, rocky, broken-water 
areas, in cascades, riffles and trickles - but was absent from pools of water found between riffles. Its 
former distribution within this system is reported. The associated stream-dwelling species 
Taudactylus eungellensis Liem & Hosmer also declined and disappeared from these and other sites 
during this period. T. liemi Ingram found in seepage areas adjacent to the same streams is still 
present in its preferred habitat. The decline of R. vitellinus and T. eungellensis closely parallels that 
of R. silus and T. diurnus in southeastern Queensland. Causes of these declines have not been 
determined, but many be manifestations of natural population fluctuations of large amplitude. 
KEY WORDS: Rheobatrachus, Taudactylus, Eungella, population decline, distribution, frogs. 

Trtimm hmts of the Royal Society of S. Au±l„ (1990), 114(4). fff? I'M. 




by Keith R. McDonald* 


McDonm 0, K. R (1990) Hhfi&tutrachus Liem and Taudactvius Straughan Si Lee (Anuta: Leplodaciylidas'j 
iu Eutigella National Park, Queensland distribution and decline, lYafts. R, Soc, & Aust, 1U<4>, 187- 194, 
XO November, 1990, 

Rheobtt(ruchu& vftetffHHS Mahony, Tyler & Davies disappeared from monitored site* in ihe Clarke Rattle, 
Eungella National Park, Queensland within 17 month* oMrs discovery in January 1984. The frog was confined 
10 rainforest streams above 405 m in shallow, rocky, broken-water areas, in cascade*, riffles and trickles 
— but wai. absent from pools of warcr found between riffle:;. lis former distribution within this system 
is reported. The associated stream-dwelling species TamivcTylus eungeflensis l.iem & Hosmer also declined 
and disappeared from these and other sites during this period. F. Hemt Ingram found in seepage areas 
adjacent to the same streams is still present in its preferred habitat. The decline of /?, vitellinus and T. 
eufigeiiensis closely parallels that uf rV. ulus and T. diurnut in southeastern Queensland. Causes of these 
inclines have not been determined, bui many be manifestations of natural population fluctuations of large 
attu s " 

Ktv Words Rheobatrachus, Taudaviylu^ Euueclla, population decline, distribution., frogs 


Eurtgelia National Park, situated in the Clarke 
Range west of Mackay, Queensland, comprises 
■49,610 hectares including most of the rainforest 
found in Ltts district. The area supports a number 
of endemic species of birds, reptiles and frogs 
(Winter & McDonald 1986). Among the frogs are 
the gastric brooding frog Rheobatmchus vitellinus 
Mahony, TVIer & Davies and the torrent-adapted 
'day lYogs\ Taudactylus eungeflenm Liern & 
Hosmer and 7' tiemi Jngram. These relatively new 
additions to the frog fauna of Ausiralia have close 
relatives in southeastern Queensland, namely R. 
situs Licm and T. diurnus .Straughan & Lee. 

The gastric brooding frogs R. sifus and R 
vitellinus have attracted considerable interest 
because of their bizarre habit of brooding their 
vouna in the stomach and oral birth (Corben, et 
ai 1974; Tyler 198.V, McDonald &'iyicr 1984; Lcong 
et ai. 1986), Inexplicably, R, situs disappeared 
throughout its range- in southeast Queensland 
(Ingram 1983; Czechura 1984; Tyler & Davies 1985) 
and has not been seen in ihe wild since 1981. 
Parallelling this disappearance has been the decline 
and disappearance across its range of the day frog 
Tdudactylus (Jiunuu, a common co-in habitant of 
streams with R. situs, and known also from other 
localities (Czechura 1984). 

* Queensland National Parks & Wildlife Set vice, 
Haltarcnda, Qid, 4H10 A: Centre for Amphibian Studies. 
Zuutogv Department, f.niverxjiv of Adelaide, S. Aust. 

The discovery of R. vitetlinus by Mahony in 
January 1984 (Mahony et ut. 1984), provided at) 
opportunity to further study this unusual genus, A 
monitoring programme was instituted by the 
Queensland National Parks & Wildlife Service to 
obtain data on distribution patterns and seasonal 
information. Here 1 report the former distribution 
of R vitellinus within Hungella National Park and 
detail its decline and disappearance from monitored 
sites (Winter <& McDonald 1986). I also provide 
information on Ihe distribution, decline and 
disappearance of the associated stream dwelling 
species, 77 eu/Tgelten>i\ (Winter & McDonald 1986). 

Materials and Methods 

Distribution data for R. virettinus were obtained 
by searching creeks on the Clarke Range at nigh'. 
using headlights, iind during the day by looking 
under rocks and vegetation in the creeks. The 
presence or absence of 7.' eunge/tensis and T hemt 
was also documented, Visits of two to five days were 
made once a month from January 1984-March 
1985, from June-October 1985 and every second 
month from December 1985-Febmary 1987. After 
this period, visits were spaced at once every three 
months until March 1989. Nn other visits were made 
until the last visit reported in this paper in Marcb 

Localities were searched and recorded for 
presence or absence of The altitude wa> 
measured to 5 m using an altimeter. Frogs were 





10 km 


2 4 6 8 



■ I i \ — 400 — 400 metre contour line 



;—r-j TV 


7»**— *l ^* a \.^ Mount Dairy rnple", V 

<TV& \ 

""ELLA > fr&J&r ) - 
SlM <^V^- ._ JSl .. Cat 




*W3 J®> — -<i 

1—1 1" *- ' ' v ■■■ 

Fig. 1- Distribution of Rheohutrachus viteflinus in Eungella National Park to January 1985- Closed circles indicaie 
sites at which frogs were located; open circles indicate sites searched, but in which frogs were not found. Triangle 
indicates Mt Dairy mple. S.F. = State Forest. 


weighed to i 0.5 g using a Persola spring balance 
and snout to veni lengths (SVL) were measured 
using dial calipers, recognising the inherent 
inaccuracy of ± 3 mm in measuring I've animal 
(Ingram 1983). All animals were sexed, where 
possible; and recorded as male, female or subaduti. 
Samples were measured from the same locality in 
late winter 3984 through io autumn 1985 on the 
following dates; 24 August, 17-16 September, 16-19, 
22 and 26 October, 19-20 November 6, 8. 19 
December, 4-6, 22 January and 3-9 March. Other 
biological information (habitat selection* diet etc) 
is the subject of a further paper (McDonald tn 
prep.). Rainfall data (1939-1989) for Dalrymple 
Heights (= Eungella township) were collated. 
Regression analyses were performed using the 
SASTAT package of Wilkinson (198*). 


Distiibution data for Rheobarntchus viteiiinus 
and Vtudactylus eutigeitensbs are provided in Figs 
1 and 2. R> viietttnus was recorded in ramforesl 
streams above -=105 m_ These were order 1-3 streams 
(Chorlcy 19691. and animals were located in shallow, 
rocky, broken -water areas, in cascades, riffles and 
trickles, but were absent from the pools of water 
found between riffles. It was not unusual to locate 
up to six frogs in an area 2 * 5 m in live riflle. 
During rain, the frogs were frequently on rocks and 
easily distinguished in the headlight. 

The recorded distribution of R. vitettinus is in 
undisturbed rainforest. No logging, clearing or 
mining has taken place: the only human disturbance 
is a poorly defined walking trail through part of 
J he area. Streams above 400 m in which R. vitefiinus 
was not located had shallow gradients. Afixophyes 
fau-iolatus, Utorta ehtoris and Adeiotus brevi? were 
found in the streams, but their preferred habitat was 
backwaters or pools in the rocks. L, lesueuri was 
not found in the same area as R. vitettinus but was 
present in some habitats of T. eugettettsis, 

Taudoctyfus eun%ettensia was found above 150 in 
in the same area as R, viteUinus as well as in the 
rainforest ateas to the north and south (Fig. 2). \\ 
was present also in logged rainforest. Frogs were 
active io waterfall and riffle spia>h /.ones during Ute 
day and it was not unusual to see five or moTe in 
an area 1 > 2 m on rocks in riffle areas and in a 
similar density in splash zones near waterfalls. 

T, liemt was found in seepage areas adjacent to 
the streams in which (he other two species were 
found or in areas where streams were noi flowing 
above the ground. T. ttemi and 71 etinneflensis laid 
eggs in the same water. 

Both R. vifettiHUS and T. eungelfensis were 
considered common across the range (as defined 
by Kirkpafrick & Lavery 1979) until January 1985 
when the first signs of the decline (reported by 
Winter & McDonald 1986) was observed at Iowct 
altitudes (ic% about 400 m>. At higher altitude the 
frogs were common until March 1985 but were 
absent in June of that year. 

R vitettinus has not been recorded from 
monitored or any other sites within Eungella 
National Park since March 1985. A small 
population of T. eungettensis was recorded in the 
southern area of its distribution (see location A on 
Fig. 2) in June 1986. but disappeared after that date 

Tadpoles of T, eungettensis disappeared from 
areas being monitored for R. vitefiinus but were 
present in the southern areas of the distribution of 
77 eungettensis until May 1987. Tadpoles suspected 
to be those of 7: ttemi were found in small pools 
in September 1987 in the streams Rowing from the 
southet n end of Mi David (Fig. 2 site B). Tadpoles 
of Toudoctytus disappeared from the monitored 
stream sites by January 1988. 

Potential or actual predators, although not 
quantitatively assessed, did not appear to change 
in numbers before and after the disappearance of 
the frogs. These included eels {Anguitta remhanUi), 
water rats (Hydromys chrysogaster), snakes 
(Pseudectiis porphyriacus> Cacophis stjuatmthsus, 
Crypiopnis tjigresc&ts) and crayfish (Euostacus 
eungeJltJ). A crayfish was observed on 9.iii.1985 with 
the right leg of an individual of R, vifeifinus in its 

Rainfall data for the period 1939-1989 arc 
provided in Fig. 3 and monthly rainfall records from 
1980-1989 in Fig. 4. At all times during the period 
of monitoring, order 2 & 3 streams continued :o 

The relationship between SVL and weight foi 
males, females and subadults of 8. vitettinus 
between August 1984 and March 1985 is shown in 
Fig. 5. Regression lines and confidence limits for 
males and females only are shown in Fig. 6. Further 
statistical analysts was not employed because of 
small sample sizes. 


A number of factors might have contributed to 
the decline of Rheobatrtrcnus vitettinus and 
Tbuductytua eungeilensis. 

Ingram (1983) experienced difficulty in locating 
R, situs in the winter months and suggested that 
the spectra may shelter or hibernate, although he- 
had no drrect evidence of such an occurrence. R. 


k. r. Mcdonald 

-© - S.F 


8 10 km 

*-« . 

400 metro conlour line 



/ l 1 —400— 






V I / 




J^Jf .- -fe 5 ^*^^""" V I ^'~~ « ^ T T-5w* § * Mount Da!rymple° \ 

f W ' • ^' . j-r' • k rmfry fen; i^-r, 

r *? T ,^' fen; J^^J 


JNGELLA S «fl />*«* \ ' 

7.J./ *&~-~ , ~V caMe V-w^ - 


& — 

L* Phi J^f-% 

> % 


Fig. 2. Distribution of Taudactylus eungeHensis in Eungella National Park to January 1985. Closed Circle* indicate 
sites at which frogs were located; open circles indicate sites searched but in which frogs were not found, Site A 
is the site at which the species was last recorded in June 1986 and Site B is where the last taudactylus tadpoles 
were recorded. 




-tJUl ■ 

< ;or* 




■ ~ s S •£ * » * s * £ e s £ a a a e ■ '3 s jg * 3 * £ S £ » £ £ £ » £ 

Fig. 3. Rainfall data for Dalrymple Heights (= Eungeila Township) far the period 1939 (when records commenced) 
— December 1989. Mean annual rainfall indicaied by dashed lines 

vitet Units, on the 01 her hand, was abundant during 
the winter of 1984. hence a decline in the winter 
of 1985 cannot be attributed to seasonal behaviour. 

Rainfall at the time of the decline was average 
(Fig. 3, amplified in Fig. 4). During the monitoring 
period, none of the order 2 and 3 streams dried up. 
Low average rainfall occurred in 1971, 1978, 1982 
(drought) and 1984. During this time T. eungelfensis 
was recorded commonly in the area (unpubl. data). 
R. vitellinus was first collected in January 19S4, 
These data suggest that climatic change as 
represented by rainfall and stream flow was not a 
factor contributing to species decline. 

No obvious man-made disturbance can be 
associated with the disappearance, Twenty-two 
specimens arc known to have been collected for 
scientific purposes (unpubl. data) over a period of 
15 months (January 1984-March 1985) and from 
a range of localities, At the time of collection, the 
species was abundant at each site and it is extremely 
unlikely that collection had an impact on numbers. 
Eleven T, eungetlensis were collected during the 
same time period. 

If the animals had been disturbed by the data 
collection or had been affected by disease, heavy 
parasite loads or some such adverse factor, a 
deterioration in body condition would have been 
expected. This could have shown in the relationship 
between weight and snout vent length overtime. By 
inspection. Fig. 5, which combines data from male, 
female and subadult individuals, does not indicate 
such a trend. Regression analysis of the data by sex 
(subadult individuals were not considered as the sex 
was indeterminate) indicates, if anything, an 
improvement over time, but very little importance 
can be attached to this because of the small sample 

77 liemi inhabits seepages and appears not to have 
been affected by factors contributing to the decline 
of stream dwelling T. eungellensis and R. viteUinus. 
Nevertheless a decline in Adelotis brvvjs which 
inhabits backwaters and pools may be occurring, 
The species has been heard calling only once 
(January 1986) in the former distribution of R. 
viteltinus since the latter disappeared but was still 
present in the southern part of the range of T. 


k, r. Mcdonald 















! kiriv// 


1 A . 

; : 


i ' 1/1 


^80 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 19B6 19S? 1988 1989 

Tig. 4. Monthly rainfall data for Dalrymple Heights from 1970 to January 1990. Mean monthly records are indicated 
by dashed lines. An arrow indicates when Rheobutrachus vitellines (January J984) was discovered and dots indicate 
when Taudactylus eungeilensis and R. vitellinus were last observed at monitored sites. 

eungeilensis. A, brevis was not located in March 
1990 at Broken River, but dry seasonal conditions 
existed for the previous two months. 

The disappearance of R. vitellinus and T 
eungeilensis throughout their ranges parallels that 
of R. silus and T. diurnus in southeastern 
Queensland as documented by Ingram (1983) and 
Czechura (1984) and discussed by Tyler & Davies 
(1985). The recent absences in the southern 
distribution of Taudactylus acutirostris in north 
Queensland from known habitats (unpubl. data) 
suggests a phenomenon similar to that which 
occurred for Rheobatrachus species and the two 
Taudactylus species. The changes have occurred 
over ten years, moving from south to north and 
affecting species in upland areas. For this reason, 
as indicated by lyier & Davies (1985), legislative 
protection of frogs displaying large fluctuations in 

populations over time is of litlle value — protection 
of habitat becomes of prime importance, 

McEvoy et al. (1979) listed R. silus as common 
(as defined by Kirkpatrick & Lavery 1979) whilst 
TVler & Davies (1985) considered the species to be 
abundant in 1976. Both R. vitellinus and 71 
eungeilensis were common prior to the beginning 
of contraction of Lheir ranges in January 1985. 

For frog species to be common in localised areas 
is not unusual, especially rainforest species (Zweifel 
1985; Burbidge & Jenkins 1985; McDonald in 
press), but their localised distribution does not 
necessarily render them endangered or vulnerable 
(Thomas & McDonald 1989). The status of R. silus t 
R. vitellinus, T diurnus and 7: eungeilensis is 
considered at this stage to be rare. If their habitat 
is under stress, they must be considered to be 


29 25 22 






0.45 A 

^ 0.40 

5 0.35 

§ 0.30 
0.20 -| 
0.10 - 
05 - 










Month and Year 




Fig. 5. Mean, range and standard deviation of ratio WT/SVL for monthly samples of R. viteMnus from August 1984 
to March 1985. 

The cause of the decline of R. vitellinus and T. 
eungellensis cannot be identified. The possibility 
remains that what has been observed is a natural 
population fluctuation and that residual individuals 
have contracted to refuges of unknown locality and 
nature. The amplitude of such population 
fluctuations is unknown, but circumstantial 
evidence is accumulating of similar large swings in 
population numbers amongst other species of 
Australian frogs (Tyler & Oavies 1985; Winter & 
McDonald 1986; Tyler in press). Of great concern 
is the realisation of a world-wide decline in 
amphibian populations of unknown origin and 
extent (Barinaga 1990). 


Dr Margaret Davies encouraged this study and 
provided invaluable guidance and criticism of the 
manuscript. Dr A. J. Butler and in particular, Drs 
K. R Walker and S. C. McKillup, University of 
Adelaide, gave assistance with statistical advice and 
analysis. Staff at Eungella National Park, Kent 
Casey, R. Delaney, V. R. J. Hansen, M. L. Kerr, 
M. Pyke, D. Schulz, J. Turner, Dr J. Wade, and Dr 
J. W. Winter assisted in the field and in various 
ways. Russell Cumming drew figures 1-4 and Kelly 
Maurice-Jones drew figure 5. Jean McMahon typed 
the manuscript. All this assistance is gratefully 

Aug Sep! Oct Nov Dec Jan Mar 
84 84 64 84 84 BS 65 


Aug Sep! Oct NOb Dec Jan Mar 
B4 84 84 84 84 85 8 5 


Fi to(h T CrT ^ Ie a u n ™2 ,e c weight t( ? SVL relarionsh 'P5 and confidence limits for sample of R. vtteWnus from August 
19S4 to March 1985. Some points represent multiple samples. 

Re fere nets 

Barinaca, M. (1990) Where have alt the froggies gone. 
Science 247, 1033-1034. 

Burbjdgf, A. & Jenkins, R. (Eds) (1984) Endangered 
vertebrates of Australia and its island territories. Report 
of the working group on endangered fauna of the 
standing committee m the Council of Conservation 
Ministers. (Australian National Parks & Wildlife Service, 

Corben, C. j\ t Ingram, G. J. & Tyler, M. J. (1974) 
Gastric brooding: unique form of parental care in an 
Australian frog. Science 186, 946-7. 

Chorley, R. J. (1969) The drainage basis as the 
fundamental geomorphic unit. In R. J. Chorley (Ed,) 
'Introduction to physical hydrology' (Metheun, 

Czechi.ra, G. V. (19S4) The BJackall-Conondale Ranges: 
Frogs, reptiles and fauna conservation. In G. L. Wcrren 
& A, R Kershaw (Eds) Proceedings of Workshop The 
present, past and future of Australian Rainforests' 
(Monash University, Clayton). 

Ingram, G. J. (1983) Natural History pp. 16-35 In M J. 

Tyler (Ed.) The Gastric Brooding Frog.'(CroOm-Helm, 

Kirkpatrick, T. H. & Laver> , H. J. (1979) Fauna Surveys 

in Queensland, Old J. Agric. Sc. 37, 181-188, 
Leong. A ; S.-V"., Tyler, M, i Sc Shlwrman, D. J. C. 

(1986) Gastric brooding: a new form in a recently 

discovered Australian frog of the genus RheobatrachuL 

Aust. J, Zooi 34, 205-209. 
Mahony, M. J., Tyler, M. J. & Davies, M. (1984) A 

new species of the genus Rheobatrachus (Anura: 

leptodactylidae) from Queensland. Trans. R. Soc. S. 

Aust. 108, 155-162 
McDonai d, K. R. (in press) Distribution patterns and 

conservation status of north Queensland rainforest 

frogs. Queensland National Parks Wildlife Service, 

Technical Report. 
&. Tyler, m. I (1984) Evidence of gastric 

brooding in the Australian leptodaclylid" frog 

Rheobatrachus vitelltnus. Trans. /?. Soc. S. Aust. 108, 

McEvoy, J. S., McDonald, K. R. & Scarle, A. K. 

(1979) Mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians of the 

Kilcoy Shire, Queensland. Old J. Aerie. Animal Sci 36 

Thomas, M. B. & McDonai d, W. J. F. (1989) Kare and 

threatened plants of Queensland/ 2nd Edition. (Qld 

Dept Prim. Ind,, Brisbane). 
Tyler, M. I (Ed.) (1983) The Gastric Brooding Frog. 1 

(Croom-Helm, London). 
(in press) Declining amphibian populations: a 

global phenomenon? An Australian perspective. Alytes 
Si Davies, M. (1985) The gastric brooding "frog 

Rheobatrachus silus. pp. 469-70 In G. Grigu. R. Shine 
& H. Ehmann (Eds) 'Biology of Australasian fxogi and 
Reptiles.' (Surrey BeattyA R. Tool. Soc. NSW, Chippum 
Norton). ^ h 

Wilkinson, L. (19K6) SYSTAT: The svstem for statistics 
(SYSTAT Inc., Evanston IL.). 

Winter, J. & McDonald, K. (1986) hungella, the land 
of cloud. Aust. Nat, Hist. 22(1), 39-43 

Zweikel, R. G. (1985) Australian frogs of the family 
Microhylidae. Butt. Am. Mus. .\ T at. Hist. 182, 265-388 




Material of two species of Pisione recently collected in Spencer Gulf, South Australia, constitutes 
the first Australian records of the Pisionidae, a family of small interstitial polychaetes. One of the 
species is P. gopalai (Alikunhi, 1941), known previously only from India, and here redescribed 
with additional observations concerning its reproductive system. The second species, apparently 
related to P. papillata Yamanishi, 1976 of Japan, is described as P. tortuosa sp. nov. 
KEY WORDS: Polychaeta, Pisionidae, Pisione gopalai, Pisione tortuosa sp. nov., Australia. 

TmASQtUMS OJ thr Hoyai Sitfie/y t>/5. Au\t„ (1990), 114(4), I9S-201. 


toy 0. Haktmann-SchrOder* & S. a. Parker! 


HARTMA*JN-Sc:HR6ubR r G. & Parker, S.A. (1990) First Australian records of the family Pwionidae 
{Polychaeta), with th? description of a new species, Trans, #. Soc. S Aust. 114(4), 195-201, 30 November, 1990. 
Material of two species of Pti-tone recently collected in Spencer Gulf, South Australia, constitutes the 
first Australian records of the Pisionidae, a family of small interstitial polychaetes. One of the species i* 
P gopatai (Alikunhi, 1941). known previous!) only from India, and here redescribed with additional 
observations concerning its reproductive system. The second species, apparently related to P. papiltata 
V^manishi, 1976 of Japan, is described as P. tortuosa sp. nov. 

Key Words: Potvchaeia, Pisirmidae, Pisione gopatai, Pisione tortuosa sp. nov., Australia. 


Tbc family Pisionidae is widely distributed in 
warm temperate to tropical zones, with two species 
(R Umgipalpa Uschakov, 1956 and P. remota 
(Southern, 1914)) occurring in cool temperate seas. 
Mcrnbers oflhe family live mterstiiially, preferring 
sandy substrates in shallow waters from the 
imeriidal to 78 metres. 

Until recently, no pisionids had been known from 
Australia. During a benthic survey of upper Spencer 
Gulf, South Australia,, conducted by the S. Aust. 
Fisheries Dept in 1986 and 1987, a total of 342 
specimens of the genus Pisione was collected from 
nine stations by Smhh-Mclntyre grab. Of these, 338 
proved referable to P. gopatai (Alikunhi, 1941), 
known previously only from India, and four 
represented an undeseribed species related to R 
pepittata Yamamshi, 1976 of Japan. Below, P. 
zopahri is redescribed, and ihe second species 
is described. 

Material and Methods 

Measurements are in rnillimetres v made with an 
eyepiece micrometer. Drawings were made with the 
aid of a camera lucida on a Zeiss microscope. 
Material is deposited in the South Australian 
Museum, Adelaide (SAM), Zoological Museum, 
Hamburg (ZMH), Australian Museum, Sydney 
(AM) and National Museum of Natural History, 
Washington DC (USNM). The terminology for the 

' Zoologisches Institut nnd Zoologisches Museum, 
L'nivcr$itat Hamburg, 2000 Hamburg 13, West 

I South Australian Museum. North Terrace, Adelaide, S. 
Au»t. 5000. 

general morphology mainly follows Southern (1914) 
and Yamanishi (1976); that for the reproductive 
structures follows Alikunhi (1941). Details of the 
collecting-stations are presented in Table 1, 


Family PISIONIDAE Levlnsen, 1887 

Genus Pisione Grubc, 1857 

Pisione gopaioi (Alikunhi* 1941) 

FIGS 1-12 

Praegeria gopalai Alikunhi, 1941; 224, pU 10. 11, text-fig* 

Pisione gopalai: Alikunltt, 1951:24-25; Rao&Ganapaii. 
1968: 110. 

Material examined: Station 5, SAM F.2328(l); Station 6. 
SAME2329<60) < ZMH P19699-W70GX31I, AM W2QKW). 
USNM 127193(6) (all from a single sample of 103), SAM 
£2330-2341(146); Station 7, SAM E2342(1), Station R, 
SAM E2343~2344(7); Station 10, SAM E2345(l); Static* 
t5, SAM E2346, E2365-236St94) ; ZMH PI 9697-1 9698(6); 
Station 16, SAM £2369(1); Station 25, SAM 
£2370-2372(7); Station 30, SAM E2373(l). 

Description of new material: Largest female 57 
setigers, length 8.8. Largest male 55 setigers, length 
6.1. Prostomium small, surrounded by buccal 
segment, palps long, dorsal cirri of buccal segment 
elongate, very weakly annulaled, ventral cirri small, 
globular, each with terminal papilla, two pairs of 
eyes on posteriot lobes of btain at level of second 
setiger (Fig. I). Buccal aciculae strong, tips 
expanded, obliquely truncate with inconspicuou* 
dentations (Figs 2a, b). 

Dorsal cirri similar in form and size, short, 
globular, each with terminal papilla (Figs 1. 3). 
Ventral cirri of settger I slightly elongated; ventral 
cirri of succeeding secigeis short, globular (Figs l t 




TABLE i. Details of Stations in Spencer Gu(f at which pisiomtis ww collected. 





Ut. (S) 

32°42 r 20* 

32 c 45'OO w 
32*47' 18" 
32*47' 18" 
33*00 '00" 
33*02 24 " 

Long. (E) 

l37 o 50'00" 
I37 49'52" 
137*45 'OCT 

3th i rij> 

Sandgrain size 


medium to coarse 











very coarse 

! 2 « 



Parapodia elongate, truncate, each with large 
rounded presetal lobe and two aciculae, the upper 
short, the lower long and expanded distally (Fig. 
3). Usually five setae per parapodium, one superior 
simple seta and four inferior compound fafcigerous 
setae; simple seta stout, expanded disialiy with 
obliquely truncated, coarsely serrated tip (Fig. 4); 
uppermost compound seta with broad, shaft and 
long serrated blade, interior compound setae 
distally bifid with short serrated blades (Tig, 5). 

Pygidium with two lateral groups of caudal 
glands and two long anal cirri (Fig. 6). 
Reproductive System; Females, 24-57 ueligers. 
Reproductive organs consist of 1-3 ovarian groups 
(Alikunhi (1941) mentioned only 1-2 groups), each 
extending into 5-16 consecutive segments 0-\Sfide 
Alikunhi 1941), and 1-3 pan* of reeeptacula seminb 
cot responding to the ovarian groups and located 
in segment following each group. Parapodia of 
reeeptacula sem/'/iw-bearing segments greatly 
reduced, each with truncated lobes, one actcula, a 
dorsal cirrus and a genital papilla, last bearing 
common apperture of a receptaculum senMnis and 
a nephridial duct (Figs 7, 8; see also Alikunhi 1941). 

Of 117 females examined, 46 had one pair of 
reeeptacula seminis, which were located in setigers 
17-45, mostly in setigers 25(5), 26(3). 27(4). 28(6) 
and 29(4); of these 46 specimens, 23 had 33-37 
setigers. Fifty-one females had two pairs, in setigers 
15-55; of these 51, 35 had 38-52 setigers. Seventeen 
females had three pairs, in setigers 20-53; of these 
17, eight had 53-56 setigers. 

Mates, 21-55 setigers. Reprod uciive system 
usually consists of one pair of sperm sacs, a pair 
of genital funnels and a pair of copulatory organs; 
only one male (from SAM E2371) out of 166 males 

examined had two pairs of each of these structures. 
Parapodia of copulatory organ-bearing segment 
strongly modified (Pigs 9-12): each parapodium 
ends in a papilla with stiff cuticular projections and 
a hook-like retractile process where efferent duct of 
5-perm sac opens; posterior side of each parapodium 
also with a spinous papilla of unknown function 
and, more ven trolly, a second process with cuticular 
projections (?modified ventral cirrus); dorsal cirrus, 
aciculae and presetal lobe of normal shape. 

Copulatory organs located in setigers 15-26. Of 
166 males examined, 33 had these organs in setiger 
20, 30 had them in setiger 21, and 26 had them in 
setiger 22, In the first group, 15 specimens had 
33-39 setigers, in the second group 15 bad 37-40 
setigers, and in the ihird group 13 had 36-41 

Juveniles arid unsexed adults. Sixty unseated 
specimens (with 9-37 seiigers) were found, Most 
were juveniles, with fewer than 20 setigers. Thr 
other individuals might have been at a post- 
reproductive stage in which the reproductive organs 
had disintegrated and new parapodia had developed 
at the genital segments. 

Distribution and habitat. India; Madras. 
Pathinettarayalom, Waltair Coast, in coarse sand 
of the lower intertidal; South Australia: Upper 
Spencer Gulf, in medium to very coarse sand of the 
benthos, 11-24 m. 

Pisionids, being tiny and interstitial, can be easily 
overlooked, as demonstrated by the late discovery 
of this species and the next in Spencer Gulf, a 
relatively well-collected area. It is not unlikeLy, 
therefore, that otheT populations of P gopalai 
Tetnain to be discovered bet*t«n India and 

Figs 1-5, Pisione Ropata i (Alikunhi, 1941). I , anterior end (dorsal view); 2a,b, buccal aciculae; 3, parapodium with 
globular dorsal and ventral cirri (posterior view); 4, superior simple seta; 5, compound setae. 





Pitione tortuosa sp. nov. 
FIGS 13-17 

Hoiotype: SAM E2325, Station 15, 24 m. In coarse 
sand, upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia, 
collected by E. Oks, S. Aust Fisheries Dept, Feb 
1986; 94 setigers, length 16,0, width (excluding 
parapodia) 0.35. 

Pitro/vpcs; SAM E2326<1). E2327(l), ZMH 
P!9369(l), same data as hoiotype; 72-86 letigers, 
length 12.0-13.2. 

Definition; A Pisione with dorsal cirri on sctiger 
2 elongated and evenly tapering (lacking terminal 
papilla); eyes at level of setiger 1; lower acicula of 
each parapodium amber-coloured and straight; 
blade of uppermost compound seta twisted and 

Description: Prosromium diamond-shaped, very 
small, surrounded by buccal segment; palps large, 
elongate; dorsal tentacular cirri thread-like, ventral 
one short, globular with terminal papilla; one pair 
of small eyes on brain at position of first setiger 
(Fig. 13). Buccal aciculae strong, distally expanded, 
obliquely truncate with indistinct serration (Fig. J4). 

Parapodia (some partly separated from body due 
to fixation) oblong, bearing two presetal lobes, the 
upper one nearly rectangular, the lower a little 
longer, conical; and two aciculae, superior one 
smaller and pale, inferioi one larger and amber- 
coloured (Fig 15). Dorsal cirri (except those of 
setiger 2) short, globular; dorsal cirri of setiger 2 
elongated, tapering, with no terminal papilla, but 
shorter than parapodia! lobe (Fig- 13). Ventral cirn 
of first setiger also elongated, greatly exceeding 
parapodia! lobe; other ventral cirri globular (Frg> 
13, 15). 

Setae comprise one superior simple seta and four 
compound falcigerotis setae (Figs 16, 17). Simple 
seta stout, distally obliquely truncate, with strong 
dentation. Uppeimost compound seta much 
thinner, its shaft with asymmetrical oval end, the 
blade long, subdistaliy twisred, with coarse 
dentation. Shafts of the three inferior compound 
setae distally bifid; blades short, serrated. 

Etymology. The name tortuosa, a Latin adjective, 
refers to the twisted blade of the uppermost seta. 

Comparison with other species 

Species of Pisione with elongate dorsal cirri on 
setiger 2 are P. afr'tcana Day, 1963, R crassu 
Yamanishi, 1976. P. oerstedii Grube, 1857 (including 
P o. puila Westheidc. 1974) and P. papiiiata 
Yamanishi, 1976. In P. africana the second dorsal 
cirrus is more slender than and twice as long as the 
others, though of the same shape {Le. not tapering 
evenly but ending in a distinct papilla); in P. erassa 
and P. oerstedii all the compound setae have short 

The four specimens from Spencer Gulf appear 
most similar to P. papiiiata of Japan, but differ 
sufficiently to merit description as a separate 
species. The new specks is larger, 12.O-16.0 in length 
as opposed to *up to 7.6 mm* in P. papillate 
(Yamanishi 1976). In addition, the distal margins 
ol the buccal aciculae are more sharply truncated, 
the eyes are at the level of setiger 1 rather than 
setiger 2, the lower acicula of each parapodium is 
amber-coloured and stiaight rather than paJe and 
sharply recurved at the tip, and the blade of the 
uppermost seta is longeT and twisted. 

Distribution and habitat 

R tortuosa is so far known only from the type- 
locality in upper Spencer Gulf„ S.A., where it was 
collected at 24 m in coarse sand. The related P 
papiiiata of Japan has been reported from beaches 
of coarse sand at Hon-jima on the island of 
Shikoku and Hishio on Honshu (Yamanishi 1976). 
localities on opposite shores of the Seto Naikai, 

In Spencer Gulf, P. tortuosa appears less 
common and more localized than P. gopalai having 
been toutid at only one station (four speciraens). as 
against nine stations (338 specimens) for the latter. 


We should like to thank Ms Ene~mai Oks, leader 
of the Spencer Gulf benthic survey, for lodging the 
survey's collections with the South Australian 
Museum, and Mr J. R. Hanley and Dr P. Hutchings 
for their criticism of the manuscript, 

FiRi 6-11. Histatte gopalai tAlikunlu, 1941). 6, pygidium (ventral view); 7, 8, reauctd parapodium oj segment bearing 
weptacuta seminis (dorsal view); 9. 10. segments bearing ovulatory organs (dorsal and ventral views respectively); 
II, modified parapodium or segment bearing copulatory organs (anterior view), 






AiiKDNHi, K. H. (1941) On a new species of Praegeria 
occurring in the sandy beach, Madras. Proc. Ind. Acad. 
Sci. Sect, B 13(3), 193-228. 

(1951) On the reproductive organs of Pisione 

remota (Southern) together with a review of the family 
Pisionidae (Polychaeta). Ibid. 33(1), 14-31. 

Day, J, H. (1963) The polychaete fauna of South Africa, 
pt 8. New species and records from grab samples and 
dredgings. Bull. Brit. Mus. (nat. Hist.) Zoot. 10(7), 

Grube, A. E. (1857) Annulata Oerstediana, pt 2. 
Vidensk. MeddeL naturh. For., Kjobenhavn, Aar. 

Levinsen, G. M. R. (1887) Kara-Havets Ledorme 
(Annulata). In Lutken, C. K (Ed.), Dijmphna-Togtets 
Zooglogisk-botanisk Udbytte, 288-303. Copenhagen. 

Rao, G. C. & Ganafati, P. N. (1968) The interstitial 

fauna inhabiting the beach sands of Waltair coast. Proc. 

nat. Inst Sci India 34B(2), 82-125. 
Southern, R. (1914) Archiannelida and Polychaeta. 

Clare Island Survey, pt 47. Proc. R. Irish Acad. Sect. 

B, 31, 1-160. 
Uschakov, P. V. (1956) Polychaets of the family 

Pisionidae Levinsen inhabiting the seas of the USSR. 

Acad. Nauk USSR zooL J. 35(12), 1809-1813. 
Westheide, W. (1974) Interstitielle Fauna von 

Galapagos, pt 11. Pisionidae, Hesionidae, Pilargidae, 

Syllidae (Polychaeta). Mikrofauna Meeresbodens 44, 

Yamanishi, R. (1976) Interstitial polychaetes of Japan. 

1. Three new pisionid worms from western Japan. Publ. 

Seto mar. biol Lab. 23 (3-5), 371-385. 

Fig. 12. Pisione gopaiai (Alikunhi, 1941). Modified parapodium of segment bearing copulatory organs (posterior 
view). (Figs 1-6, 9-12 from SAM E2365, figs 7, 8 from SAM E2329). 

Figs 13-17. Pisione tortuosa sp. nov. SAM E2325: 13, anterior end (dorsal view) 14, buccal acicula; 15, parapodium 
(anterior view); 16, simple seta; 17, compound setae. 




A new species of phyllodocid polychaete, Hesionura australiensis sp. nov., is described from 

Spencer Gulf, South Australia. The single specimen, collected in coarse sand at a depth of 11 

metres, represents the first record of the genus Hesionura Hartmann- Schroder, 1958, from 


KEY WORDS: Polychaeta, Phyllodocidae, Hesionura australiensis, new species, Australia. 

jtontiicltQrjs of tfie Rvyat Society of $ Aust., (19W).l 114(4 1, 30? 405. 


by G. Hartmann-Schroder* & S. A. Parker! 


Hartman-Schrgder, G. & Parker, S. A. (1990) First Australian record of Hesiortura (Polychaeia: 
Phyllodocidae). with the description of a new species. Tram, R. Sow S. Aust. 114(4), 203-205, 30 November, 

A new species of phyllodocid polychaete, Hesionura australiensis sp. nov., is described from Spencer 
Gulf, South Australia. The single .specimen, collected in coarse sand at a depth of 11 metres, represents 
:he firyt record of the genus Hesionura Hartmann-Schroder, 1958, from Australia- 

Key Words Polycoaeta, Phyllodocidae, Hesionura australiensis, new species, Australia. 


Hesionura Hartmartn-Schrddci, 1958 
(Phyllodocidae; Fteoninae) currently contains nine 
described species, aJi of which live intersthially, 
most no deeper than 40 m, but one to 100 m and 
one to 200 m. Until recently the genus had not been 
known from Australia. In February 1986, during a 
bent hie survey of upper Spencer Gulf, South 
Australia, the S. Aust. Fisheries Dept collected a 
single specimen of Hesionura, which examination 
revealed to represent an undescribed s^cies. 

Materials and Methods 

Measurements are in millimetres, made with an 
eyepiece micrometer. Drawings were made with the 
aid of a camera lucida on a Zeiss microscope. The 
holotype is deposited in the South Australian 
Museum, Adelaide (SAM). 

Family PHYLLODOCIDAE Williams, 1852 

Subfamily Eteoninae Bergstrom, 1914 
Genus Hesionura Hartmann-Schrddci. 1958 

Hrsiontuu austmlivnsis sp. nov. 
FIGS 1-5 

Holotype. SAM E2324, Station 8, 32°47'I8" % 
13?°50' E. t upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia, 
1J m, in coarse sand, collected by b. Oks, S. Aust. 
Fisheries Dept, hebruary, 1986. 

Definition; A Hesionura lacking simple setae; shaft 
of uppermost (compound) seta trifid distally, the 
remainder bifid; blade of second uppermost seta 
2-3 times as long as the others, sertatulaie, the teeth 
very long and fine. 

Description of Holotype: Seventy-three setigers 
(incomplete), length 5.1, width (excluding 
parapodia) 0,12. Colour in alcohol brownish-green, 
bases of posterior parapodia containing reddish- 
brown pigment. 

Prostomium (Fig. 1) tiapc2otd, length equal to 
greatest width, with two small red eyes near 
posterior margin and four elongate antennae 
(slightly longer than prostomium) near anterior 
margin. First segment not completely separated 
from prostomium, bearing one pair of tentacular 
cirri of similar shape to antennae but longer. 
Segment 2 with two pairs of tentacular cirri, the 
dorsal pair slightly longer than those of segment 
1, ventral pair shorter, lanceolate Segment 3 bearing 
parapodia, setae and lanceolate ventral cirri; dorsal 
cirri absent. Dorsal cirri of succeeding segments 
lanceolate to subulate, slightly exceeding parapodial 
lobes; ventral cirri lanceolate but much longer; 
parapodia conical, each wjth one large conical 
presetal lobe and one stout acicula (Fig. 2). In 
addition, each parapodlum bears four compound 
setae (Fig. 3), uppermost with distally trifid shaft 
and short, coarsely dentate blade, next one thinner 
with shaft distally bifid, blade long, serratulate (Fig. 
4), the two interior setae with distally bifid shafti 
and short, coarsely dentate blades (Fig. 5|. 

* Zoologisches Inuitut tmd Zootogisches Museum, 
Utiiversita't Hamburg. 2000 Hamburg 13, West 

t South Australian Museum, North Terrace. Adelaide S. 
Aim,, 5000. 

Comparison with Other xpeciev 

Other Hesionura spp. lacking simple setae and 
with the shaft of at least the uppermost seta trifid 
distally are H. coineaui (L;utbier, 1962) and H t 
laubieri (Hartmann-Schroder. 1963). H. 




australiensis resembles H. coineaui in having the 
shaft of the second uppermost seta bifid distally 
but differs in having the blade of the same not 
coarsely denticulate but serratulate, the teeth very 
long and fine. There are also differences in the 
lengths of the setal blades: in //. c coineaui all four 
are short, in H. c. difficilis (Banse, 1963) the 
uppermost and lowermost are short, the other two 
about twice as long, and in H. australiensis the 
uppermost and two lowermost are short, with the 
second uppermost 2-3 times as long. //. 
australiensis further differs from H. coineaui in 
having the ventral tentacular cirri and the dorsal 
and ventral parapodial cirri longer. The new species 
resembles H. laubieri in having the blade of the 

second uppermost seta serratulate and longer than 
the rest, but differs in having this blade even more 
elongated and its shaft distally bifid, not trifid. 

Distribution and Ecology 

Known only from the type-locality in northern 
Spencer Gulf, S.A., where the single specimen was 
collected in coarse sand at a depth of U m. 
Apparently much less common in the area than the 
equally small, interstitial polychaetes of the genus 
Pisione (Pisionidae), of which 342 specimens were 
obtained during the same survey (Hartmann- 
Schroder & Parker 1990). 


Banse, K, (1963) Polychaetous annelids from Puget 
Sound and the San Juan Archipelago, Washington. 
Proc. bioi. Soc. Wash. 76, 197-208. 

BergstrOm. E. (1914) Zur Systematic der Polychaeten 
Familie der Phyllodociden. ZooL Bidr Upps. 3, 37-324. 

Hartmann-Schroder, G. (1958) Einige polychaeten aus 
dem Kustengrundwasser der Bimini-Inseln (Bahamas). 
Kieter Meeresforsch. 14, 233-240. 

(1963) Revision der Gatlung Mystides The'el 

(Phyllodocidae; Pblychaeta Errantia). Mit Bemerkungen 
zur Systematik der Gaitungen Eteonides Hartmann- 
Schr6der und Protomystides Czerniavsky und mit 

Beschreibungen zweier neuer Arten zus dem Mittelmeer 
und einer neuen Art aus Chile. ZooL Anx. 171, 204-243. 
& Parker, S.A. (1990) First Australian records of 

the family Pisionidae (Polychaeta), with ihe description 

of a new species. Trans. R. Soc, S. Aust. 114, 195-201. 
Laubier, L. (1962) Mystides (Pseudomystides) coineaui 

n. sp., un Phyllodocien des eaux souterraines littorales 

de Me'diterranee occidentale. Rapp. Comm. int. Mer. 

MediU 16(2), 461-464. 
Williams, T. (1852) Report on the British Annelida. Rep. 

2Jst Meeting Brit. Assoc. Advancemt Sei [July 1851] 

21, 159-272. 

Figs 1-5. Hesionura australiensis sp. nov. Holotype: 1, anterior end (dorsal view); 2, parapodium (dorsal view); 3, 
parapodium with compound setae (anterior view, cirri omitted); 4, the two superior compound setae; 5, the two 
inferior compound setae. 



by Margaret Davies* & Stephen J. RiCHARDsf 


The Australian hylid frog Nyctimystes dayi (Giinther) lays large unpigmented eggs that hatch no 
later than stage 22. Early larvae are nourished by a well-developed yolk sac and feeding commences 
after stage 24. Tadpoles exhibit adaptations to fast flowing streams. The mouth disc is large and 
sucker-like with two upper and three lower rows of labial teeth. The oral disc is hemispherical and 
the floor of the labrum is covered with well-developed ridges. Tadpoles can overwinter and 
metamorphose in the following spring/summer. 
KEY WORDS: Nyctimystes dayi, tadpoles, life history, lotic adaptations. 

Transactions of the Royal Society of S. Aust., (1990), 114(4), 207-211- 



by Margaret Davies* & Stephen J. Richards! 


Davies, M. & Richards, S. J. (1990) Developmental biology of the Australian hylid frog Nyctimystes davi 
(Gunther). Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 114(4), 207-211, 30 November, 1990. 

The Australian hylid frog Nyctimystes dayi (Gunther) lays large unpigmented eggs that hatch no later 
than stage 22. Early larvae are nourished by a well-developed yolk sac and feeding commences after stage 
24. Tadpoles exhibit adaptations to fast flowing streams. The mouth disc is large and sucker-like with two 
upper and three lower rows of labial teeth. The oral disc is hemispherical and the floor of the labrum is 
covered with well-developed ridges. Tadpoles can overwinter and metamorphose in the following 

Key Words; Nyctimystes dayi, tadpoles, life history, lotic adaptations. 


The Australopapuan hylid frog genus 
Nyctimystes Stejneger comprises species that are 
associated with streams in mountainous or upland 
regions. The sole Australian representative, 
Nyctimystes dayi (Gunther), is confined to 
rainforest in upland northeast Queensland 
(Czechura et al. 1987). 

Parker (1936) described the tadpoles of TV. 
cheesmanae (as TV. montana) and TV. semipalmata 
whilst Czechura et al. (1987) described a tadpole 
of TV. dayi Other than these descriptions of 
tadpoles little is known about the life history of 
Nyctimystes species other than that tadpoles are 
stream-dwelling and have sucker-like mouths 
(Griffiths 1963; Menzies 1974; Zweifel 1983). 

In the course of a study of the community 
ecology of tadpoles in a rainforest stream on Mt 
Spec, Queensland, one of us (S.J.R.), collected and 
reared newly-hatched tadpoles of TV. dayi. This 
series was supplemented with field-collected 
tadpoles at various stages. Here we describe this 
material and comment on the behaviour of tadpoles 
of N. dayi in the stream. 

Materials and Methods 

Tadpoles were collected from Birthday Creek, 
7 km NW Paluma, on 16.ii.1990 and reared in 
aerated water in 350 ml plastic containers. Larvae 
fed on algae provided by algae-covered rocks. 

* Dept of Zoology, University of Adelaide, G.P.O. Box 

498, Adelaide, S. Aust. 5001 
t Dept of Zoology, James Cook University of North 

Queensland, Townsville, Qld 4811. 

Temperature of the room was maintained at 
24-27°C. Specimens were preserved in 5% 

Larvae were staged (where possible) according to 
Gosner (1960). Total length and body length (in 
mm) were taken using dial calipers measuring to 
0.05 mm or an eyepiece micrometer. 

Line drawings were made with the aid of a Wild 
M8 stereo dissecting microscope and attached 
camera lucida. 

Field observations were made every fortnight; the 
creek was sampled intensively for tadpoles during 
the day and a 100 m stretch of creek was searched 
at night to record frog activity. 


N. dayi is a spring/summer breeder; calling was 
first heard on 29.ix.1989. Males called at night from 
rocks and low foliage along rapidly-flowing 
stretches of the creek. Calling had ceased by 

Amplexus is axillary (Fig. 1) and eggs are laid in 
a cohesive clump but with discrete egg capsules, 
under rocks in rapidly-flowing water (Czechura et 
al. 1987; pers. obs.). A clutch collected during 
February 1989 contained 107 eggs. Eggs are 
unpigmented and a sample of five eggs laid on 
18.xii.1989 has a mean diameter of 2.5 mm (range 
2.3-2.6 mm). Mean capsule diameter was 3.42 mm 
(range 3.3-3.5 mm). Only one capsule was evident. 

The limbs develop within a membranous sac until 
they protrude from the sheath. Hence early limb 
bud stages of Gosner (1960) (i.e. stages 26-31) could 
not be judged without damage to larvae. 

The earliest stage examined was stage 22, 
collected and preserved on 16. ii. 1990 (Fig. 2). The 



Fig. 1. An amplectant pair of Nyctimystes dayi from Birthday Creek. 

cornea is transparent and the auditory vesicle is 
apparent behind the eye. Ventrally the eye is 
unpigmented whilst the remainder of the eye is 
suffused faintly with pigment. Heavier coloration 
is concentrated postero- and anterolaterally along 

Fig. 2. Dorsal, lateral and ventral views of a newly-hatched 
tadpole of Nvclimystes dayi at stage 22 (preserved 
16.ii.1990). Scale bar = 1 mm. 

the dorsal surface. Two pairs of gill filaments 
protrude from the gill plate. The anterior gills 
comprise six and the posterior pair four filaments. 
The external nares are open and unelevated. 
Unpigmented adhesive organs have a flocculent 
appearance (Fig. 2). The transversely-oval mouth 
disc has formed and the mouth is open. Some ridges 
are apparent, precursors to the labial tooth rows and 
the horny beak. Labial papillae are absent. The tail 
is slightly curved dextrally (Fig. 2). Nutrition is 
supplied by a large yolk- filled body cavity. The anal 
tube is dextral but not open. The tail fin is 

By 17.ii.1990 larvae were at stage 24. The external 
gills are covered by the operculum on the right hand 
side, but a small fringing of filaments remains 
exposed on the left hand side. The auditory vesicle 
is no longer detectable and the external nares are 
slightly elevated on stalks. Pigmentation of the eye 
is complete except for a ventral nick. The adhesive 
organs are undetectable. The precursor ridges of the 
horny beak and the labial tooth rows are clearly 
delineated and faint keratinization of the anterior 
upper tooth rows is apparent. Labial papillae are 
not formed. The dorsal fin extends from behind the 
head whilst the ventral fin extends posteriorly from 
the anus (Fig. 3). The tail musculature is faintly 
dusted with pigment granules anteriorly. 

By 18.ii.1990, larvae were at stage 25. The gills 
are enclosed totally by the operculum and the 
spiracle has formed on the left hand side 



Fig. 3. Dona), lateral and ventral views of a tadpole of 
!\yct:mysfes day* at siage 24 (preserved on I7.ii.l990). 
Scale bar m I mm. 

ventrolateral!}'. At this stage it appears flattened and 
the orifice is directed posteriorly. The eye is fully 
pigmented. The nares are clearly elevated. 
Keratinization is apparent on the two upper labial 
tooth rows and on the horny beak. The anterior 
labia] papillae are prominent and the ridges on the 
floor of the posterior lip arc forming. The anal tube 
h open, oriented dextrally. Pigmentation is present 
along the dorsal musculature of the tail. The dorsal 
fui arises anteriorly from the junction of the body 
and the tail. The yolk sac is partially grooved 
foreshadowing the coiled gut of the feeding tadpole. 

Larvae collected on 19.ii.l990 have dense body 
pigmentation and a light dusting of pigment in the 
anterior third of the tail musculature. Further tail 
pigmentation is confined to the dorsal extremities 
of ihe tail musculature. Two of the lower tooth rows 
are rightly keratinized and all labial papillae are 
formed. The floor ridges of the posterior lip are 
clearly detectable but incomplete. The spiracle 
remains adpressed to the ventrolateral surface ol 
the body. The stalked narcs are directed anteriorly. 
These larvae could noi be sraged because of the 
difficulty in locating limb buds. 

Tooth rows, labial papillae and labial ridges are 
complete in larvae collected un 2Q.ii.t990. Coiling 
of the gut is more pronounced. The vent has moved 
slightly more medially and the surrounding tissue 
has expanded providing a sheath which protects and 
hides developing limb buds The aurerioT 
attachment of the dorsal fin has moved slightly 
posteriorly and arises from a position slightly 
anteriorly from the junction of the body with the 
tail muscle. A faint dusi ingot' pigment appears On 
the posterior extremity of the dorsal fin. 

The gut is clearly coded but remains yolk-filled 
in larvae sampled on 22.ii.l990. The spiracle curves 
posterodorsally. Although the anal tube is more 
medial* it still opens dextially to the midline The 
posterior lower tooth row is now complete 
Pigmentation extends ventrolateral^ covering 
portions of the yolky gut. Pigmentation is apparent 
on the tail fin on the medial dorsal extremities. 

Dimensions of tadpoles are shown in Table I. 

A tadpole at stage 36 is illustrated in Fig. 4. 

The body is widest just posterior to the eye and 
is broadly ovoid. The snout is evenly rounded in 
dorsal view and tapers to a truncated ventrally- 
directed upper lip. The nares are dorsolateral and 
elevated on tubes opening amerolateraLly. The eyes 
are dorsolateral, moderately huge and fitting snugly 
into the optic cup. The spiracle is sinistral, 
ventrolateral and noi visibte from above It opens 
posteriorly by a narrow orifice and the diameter o( 
the tube decreases slightly from its origin to its 

The gut is coiled and the tadpole is feeding; the 
ctoacal tube is now median. The lower limbs and 
developing feet protrude from a membranous sac 
on each side. 

The tail fins arc arched and rounded terminally. 
The dorsal fin extends for about 14 of the tail 
muscle and is deepest about 14 way along its length. 
The ventral Tin extends from the cloacal tail piece 
and is deepest at. its posterior X A. The tail 
musculature is deep and tapers to a fine point 

The mouth is large, transversely oval, ventral in 
position (Fig. 5) and occupies the area anterior 10 
the spiiacie. Papillae surround the mouth disc The 
anterior papillae are more pronounced than (hove 
laterally and posteriorly, these bemg Utile more than 

Fig. 4, Lateral and dorsal views of a tadpole uf 
Nyct rrrry ateS day i Stage 36 Scale har = 10 mm. 


TAULE I. Body lengths of tadpoles oj Nyctimystes dayi. 




Mean hcidy length (mm) 




Total length 






























9 28 


17. ii. 1990 



10 9 

25 199(1 






1 1*^ 







25 9 

indet . 









19.1. 1990 




























32 8 


19 i 1990 




serrations in some areas. The lateral edges of the 
mouth are directed dorsally (Fig. 4) (a laierodorsaJly 
curved lip). The posterior surface of the mouth disc 
(behind the tooth rows) is inclined posteroventrally 
and is ridged medially across its width. Some ridges 
are complete, others comprise two or three 
elevations. There are two upper and three lower 
complete labial tooth rows comprising short, very 
closely-applied, keratinized teeth. The horny beak 
is of moderate proportions. 

The flesh of the mouth disc is translucent and 
unpigmented. The body is pigmented and 
pigmentation extends lightly along the dorsal and 
medial portions of the tail musculature. The 
remainder of the tail musculature is dusted with 
pigment granules. Small areas of the fins are lightly 
pigmented and sparse chromatophores are located 
elsewhere on the fins. 

Tadpoles from eggs laid in early summer 
complete development in 3-4 months. Those eggs 
laid in late summer may overwinter and 
metamorphose the following summer (Trenerry 
1988'; pers. obs.). 

At metamorphosis one froglet measured 15.5 mm 
S-V and was light grey with dark Hecks. 

Stage 22-23 tadpoles remain attached to the egg 
mass under rocks in riffles and do not disperse until 
at least stage 24. At this stage the oral disc is well 

Stage 25 larvae (but with yolk still visible in the 
gut) were occasionally found aggregated in large 
numbers under single rocks. Aggregation behaviour 
also was observed in ihe laboratory: tadpoles from 
a single clutch aggregated in a clump which 
immediately reformed after disturbance. This 
behaviour persisted until the gut was fully formed. 
In life, cariy stage tadpoles (stages 22-23) are 
bright yellow; later stages become pigmented with 

Fig. 5. Mouth disc of a tadpole of Nyctimvstes dayi at 
stage 36. Scale bar = 5 mm, 

Trenerry, M.P. (1 988) The ecology of tadpoles in a 
tropical rainforesi stream. Honours thesis, Depl of 
Zoology, lames Cook University a£ Norrh Queensland. 




pale brown. These tadpoles have distinct light 
patches on the tail. 

During the day, tadpoles graze on algal-covered 
rocks in the fastest torrents of the stream. When 
disturbed they release their grip on the rocks and 
are swept a short distance downstream where they 
shelter under rocks or in rock crevices. Tadpoles are 
very strong swimmers, but their ability to remain 
in riffles even during the strongest Hoods (as 
evidenced by sampling following cyclones) probably 
is aided by sheltering under rocks. 


Tadpoles of /V. dayi are adapted to fast- flowing 
mountain streams. The ventral, suctorial mouth- 
discs, the narrow tail fins and the ventrolateral 
spiracular opening are characteristic of species 
occurring in torrent environments (Ducllman & 
Trueb 1986). The development of the larval gut 
parallels that described in the sympatric Litoria 
eucnetms by Davies (1989), but N. dayi exhibits 
more extreme adaptations to the lotic life style. 

The tooth row pattern is similar to other hylids 
(Martin & Watson 1971), although the undivided 

nature of all the tooth rows is unusual amongsl 
Australian hylids, being shared by L. lesueuh which 
also shows lotic adaptations (Martin & Watson 

The median vent Found in later-stage tadpoles is 
shared by congeners but is unusual amongst hylids 
(Martin & Watson 1971). The covering by a 
membranous sac of (he developing hind limb buds 
is presumably an adaptation to protect these 
structures. This feature has been observed in the 
limnodynastine Mixophyes spp. (Watson & Martin 
1973; Davies in press) and L. nannotis (pers. obs.). 
Larvae of these species are lotic and found in fast- 
flowing streams. 


The study was undertaken under permits issued 
by the Queensland Dept of Forestry and was funded 
by grants from the Australian Research Council (nos 
A18715284 and A18931875) to R.A. Alford and 
Dept of Zoology, University of Adelaide research 
funds to M.D. Lorna Lucas typed the final 
manuscript which was critically read by Ross A. 
AJford and Michael J, Tyler. 


Czechura, O. V„ Ingram, G. J. & Liem, IJ. S. (1987) 

The genus Nyctimvstes (Anura: Hylidae) in Australia. 

Rec. Ausi Mm, 39, 333-338. 
Davies, M. (1989) Developmental biology of the 

Australopapuart hylid frog Litoria euvnemis (Anura: 

Hylidae). Trans. /?. Soc. S. AusL 113(4), 215-220. 
, (in press) Descriptions of the tadpoles of some 

Australian limnodynasttne Jeptodactylid frogs, tbid. 
Dukuman, W. E. & Trukb, L. (1986) "Biology of 

Amphibians". (McGraw-Hill, New York.) 
Gosner, K- (1960) A simplified table for staging anuran 

embrvos and larvae with notes on identification, 

Herpetologica 16, 183-190. 
Griffiths, L (1963) The phylogeny of the Salientia. Biol. 

Rev. 38, 241-292. 

Martin, A. A. & W\tson, G. F. (1971) Life history as 
an aid to generic delimitation in the family Hylidae. 
Copsia (1971), 78-89. 

Menzies, J. I. (1974) Handbook of common New Guinea 
frogs. WAU Ecology Institute, Handbook no. L 

Parkpr, H. W. (1936) A collection of reptiles and 
amphibians from the mountains of British New Guinea. 
Ann. mag. nat. Hist. Ser. 10. ]7 ( 66-93. 

Watson, G. F. & Martin, A. A. (1973) Life history, 
larval morphology and relationships of Australian 
leptodaetyhd frogs 7 . Trans. R. Soc. $. AusL 97, 33-45. 

Zweifel, R. G. (1983) Two new hylid frogs from Papua 
New Guinea and a discussion ot the Nyctimystes popuo 
species group. Anu Mus, Novhat 2759, 1—21. 

Tmrtm'ttoftM of the Royal Soeirfy of S, AwtL (IW). 114(4). 21J 217. 




by John L, Read* & Michael J. TylerT 


RbAD, J. L. & TiLEK, M. J. (1990) The nature and incidence, of post-axial, skeletal abnormalities in the 
frog Neobatrachus centralis ftjrker at Olympic Dam, South Australia. Trans. R. Soc S, Aust, 114(4), 213-217. 
30 November, WO. 

Samples of 315 specimens of the frog Neobatrachus centralis from Tout sites at Olympic D«m> South 
Australia, included 12 specimen* exhibiting skeletal abnormalities of the limb*. Examination revealed a 
predominance amongst the abnormal specimens of partial or complete ectrodaetyly, most commonly involving 
terminal component of the fourth toe. The overall incidence of abnormalities is comparable to Those occurring 
at undisturbed sites in other countries. 

Radionuclide levels in tadpoles from the sampled sites were very low or not detectable, and were not 
associated with the incidence or nature of the abnormalities there. 

Kcy WORM: Skeleton, abnormalities, Neohasrcchtts centralis* radionuclide*. 


Olympic Dam Operations (O.D.O- ) manages a 
large copper-gold-uranium-silver mine at Olympic 
Dam, approximately 500 km north of Adelaide. 
Mining commenced in 1984 and the metallurgical 
plant there started production in August 1988. 

Au borne, aquatic and biotic environments are 
monitored stringently for both conventional (e.g. 
SO. SO., and total particulates), and radioactive 
emissions by Olympic Dam Operations, in 
accordance with the South Australian Government 
approved Environmental Management Program 
(Roxby Management Services 1986), and the Waste 
Management Program, Olympic Dam Project 
(O.D.P. 1987), The plant and animal communities 
in all habitats in the Olympic Dam region arc 
monitored regularly to determine the possible 
effects, if any, of ihe mining and processing 
operations on species diversity, abundance and 
condition. There have been no measurable effects 
on the environment, outside the immediate vicinity 
of the metallurgical plant, that can be attributed 
to the mining or processing operations tO.D.P. 

In addition to the general monitoring program, 
more detailed studies are conducied on certain 
indicator organisms, such as frog*, to enhance the 
sensitivity of the rnoniioring program. Trogs arc 
very sensitive to radiation (Emery & McShauc 1980) 
and have proved to be useful indicators of 
radioactive emissions (Nishimura l967;1Vler 19S9) 

• Olvmpic Dam Operations, P.O. Box 150, Rovbv Dtwm, 

S. Aust. 5725. 
t Department of Zoology, University ol Adelaide, G.P.O. 

Box 498, Adelaide, S. Aurt. 5001. 

and trace elements (Browne & Dumont 1979). Frogs 
a/e also the moat common vertebrate animals 
associated with claypans; regions of natural heavy 
metal and radionuclide accumulation. A 
photograph of one of the claypans at Roxby is 
presented by Tyler (1989, plate 3). 

Following rains In the semi-arid Olympic Dam 
region, the frog Neohatmchus centralis is exception- 
ally common adjacent to claypans and flooded 
swales (O.D.O. unpubl.). The ease of capture and 
identification of physical abnormalities in live 
specimens makes it an ideal subject as a potential 
indicator of environmental emissions at Olympic 

Here we document an initial survey of frog 
deformity levels at control sites where there are 
negligible emission levels, and at sites in close 
proximity to the metallurgical plant where emission 
levels, while remaining very low, are detectable 
(O.D.O, 1989'), 

Materials and Methods 

On 12.iv.1989, approximately 80 tadpoles were 
collected from two water bodies within i km of the 
Olympic Darn mine and metallurgical piani 
(Claypan, ENW5), and from a pood 16 km south 
of the mine (EV 308) (Fig. 1). The EV 308 site is 
near a continuous radionuclide and airborne 
emission monitoring site. It has not detected any 
emissions from the mine, and hence is a valid 
control site- 

1 Olympic Dam Operations (1989) Environmental 
Radiation Monitoring Annual Report. (Report to the 

S.A. Govt) Unpubl- 




Drury Lane 




Fig. 1. Location of Olympic Dam and the 
study sites sampled for Neobatrachus 



A sample of the tadpoles from each siie 
(approximately three weeks old at the time of 
capture) were weighed and measured, and their 
stage of development recorded (Table I). The 
tadpoles were housed in clean glass aquaria in the 
Environmental Laboratory at the Olympic Dam 
Village. Mud and water from each study site was 
used in the respective aquaria and, because 
individuals were in the non-feeding stage near 
metamorphic climax, food was not provided. Care 
was taken to ensure that the tadpoles were not 
subjected to any contaminants in the laboratory. In 
addition, 70 recently metamorphosed frogs were 
collected from a roadside neat the mine (Orury 
Lane Site). 

Following metamorphosis (i.e. complete 
resorption of the tail; Gosner (I960), <.tage 46) 
external features were examined under a Wild M5 
dissecting microscope. Individuals with physical 
abnormalities were killed by exposure to 3% chloral 
hydrate solution and cleared and stained with 
Alizarin Red following the method of Davis & Gore 

Five to ten metamorphosing frogs were sampled 
subsequently from the three water bodies and 
placed in a clean beaker with distilled water for 
several days to permit total evacuation of the gill. 
Earlier trials showed that freshly caught t logs and 
tadpoles contained considerable quantities or soil 
and waste matter which contributed significantly 
to levels of heavy metals and other contaminants. 
The evacuated frogs were sacrificed in ether and 
dissolved in Nitric and Perchloric acids. Levels of 
radionuclides (Po210 t Pb210, Ra226. U238. Th230) 
were determined in the low level radiation counting 
laboratory of the O.D.O. Environmental 


The average sizes, wet weights and developmental 
stages of the tadpoles captured at the three sites are 
presented in Table I Considerable variation existed 

between the sites: specimens from EV 308 (control) 
and Oftypan being considerably heavier than those 
from ENW5, while individuals fioru EV 308 and 
BNW5 were more advanced than specimens faim 
Clay pan. 

Of the 315 frogs examined, 12 individuals 
exhibited externally detectable abnormalities of the 
hindlegs. Further skeletal abnormalities of other 
elements were revealed in one when the series had 
been cleared and stained. The nature of the 
abnormalities observed in the series is documented 
in Table 2. 

Radionuclide levels in the frogs from all three sites 
are presented in Table 3. These results indicate that 
radionuclide levels at the control site, EV 308» were 
slightly higher than at the sites close to the 
metallurgical plant. 


In all populations of vertebrate animals there are 
skeletal abnormalities, whose nature and incidence 
may be influenced by exposure to a variety of 
environmental insults. It is therefore important to 
establish baseline data when any envlronmentaJ 
perturbation may have an impact upon thai 

Tyler (1989) reported that skeletal abnormalities 
in the limbs of vertebrates were tip to 3%: this beinj? 
the naturally occurring abnormalities in any 
population. In the case of frogs, from supposedly 
undisturbed localities in six countries, limb 
abnormalities ranged from to 3.09%, but with 
only one sample exceeding 2%. The impact of 
trauma, being physical injury within the life of 
individuals, needs to be distinguished, it was 
recorded in 2742 specimens (representing seven 
species) from Jabiru, NX, and was estimated at 0.19 
to 0.99%. 

The incidence of abnormalities at Roxby Downs 
(Table 2) is equivalent to 3.8%, which is close to 
that reported by TVIer (1989) from undisturbed areas 
elsewhere. There is no evidence ol uauina la out 

Table t Mean wet weights and measurements of tadpoles from three study sites or Oiympie Datti 




Body length 

Tail length 
I nun) 

% #lth fiinct 
legs stage 24 
(Gosner 1960) 

% that had 

reached stage 

42 (Gosner I960* 

EV 108 























Table 2. Details of abnormalities detected. 








EV 308 










Brachymely of R leg. Urostyle 
inclined dextrally. Sacrum 
misshapen. Ectrodactyly of F3 of 
R hand. 

Bilateral ectrodactyly T4 mainly 
involving antepenultimate phalanx 
which is discoid. 

Ectrodactyly T4 R leg; one phalanx 

L foot with abnormal metatarsals 
3-5: 3 abbreviated; 4 with distal 
excrescences; 5 with proximal and 
distal excrescences. 

R foot with ectrodactyly of T4; 
proximal phalanx dilated distally. 


L foot lacking digits 1-2. 


Brachymely of R leg involving tibia, 
tarsi and all digital elements. 


L foot with ectrodactyly of T4: 
lacking 3 terminal phalanges. 


L foot with ectrodactyly of T4: 
2 terminal phalanges missing, 
antepenultimate phalanx broadened. 


R foot as for 5. 


L foot as for 5. 


Brachydactyly of all digits of 

R foot; T4 only one lacking terminal 


Table 3. Levels of radionuclides detected in metamorphosing frogs from three study sites at Olympic Dam. 





Uranium - 238 Thorium - 230 Radium - 226 Lead - 210 Polonium - 210 

Bq/g Bq/g Spec Act/Bq/g Spec Act/Bq/g Bq/g 

0.0003 +/- 0.0002 0.004 +/- 0.002 ,004 +/- .002 0.011 +/- 0.006 0.053 t/- 0.006 

N.D. HJX .0007 fp- .0005 0.001 + /- 0.002 0.005 +/- 0.001 

EV 308 (control) 




ENW5 (n) 





0.001 f/- 0.0004 .0019 +/-.0009 0.006 +£ 0.004 0.132 +/- 0.011 

N.D. = Not detected 

Deviation quoted is counting statistic 



samples. Low abnormality rates at sites near the 
mine (0 to 3.5%) contrasted with higher rates from 
the control site (EV 308), Conspicuous amongst the 
abnormalities at Roxby Downs is (he predominance 
of partial ectrodactyly, principally of the fourth toe. 
It is expressed more commonly by a unilateral 
reduction of the normal phalangeal formula. 
Although ectrodactyly is one of the most common 
forms of skeletal abnormality in Australian frogs, 
the similarity of the digital target in this sample is 
noteworthy. Breeding experiments will be required 
to determine if this is a common mutant. 

Variations in weight and size of the tadpoles from 
the different sites is probably related to food 
availability, water temperature and turbidity and 
genetic factors rather than pollutant levels in their 
ponds. Richards (1962) and Sokol (1984) have also 
demonstrated that gTowth suppressing substances 
released by tadpoles results in slower growth rates 
in densely crowded tadpoles compared with 
tadpoles reared at lower densities. 

Slightly higher levels of radionuclides at the 
control site compared with the mine sites is not an 

effect of the project but a natural phenomenon. 
Due (o the natural variation in soil radionuclide 
concentrations (United Nations Scientific 
Committee on the Effects of Ionising Radiation 
1977) geographical variation in radionuclide levels 
can be expected. 


This research programme was supported by the 
Olympic Dam Operation. Analytical data were 
provided by Pat Garland and John Davey of the 
O.D.O. Environment Department Analytical and 
Low Level Radiation Counting Laboratory, 

Comparative abnormality data cited from Jabiru 
were assembled by M. J. Tyler in collaboration with 
Graeme Crook, Margaret Davies and Graeme 
Watson, and funded by the Office of the 
Supervising Scientist, Alligator Rivers Region. 
Technical assistance was provided by Leanne Sellej 
and the manuscript typed by Lorna Lucas. 


Browne, C. L. & Dumont. J. N. (1979) Toxicity of 

selenium to developing Xenoptts iaevis embryos. X 

Toxicol. Environ. Health 5, 699-709. 
Davis, D, D. & Gore, V, R. (1947) Clearing and staining 

skeletons of small vertebraics, Fieldianu: Techniques (4), 

Emery, R. M. & McShane, M. C. (1980) Nuclear waste 

ponds and streams on the Han ford site: an ecological 

search for radiation effects. Health Phys. 38, 787-809. 
Gosner, jC L, (i960) A simplified table for staging 

arturan embryos and larvae with notes on identification. 

Herpetotogica 16, 183-190. 
Nishiml'RA, K. (1967) Abnormal formation of visual 

organs of amphibian larvae induced by radioactive 

rainwater. Mie Med. J. 16, 263-267. 

Olympic Dam Project (1987) Waste Management Plan. 

(Olympic Dam Project, Adelaide). 
Richards, C. M. (1962) The control of tadpole growth 

by alga-like ceils. Physiol. Zooi 35(4), 285-296. 
Roxby Management Services (1986) Olympic Dam 

Project Environmental Management Programme. 

(Roxby Management Services Pty Ltd, Adelaide). 
Sokol, K. (1984) Plasticity in ihe fine timing of 

metamorphosis in tadpoles of the hylid frog, Litoria 

ewingi. Copeia (1984), 868-873. 
Tyler. M. J. (1989) 'Australian Frogs'. (Viking O'Neill, 

United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects 

of Atomic Radiation (1977) 'Sources and Effects of 

Ionising Radiation*. (United Nations. New York). 





byR. A. Campbell* & L BEVERiDGEf 


Pseudochristianella southwelli gen. et sp. nov. is created for Tentacularia minuta Van Beneden, 
1849 of Southwell, 1929 from an unknown species of Carcharhinus and Rhynchobatus halavi taken 
at Negapatam, India. Pseudochristianella is a eutetrarhynchid with two bothridia, elongated bulbs 
and a heteroacanthous, heteromorphous armature that combines features of Parachristianella, 
Trimacracanthus and Prochristianella. The new genus is distinctive in combining the metabasal 
armature of Parachristianella and Trimacracanthus (hooks l(l') of each row largest, the remaining 
hooks decreasing in size), and a prominent basal swelling on each tentacle as in Prochristianella and 
Trimacracanthus. Parachristianella differs in lacking a tentacular basal swelling and 
Trimacrancanthus is distinguished by the three large hooks of the basal armature. Prochristianella 
has a basal swelling but the metabasal hooks increase in size at the middle of each row. 
KEY WORDS; Cestoda, Trypanorhyncha, Pseudochristianella, new species, new genus. 

nnggttigtal ttf thr Moyut SmieiyvfS Atntf** \lWu 114(4), 21^-222. 




by R. A. Campbell* & I. Beveridg&t 


Campbell, R. A. 6c Beveridcje, 1. (I990» Pseudachwnmtetia (Cesioda: Trypauoihyncha), a new genus 
Tor Tbntacularia minuta (V3/1 Hcncden, 184V) sensn Southwell, 1929 and its relationships with the family 
fcwtcirarhynchtdac, Vans, ft Sfcfl 5, Amt. U4<4), 219-222, 30 November, 1990. 

Psemtochrhriunetta southwelli gen. et sp. nov. is created Tor lentatu/aria minuta Van Bcneden, 1849 
of Southwell, 1929 from an unknown species of Carcharhinus and Hhynchobatus halavi taken at Negapatam, 
India. Pscudochrt/simiellu is a euleirarhynchid with two bothridia, elongated bulbs and a hetcroavanthous, 
hcteromorphous armature thai combines features of ParachrtstianeHo* Trimacrucanthus and Prochristianettu. 
The new genus is distinctive in combining the melabasal armature of Purachrisiianeila and Trimacracanihus 
(hooks If I ') of each row largest, the remaining hooks decreasing in size), and a prominent basal swelling 
on each tentacle a» in Prochristianetla and Trimacraconthus. Pamchristicmella differs in lacking a tentacular 
basal welling and Trimacrancanthus is distinguished by the three large hooks of the basal armature. 
PwckhsttQfteHQ has a basal swelling but the metabasal hooks increase in si2e at the middle of each row 

Ktv WoRi>a: Cestoda, Trypanotliyncha, Pseudochrtstianeila. new specie*, new genus. 


One of the species of trypanorhynxhs from 
elasmobranchs from the Indian Ocean which 
Southwell (1929) allocated to the genus Tvntacutaria 
was T minute (Van Beneden, 1849). Southwell's 
hosts were an unidentified specie* of Carcharhinus 
and Rhynvhobatus hatavt (Forsskal, 1775) both 
taken at Negapatam, India. Benedeo's (1849) 
original description of this species was from an 
angelshark, Squutina squaiina (L.), in Belgian 
waters but the description is so meagie that 
SouthwelPs specimens cajwot be considered 
conspecific with any degree of confidence. Guiart 
(1931) placed T. minuta in his new genus 
Christumelta, for which a more detailed description 
was given by Joyeux & Baer (1936). Dollfus (1942) 
initially accepted this descHption, but laier (1946) 
found that the description of Chrhtianeila was 
vague and created the related genera 
Proehristiatwlia and Paraehrisiianettu realising that 
cither might be a synonymn of ChristianeUa when 
the latter genus was properly described. Heveridge 
& Campbell (1987) have discussed the problems 
associated with Chrisiiarteila and also consider that 
genus unrecognizable Dollfus (1942) pointed out 
several errors in Southwell's (1929) account of 
Tentacuiaria minuta including his report of this 
species from an Australian ray. In this paper all of 
Southwell's specimens labelled T. minuta have been 

T Department of Biology, Southeastern Massachusetts 
University, North Dartmouth, Massachusetts 02747 

t Department of Veterinary Science, The University ol 
Melbourne; Hfcrkville, Victoria. 3052 

re-examined and constitute an undescribed species 
having characters fitting neither Ptochristianelian 
nor Parachrisfianeifu according lo the most recent 
definitions of these genera (Schmidt 1986). 

■M uw-ria is and Method* 

Four specimens Identified by Southwell as T. 
minuta (Van Benexlem, 1849) from Carcharhinus ; sp., 
Negapatam, India (British Museum, Natural 
History, London) (1977.U.4.30-3I) and two 
specimens from Rhynehobatus hatovi from the 
same locality (BMNH 1977.11.4.27-28) were 
examined, All figures are drawn from the specimens 
from Carcharhinus. Measurements arc in mm unless 
otherwise indicated. 

Pseadocliristlanella gen. nov. 

Diagnosis: Eutetrarhynchidae. Small worms with 
two bothridia and elongate bulbs. Prebulbar organs 
present. Pats postbulbosa and velum absent. 
Mctabasal armature heteroacanthous, heteromor- 
phous, typical. Metabasal hooks arranged in 
alternating half-spiral rows. Hooks 1(1') large, 
separated by prominent space, remaining hooks of 
each row decreasing in size. Basal swelling on 
teniacle. Distinctive basal armature present, 
restricted to external face of tentacle. Segment* 
aaaspedotc; testes tandem, in two rows; internal 
and external seminal vesicles absent. Adults 
parasitic in selachians. 
Type and only species: P. southwelli sp. nov h 



PseudvchrhiiuJietU suulhweift gen. v i sp. nov. 
FIGS 1-9 

.V;;-.., i:.'.j.v.' rrnmtht; Southwell 1929 pp. 228-230, fig. 

types: Holotype from Carchorhhws $p., 
Ncsapatam, India, 7JX.1926, collector ! J. Pearson 
in BMNK no 1977.11,4.30-31; three paratypes on 
single slide, same data and collection number 
Material examined: From Carchathinus sp.: types. 
From Rhynchobatus hatfvi, two specimens, 
Ncgapalam, India, (UMNH 1977.H .4.27-28) (slide 
also contains Phytlahoihnum spu) 
£:?moktgy: The species is named after T. Southwell, 
Descriplkjrv Small cestodes., total length up to 4.0, 
with up |o six pToglollids. Scolcx 0.92-1.00 (0.97, 
n=3) long, maximum width 0.21-0.26(0.24. n*4). 
Two rounded bothridia, 0,12-0.18 (0J5> n=4); pars 
vaginalis 0.37-0 J I (0.42> n=3l, tentacle sheaths 
sinuous; prebulhar organs present; hulbs long and 
slender, 0.45-0,58 (0.51, n=4) by 0.06-0.07 (0.07, 
n=4); retractor muscle originates at base of bulb, 
nmoundsU by tlusieTs of gland cells within bulb; 
pars postbulbosa and velum absent. Tentacles 
possess prominent basal swelling 0.025-0.030 
(0 027, n-4) in diameter; diameter in metabasal 
region 0.010-0.015 I0.O13, ti=2). Base o I tentacle 
encircled by two tows of large, strongly recurved 
books, 0.014-0.022 (0.018, n-5) long, base length 
0.010-0.012 (0.011, n-5); remainder of armalure 
Heteroacamhow* typical, composed of ascending 
half-spiral rows of 11 hooks each; rows terminate 
en external lace to form inverted Vs. Distinctive 
basal armature restricted to external face of tentacle, 
composed of four to five ascending rows of hooks. 
Viewed from the external face, hooks of first row 
spimform: hooks of succeeding three to four rows 
bill-hook shaped> small and stout, points strongly 
recurved, hook length 0,009-0.013 (U.0IJ, n-5). 
Hooks 1(1 ) on internal surface separated by dis- 
tinct space; hooks Initially uncinate in basal region. 
0.U14-0.0IS tong, base length 0012-O.0LV Hooks 
Ml') in metabasal region becoming falcate with 
diminishing base lengths, 0.014-0.020 (0.017, n-» 
tong, base length 0.007-0.011 (O.OlO, n*5>. Hooks 
2(2') falcate, stout at base ut tentacle, becoming 
slender anteriorly, 0.017-0,022 (0.019, n-5) long, 
base 0.005-0.006 (0.005, n = 5>. Hooks 3(3 J falcate 
0.020-0.022 (0.021, n-5) long, base 0.005-0.006 
(0.006, n^5). Hooks 4(4') slender, falcate, 
0.0I6-O.0I8 (0.017, n=5) long, base 0,004-0.005 
(0.005). Hooks 5(*') falcate, smaller. 0.010-0.014 
(0.012, n = 5) long, base 0.003-0.004 40.003, n-5). 
Hooks 6(6') spiniform, O.O08-O-O12 (0.O10. n=5) 
long. Hooks 7(7') to 11(11 '1 in metabasal region 
distinctly smaller than hooks 6(6'), hook lengths 
U.WM-0.006 (0.005, n-5); diminishing hook sizes 
more subtle m mid-region of tentacle. 

Mature segment 2.14 by 0.26, acraspedote. 
Genital pore opens in posterior one-third of margin, 
approximately 78°7<t of segment length from anterior 
end. Cirrus sac ovoid, internal details not clearly 
visible, sem*nal vesicles absent. Testes number 
approximately 80, arranged in two longitudinal 
tows, distributed as 6 postporal, 32 preporal and 
42anriporal, Ovary bilobed in dorsoventraj view, 
lobes 0.14 by 0.04. Mehlis' gland 0.06 in diameter. 
Vitellaria arranged in single layer of follicles 
encircling internal organs Uterus tubular, median, 
linear, occupying all available space in gravid 


Tewtacnkma m'muta of Southwell (1929) possesses 
a combination of characters not found in other 
eutetrarhynchid eesrodes. These are the 
combination of (i) hooks 1(1' ) separated by a 
distinct space, hook rows terminating in inverted 
V- formation on the external face of the tentacle; (ii) 
a basal swelling and armature, liii) the absence ol 
three large hooks in the basal armature; and <iv) 
a metabasal armature consisting ot half-spiral rows 
of hooks which diminuh in size from the beginning 
(internal face) to the end (external face) of each row. 
Such a combination of characters suggests a new 
genus to accommodate them. We propose the new 
genus Pseudocnristianelfa and that T. minuta ol 
Southwell 0929) become P. souihwtti, the type 

Members of the family tuteiraihvnchidae having 
hooks 1(1 ') separated by a distinct space and only 
exhibiting V-formations of hook rows on the 
external face where rows end are. ProcbrislianeHo 
Dollfus, 1946; Pargchristiaoeila Dollfus, 1946. 
Mecistobothrium Hein?. & Dailey, 1974 and 
Trimucravanthits Bevehdge & Campbell, 19g7. 
Eutetrarhynchm Pintner. 1913 differs in having no 
Space between houk files 1 and I \ white 
Oncomegas Dollfus, 1929 differs further in having 
a single la/ge hook at the base of the tentacle 
ProchristtuneUa possesses a basaJ swelling but ct*n 
be quickly eliminated from further consideration 
because the metabasal hooks show an Increase and 
subsequent decrease in size along the rows from 
internal to external face of the tentacle. The 
metabasal armature of Pseudochristianefta 
resembles that of Parachrisrianefla, 
Mecistobothnum and It'tmaeracanthusm that the 
hook* of each row decrease in size from the internal 
to the external face of the remade. The presence 
k>( a basal swelling in Pseudochristianetfo 
distinguishes it from Pawhristianelta and the 
absence- of the triad of large hooks in the baxal 



Figs 1-9 Pseudochrisiianella southwelfi gen. et. sp. nov. 1, internal face, basal region; 2, exicrnaJ face, basal region; 
3, boihrklial face, metabasal region; 4, basal armature, internal face; 5, meiabasal hooks, numbers I to 4; 6, scolex; 
7, entire worm; 8, terminal segment (mature); 9, mctabasa] hooks 1(1 '). Line scales: figs. 1-5 and 9, 0.01mm; figs. 
6-8, 0.1mm. 



armature of Pseudochristianella separates it from 
Trimacracanthus (see Beveridge & Campbell 1987). 
Mecistobothrium has bulbs shorter than the 
bothridia (Heinz & Dailey 1974). 

In P. southwelti the basal armature is distinctive 
in that it is restricted to the external face of the 
tentacle. The hooks on the internal face are merely 
a continuation of the metabasal region. This is 
probably of secondary importance because only the 
hooks of the external face in the basal region are 
modified in Trimacracanthus aetobatidis. 

Dollfus (1942) pointed out several errors in 
Southwell's (1929) account of the species. Southwell 
(1929) slated that the species had also been recorded 
from Urolophus (estaceus in European waters, but 

Dollfus (1942) correctly observed that U. testaceus 
is an Australian ray. The error stems from a 
specimen in Southwell's collection (see BMNH 
1977. 11.4.29) from U. testaceus from Moreton Bay, 
Qld. The specimen, though in poor condition, has 
been re-examined and identified as a species of 
Eutetrarhynchus, close to E. geraschmidti Dollfus, 


We wish to thank Dr D. 1. Gibson and Mrs E. 
Harris for the loan of the Southwell material. 


Beveridge, I. & Campbell, R. A. (1987) Trimacracan- 
thus gen. nov. (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha: 
Eutetrarhynchidae), with redescriptions of T. aetobatidis 
(Robinson, 1959) comb. nov. and T. binuncus (Linton, 
1909) comb. nov. Trans, R. Soc. S. Aust. 111(3), 163-171. 

Dollfus, R. (1942) Etudes critiques sur les 
Te'trarhynques. du Museum de Paris. Arch. Mus. Nat. 
Hist. Nat., Paris 19 1-466. 

(1946) Notes diverses sur les Te'trarhynques. Mem. 

Mus, not. Hist. naL, Paris 22, 179-220. 

Guiart, J, {1931) Considerations historiques sur la 

nomenclature et sur la classification des Te'trarhynques. 

Bull Inst it. Ocean, Monaco 575, 1-27. 
Joyeux, C. & Baer, J. G. (1936) Cestodcs. Faune de 

France 30, 1-613. 
Schmidt, G. O. (1986) "Handbook of Tapeworm 

Identification", (C.R.C. Press, Boca Raton, Florida). 
Southwell, T (1929) A monograph of cestodes of the 

order 'liypanorhyncha from Ceylon and India. Part I. 

Spotia Zeyland. 15, 169-312. 


by Peter Bird 


Thtmwtums of (fir tiovut .SoU /. m s. \, i: r, (WW), 114(41, 223-224. 




The- Irog fauna o| South Australia i\ far rteher than was 
assumed in an assessment made 50 years ago, 1 when only 
13 species were known td occur in ihe State. When ihe 
tirsi South Australian field guide was puiilished in 19f>rr 
ihe total hud increased lo 17. whilst a tevision oi'that work 
in 1^72 ' recorded a further Tour species. The most rocenl 
estimate^ is or" 25 species. 

In December 1989 one of us (RB.) travelled to the 
extreme northeast of South Australia. On 9..xii.89 a single 
>pecimen of a leplodactylid frog ol the genus Uperoleta 
Ciray wus taken at Patchawara Creek in the vicinity of 
PaU-trauara Bore (Z7 l 20'00"S; 140 C "4I 00"E> ( 45 km N 
pf Innammcka. This is the first occasion that Uperoleta 
has been found to South Australia, although it is known 
Irani (he adjacent portion of Queensland. B 

Patchawara Creek is a small tea. 8 m wide at the 
collection site), intermittent creek which contain* several 
semi-permanent water-holes. At Patchawara Bore ir was 
qmte full following heavy rain in the area two weeks earlier. 
The maximum water depth was not measured but exceeded 
1 m Water flow wus negligible 

Patchawara Creek rises adjacent to the Queensland 
border and flows west before emptying into Derawalkillie 
Water hole together with the Heanlree Creek system, the 
Patchawara Creek drainage basin occupies an area of 
about 900 km' abutting, but discrete from, the Cooper 
Crec-k drainage to the .south. In exceptionally wet years 
however it is likely that waters from the Patchawara system 
reiidi I ake Goyder. part of the Coongie Lakes system on 
the Noiih-West Branch of Cooper Oeck. 

Patchawara Bore is contained within the Merninie Land 
System of Innamincka Regional Reserve.*' Coolibahs 
Etnvlypius rDivrvttuw, Beantrtrs Lysiphyttum ttitvum and 
occasional Native orange Capparis mirchellii fined the 
creek channel. Otherwise the steep muddy banks were 
devoid of vegetation at the lime except for occasional 
patches of an unidentified reed and accumulated flood 
debns 0.5 m above Ihe waterline. The surrounding area 
comprised flat alluvial plain* sparsely covered witft gfa$$^ 
low- chenopods and forbs. 

Two other frog species occurred at the collection site: 

numerous individuals of (tie (fee fitiy; / tttjriu rubelfu 
(Cray) calling i'rom cavities and cattle pug marks in the 
banks, and abom 10 waier-holdmg frogs, Cyclorano 
pUityifphata (Gunther) calling at the water's edge. 

The specimen is an adult male, ft has been deposited 
in the South Australian Museum and ts registered R 34443. 
li was .mil cl j group of at least four individuals IVm noied 
cnlllnyyi about 10.00 pm. from amongst flood debris less 
than 0.5 m from (he water's edge. One or more individual^ 
were heard calling whenever ihe site was visited over the 
following two hours. A recording uf the advertisement call 
or the collected specimen proved to be too weak for 
sonographic analysis. Mowevet amplification by re- 
reeordmg revealed thai each call is composed of four 

the temperature was not measured at the calling gt(e 
but was probably about 30 C. At Moomba (100 km south) 
lemperaluuv; that day ranged 25-1S-C. 

A second group of about 10 calling males was- 
subsequently located 250 m east at about midnight- ThK 
group was assoeiaied with a smatl paich of reeds and flood 
debris accumulated at the base of two Coolibahs at the 
water's edge, and with a patch of reeds on the opposite 

Measurements of the specimen (following the techniques 
of lyler'i arc: snout to vent length (S-V) 30.1 mat; tibia 
length (Tl )9.9 mm; eyetonaris distance (12- N) 2.2 mm; 
internarial span (IN) 1.45 mm. eye diameter (L) 2..H mm. 
Maxillae and premaxillae are edentate, the foot is 
unwebbed, the toes unhinged and the two metatarsal 
tubercles arc moderately pronounced 

In life the dorsum was a pale greenish grey, with 
irregular dark blotches and flecks of olive brown, including 
a broad interocular bar and regular bars extending onto 
the limbs. The dorsal and lateral surfaces were densely 
covered with small, rounded tubercles. Those dorsolateral 
were conspicuously tipped with uran.gc, forming rt&ffpw 
broken lines attending from behind ihe eye to ihe groin 
Similar rows of orange-tipped 1'jbercles formed short 
paravertebral Ones above the anus, and dorsally along the 
tibia Elsewhere the tubercles were lipped with white to 
pale apricot. The entire inguinal, post-femoral and pre- 
tibial areas were a rich orange reo The ventral surface 
wa* light grey, finely speckled with white. A photograph 
of the frog is shown in Fig. t. 

t i?. I: Upemteiu >p, in life (South Australian Museum 

Because two species of Vperoteia occui in tfic adjacent 
Bulloo Shire of southwest Queensland [U, capitulain 
Davies, McDoriMtd & Corben. and V. rugosa (Andersson)) 
it seemed likely that the Patchawarra specimen would 
prove to represent one of them. Uperoleta eapift/foto as 
currently detined. and illustrated by its authors, has a 
smaller and characteristically blunter head, and possesses 
hypertrophied dermal glands. It also seems to beasmallct 
species: the largest adult male specimen known being 27 
mm.* The advertisement call pf u. lapirufotu is 

Uperoteiu rugoMj is another candidate. Ir is highly 
variable in size, with male individuals adult at as small 


as 18.4 mm, but samples from arid localities are larger 
and can reach 32 mm. 9 The advertisement call includes 
3-5 pulses, 9 ' 10 and although most specimens are rugose 
and have fringed toes, they can be smooth and unfringed. 
A larger series of specimens from Patchawara Bore will 
permit osteological and other cryptic features to be 

Given that we have just one specimen, caution dictates 
that it is early to be certain that it is U. rugosa or U 
capitulata that occurs in South Australia. 

The discovery of Uperoleia brings the number of species 
recorded from the North-east to nine, and confirms that 

this area has the richest frog fauna in the State. 

It is of interest to note that Uperoleia was not located 
during the recent extensive biological survey of the North- 
west Branch area centred on Coongie Lake, only 50 km 
west of the collection site. 11 Considering that this survey 
resulted in the collection of all species then known from 
the North-east including one new record for the State, we 
conclude that Uperoleia does not occur there; its 
distribution in South Australia may be extremely limited. 

We are grateful to the National Parks & Wildlife Service 
for a permit (No. C02501) to collect within the Innamincka 

1 Moore, J. A. (1961) Bull. Amer. Mus. nat. Hist. 121, 


2 TVIer, M. J. (1966) "Frogs of South Australia" (South 

Australian Museum, Adelaide). 

3 Tyler, M. J. (1972) "Frogs of South Australia" Revised 

Edtn (South Australian Museum, Adelaide). 

4 Tyler, M. J. (1989) "Australian Frogs" (Viking CNeil, 


5 McGreevy, D. G. (1987) Qld J. Agric. Anim. Sci. 44, 


6 Anon. (1988) Innamincka Regional Reserve Draft 

Management Plan. (South Australian National Parks & 

Wildlife Service, Adelaide). 

7 iyier, M. J. (1968) Zool. Verhandl. Rijkmus. Nat. Hist. 

Leiden (96), 1-203. 

8 Davies, M., McDonald, K. R. & Corben, G (1986) Proc. 

R. Soc. Vict. 98, 147-188. 

9 Davies, M. & Littlejohn, M. J. (1986) Trans. R. Soc. S. 

Aust. 110, 111-143. 

10 Davies, M. & McDonald, K. R. (1985) Trans. R. Soc. 

S. Aust. 109, 37-42. 

n Reid, J. & Gillen, J. (1988) The Coongie Lakes Study. 

(South Australian Department of Environment and 


PETER BIRD, Animal & Plant Control Commission, Department of Agriculture, Box 1671 GPO, Adelaide, S. Aust. 
5001. MICHAEL J. TYLER, Department of Zoology, University of Adelaide, Box 498 GPO, Adelaide, S. Aust. 5001. 


by C. R. Twidale & J. A. Bourne 


fhHtftffifat w lf») ftovul Society of S. Aust, tlWtt. 114(4?. i2S 22K 



fn the course of discussion of beach ndges oh tyre 
Peninsula and Kangaroo Island,' brief mention is made 
of shore platform* and their implications fo» sealevel 
change. Two statement* based on earlier reports"* 
concerning shore platforms arc iiuestionahle, ( ? p.62; 

The first is- [hat ail uf ihe jftQTd platforms sxamined tm 
the west coast of Eyre Peninsula possess la single active 
platlorm sniface"' (p. 1 561. Wc lake issue because The 
impression conveyed is thai only one platform is developed 
within rocky share ptoUIcs. As iccotded earlier 4 flights 
ol platforms ate commonly developed Wfttffl the tidal 
zone, fhey are typically separated by low cliffs a few lens 
of centimetre* high. In addition platforms of limited area! 
Buent occur near ot above high tide and evert storm tide 
level, and some stand even higher, though all are located 
wlrhm the sprav zone. The situation deseubed from parrs 

of Kangaroo Island 

:oramonplacc also on the west 

coast of Eyre Femrvsuia. 

Second, In the 19S6 report ' it Is reared that at 
IVnuinglon Bay "a Pleistocene platform is fronted by two 
Holocrnt; platforms a( dtflercnt elevations . . The upper 
platform - . lies 50 cm above the lower platform , The 
difference 1(1 elevation - may be the result of a slight 
fall of sea-level <50 cm) produong a lowering of the level 
of MUM ration and hence platform oration". lh« site is 
illustrated Ip. 59) and it is .\ugge.utd that Ihe highest 
platform °mo»t likely represent* the 120,000 yrs &P 
Pleistocene sea -lever*, that the intermediate plarfotrn. 
standing 2.5 m below the "Pleistocene" feature is of early 
Holucene age, and lhat orliy the lowest, 50 cm below the 
intermediate form, is presently active. 

We find ihe suggestion thar each platform relate* to a 
distinct and separate scalcvcl sutpmiil£, Some years ago 
the same interpretation was proposed in explanation of 
platforms and other alleged coastal features in the 
Adelaide area and on Yorke peninsula. 10 It was ihen 
claimed thai stands Ol the sea dltrenng by as UriJe as 42.16 
<ryi could he distinguished ou titc basis of a range of fornix 
■and deposits collectively described as "former voastal 
fcatu^es , *' ip.29J>. These conclusions were challenged at 
ihe time 7 partly on the pounds that the -outfs region of 
Stiuih Australia is, and long has been, teclonically active* 
rendering present etevationi an insecure basis for 
correlation ot dating (a till of as Ultfe as T implies a 
vertical difference of 3omc ISm/kmi; partly hecausethe 
central iMeduerranean region that provided tiic basis for 
dating and correlation was even then known to be and 
has been rectonically unstable, so thai correlation on 
eleuatiOO fltone was invalid:* partly because some of the 
stratigraphic evidence was suspect. 

More fundamentally other workers*"' had earlier 
pointed to evidence Wrongly suggesting that processes 
additional in wave attack were active in platlurm 
development, and that the (light* ol platforms they had 
observed On the coasts of NSW and Victoria have 
deselotvd simultaneously and in relation to the one present 
scalevel, Our observations on many parts' of rite .South 
Australian coast have led us to similar conclusions, though 
structure and the eich factor complieare the profiles 

developed on many rocky shores. Thus the platforms in 
granite and gnefca exposed around FciLal Brown, on in* 
Weslall Peninsula ami ai Point Drummond for instance 
e*e rich forms. 4 * n * :2 Separating out such complications 
however (here is clear indication thai pool 
*earhering ,( " >u '"' contribuics 10 platform development 
not only m the tidal range but also above it. withm the 
spray wnc; -and thai rhough pronounced on calcaittih*: 
coast*, its effects are not limited to that lilhological setting. 
For example, the scrraied platform at HRHctr Cove, just 
south or Adelaide is developed on folded silt-Atone. The 
platform is an entity, but iududed within the whole are 
several flats each a few metres square thai varj m elevation 
by up to one met«e They are unlikely to reflect lithologtcal 
contrasts as they occur aJong strike, and they- cannot be 
due to wave abrasion as many are ptotected lo seawaid 
by minor strike tidies. Some Of the flats formed at or near 
high and storm tide levels are Quite extensive,' but those 
within the spray zone are small, though distinct. Thus 
spray pool geuctated Oats a few metres diameter stand 
about 8 m above the high tide level at Wellestey Poluu 
near fcllision Developed in calcarenite, the pool ftoou 
are remarkably flat. They ^immonly cam- seawaier (and 
rainwater after falls) and small sheik and the side-watts 
are to a greater or lesser degree overltanging as a result 
ol the dissolution of the calcarenite by standing waters. 
Such pool floots gradually extend laterally and eventually 
coalesce with, one another to form a platform thai includes 
flats at slightly different elevations. 

Kor these reasons we suggest platforms are related ro 
seafevel only In a general way. Kaeh plat form does not 
necessarily represent a distinct and separate «calcvel "" " 
Flights Of platform* do not necessarily imply changes of 
sealrvel. That flights with similar components and vertical 
separation nccut at different sites dbnfe the coast may 
merely imply thai similar sets Of processes are at work 
on each 

We accept t hat some of the platforms preserved on the 
coa6l of Eyre Peninsula a<e demonstrably of Pleistocene 
age for instance that described from Pome Collison 5 
(Pl136> is Clearly of the order of 40,000 years old. But 
others, even those Of similar elevation with respect to 
present sealevel, cannot be correlated automatically and 
dated by comparison with wuch dated sites. The nigh 
platform at Peonmgton Hay for instance is still within 
range of high and storm tides, and IS certainly tooched 
by spray. The cusps developed in the low clilf to seaward 
of llw plat form v (p. 59, Fig 4 *!M surely prove scouring 
and solution by seawatcr at the preAenr time, and the 
shingle locaied at ihe base of the backing clilf may also 
be related to high and storm tide*. 

We found nothing k> diiprove the snggeslinn thar flights 
of platforms are being formed simultaneously in rclatioi 1 
to modern yealevel. ,'utson, Hill and many EU tiers would 
be astonished at the suggest ion ihai each and e^^ery xbore 
platform is related to a separate and disliuct sealevel and 
lhat shofcplatlorms enn be correlated and even dated on 
the-hasis oJ'ibeir elevation On the oihec hand, we agree 
whobheartedly with the conclusion lhat 'Shoie plalforrrts 
are t'iigltlyo;ucstinnahle indicators of sea->ri'cl"' tp 156; 


'Short, A. D., Buckley, R. C & Fotheringham, D. G. 

(1989) Thins. R. Soc. S. Aust. 113, 145-161. 

2 Short, A. D. & Fotheringham, D. G. (1986a) Coastal 
morphodynamics and Holocene evolution of the 
Kangaroo Island coast, South Australia. Coastal Studies 
Unit (University of Sydney, Department of Geography) 
Technical Report No. 86/1. 

'Short, A. D M Fotheringham, D. G. & Buckley, R. C 
(1986b) Coastal morphodynamics and Holocene 
evolution of the Eyre Peninsula Coast, South Australia. 
Coastal Studies Unit (University of Sydney, Department 
of Geography) Technical Report No 86/2. 

l TWidale, C R., Bourne, J. A. & Twidale, N. (1977) Trans. 
R, Soc S. Aust. 101, 63-74. 

'Ward, W. T. (1965) Journal of Geology 73, 592-602. 

"Ward, W. T. & Jessup, R. W. (1965) Nature 4973, 

7 Twidale, C R., Daily, B. & Firman, J. B. (1967) J. Geol. 
75, 237-242. 

8 Castany, G. & Oilman, F. (1957) Revue de Geographic 
Physique et Geologic Dynamique (2) 1, 46-55. 

9 Jutson, J. T. (1939) J. Geomorph. 2, 237-250. 
"'Hills, E. S. (1949) Geological Magazine 86, 137-152. 
u Milnes, A. R. & Hutton, J. T. (1983) Calcrete in 

Australia, pp. 119-162 in "Soil. An Australian 

Viewpoint". (CSIRO/Academic Press, Melbourne and 

^IWidale, C R. & Campbell, E. M. (1985) The form of 

the land surface pp. 57-76 in C. R. Twidale, M. J. Tyler 

& M. Davies (Eds) "Natural History of Eyre Peninsula'*. 

(Royal Society of South Australia, Adelaide). 
u Wentworth, C K. (1938) J. Geomorph. 1, 5-32. 
l4 Wentworth, C K. (1939) J. Geomorph. 2, 3-25. 
^Hills, E, S. (1971) Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie 15, 

^Hills, E. S. (1961) Q. J. Geol. Soc. London 117, 77-89. 
"Russell, R. J. (1963) Science 139 (35490) 9-15. 

C. R. TWIDALE & J. A. BOURNE, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Universitv of Adelaide, GPO Box 
498, Adelaide, S. Aust. 5001. 


by A. D. Short, R. C. Buckley & D. G. Fotheringham 


t>ims<rctmtc nf'th* Royul Society QfS, AUSL, (1990), 114(41. 127 



Twidale & Bourne' (this issue) are correci in drawing 
attention to the problem of relating shore platform 
elevation to sea-level and In particular the interpretation 
and causes of multi-level platforms. In this reply we will 
not attempt to deal with the still poorly understood area 
of shore platforms genesis, rather as out paper was dealing 
primarily with beach ridges with only passing reference 
(o the Pennington Bay shore platforms we will expand on 
the rationale for our shore platform interpretations in light 
of Twidale & Bourne's comments. Like Twidale & Bourne 
we thoroughly agree that Muston and Hill and many others 
would he astonished at the suggestion that each and every 
shore platform is related to a separate and distinct sea- 
level - . . ". The suggestion that "each and every" is not 
ouis, we merely suggested that one platform at Penningion 
Bay "may be a result of a slight fall in sea level" and tins 
point we still support. In our paper* (p.5fi-59) and 
report.* we did noi by intention or implication suggest 
any extrapolation of the Pennington Bay conclusion 
beyond that location either to the hundreds of other 
calcarenite platforms examined In our studies''' 1 and 
particularly not to platforms in different lithologies and 
settings. Consequently the range of evidence cited by 
TWidale & Bourne (this issue) relating to the origins of 
"flights of platforms" is largely irrelevant to the present 
argument as they, by and large, represent very different 
lilhologies. Our rationale for the rennington B3y platform 
is. that it is formed in massive, though laminated 
Pleistocene dune calcarenite. Based on examination of 
hunttieds of platforms across southern Australia we would 
argue that the active shore platforms in such lithologies 
in exposed locations are always intertida! lying close to 

mean sea-level. They are also remarkably horizontal, 
though often heavily poinded. In contrast platforms in 
other lithologies may be intertida! (e.g. shales) or supertidal 
(e.g. basalts, sandstones) or non-existent (eg. granites) and 
depending on the geotechnical qualities of trie particula- 
lithology may indeed have "flights of platforms". 

At Bennington Bay are three very distinct platform levels 
formed aver a 30 in shore perpendicular distance and 
running for about 200 m alongshore. The uppermost 
(+3 m MSLW) is heavily degraded and assumed to be 
Pleistocene m age;' 1 the 10 m wide lower most (-0 m 
MSLW) is assumed to be the active intenidal platform, 
while the 5 m wide mid ( ^50 cm MSLW) ill the one in 
question, The lower two platforms are in close proximity 
(15 m shore perpendicular distance) with an abrupt 50 cm 
high scarp separating the two. They both are formed in 
massive calcarenite and truncate the dune laminations. Wfc 
would therefore argue that causes other than 
contemporary processes (i.e. differential levels of 
saturation, wave exposure, etc.) ot lilhological control has 
produced the levels. As originally suggested by us one other 
cause "may" be a slight fall in relative sea-level , We would 
■.tilt argue this may be a cause in this location. 

The resolution of this problem will however await 
research which will go beyond attention to the role of the 
level of saturation in controlling active platform 
formation fi Until studies of rocky coasts move beyond 
mere description and robust morphodynamic models ot 
platform evolution including the gcochemical causes of 
accelerated cliff retreat are available, the now century old 
debate 7 on platform genesis and interpretation will 

'Twidale, CR.« Bourne, J, A. (1990) Trans R. Soc. S. 

Aust. 14 (4) t 225-226. 
'Short, A. IX, Buckle?, R. C & ftilherinxhain, ft C. 

(1989) Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. IU, 145-161. 
'Short, A. U & Kotheringham, U G< (1VK6| Consul 

Studies Unit Technical Report 36/1 Department of 

Geography, University of Sydne>- 
'Sbofl. A. tX, totneringham, 1). C. & Buckley, R. (19K6) 

Coastal Studies Unit Technical Report 86/2 Department 

of Geography, University of Sydney, 
1 Buckley* R.. Short, A. iX & Folheringharo. D. G. (1987) 

Search 18, 86-89. 
1 Bartrum, ,!. A, (1916) New Zealand Instit. Trans 48, 

7 Dana, D. O. (1875) "Coral and coral islands" 2nd edtrt 


SHORT, A. D. Coastal Studies Unit, Department of Geography, University of Sydney, Sydney N.SAV. 2006. BUCKLEY. 
R. C. Centre for Environmental Management, Bond University, P.B. 10, Gold Coast. QM42I7& FOTHERINGHAM, 
D. G. Coastal Management Branch, Department of Environment and Planning, G.PJO. Box 667. Adelaide, S. Au*.t. 5001. 



by G. R. Johnston 


tmnwcHons of the Royal Society of S. Aust., (1990), 114(4). 229. 



Twenty-six species of frog are known to occui in South 
Australia 1 -. About half of these species are restricted to 
the mesic southern regions of the state, where the fauna 
is relatively well known. The other half occur in the xerie 
northern regioas of South Australia and their distributions 
and biology are poorly known. Collections of these desert 
dwelling frogs are usually made fortuitously because their 
activity is sporadic, in response to unpredictable rains, 

This note reports opportunistic observations made when 
heavy rains fell in the north of South Australia during 
March and April 1989. It records the occurrence in South 
Australia of two species of frog previously unknown from 
the State. 

Five Cyclorana maini were observed ai the point where 
the Stuart Highway crosses Indulkana Creek |26°59'S, 
I33°23'E)on I5.iv.1989. All individuals were on the road 
at night during rain. These specimens were unusual in 
lacking a dark lateral head stripe, but in all other rcspixK 
agreed with the type description/ One specimen was 
collected and lodged in The South Australian Museum 
(SAM R34311) (Fig. 1). 

Large numbers of a Notaden species were heard calling 
together with a Neobatrachus sp., in pools of water 3-400 
m from the side of the Stuart Highway between 23 km 
N of Maria and the Granite Downs turnoff (26°58'S, 
133°23' E) on 15.iv.1989. This species was also calling in 
a large pool of water immediately S of the Oodnadatta 
road at the township of Maria (27°26'S, I33°43'E) on 
22.iv.1989. No specimens could be collected, but the call 
left no doubt as to the generic identity of these animals, 
being an owl-like *ou-ou\ Unfortunately, the species of 
Notaden are not distinguishable by call so specific identity 
of the Nomden occurring in South Australia remains in 

The discovery of Notaden in South Australia extends 
the known geographic range of this genus 350 kilometres 
southwards from the closest record of N. nichoilsj at 
Chinaman Creek, NT. (23°42'S, 132°30'E) (Northern 
Territory Museum R5397). The discovery of C maini in 
South Australia extends the known geographic range of 
this species 330 kilometres southwards from the closest 
record 27 kilometres S of Alice Springs (23°57'S, 
133°55'E). 1 

Fig. I. Cyclorana maim from Indulkana Creek, S.A. (SAM 

As N. niehottsi and C. maim occur extensively in the 
Northern Territory and in central Western Australia,' 
their occurrence in northern South Australia, although 
representing significant range extensions, is not surprising 
and of little biogeographic significance. 

C, Daniels & P. Demp'scy assisted m the ticld, M. Davies 
provided the figure. M. Davies & M. Tyler made helpful 
comments on the manuscript. 

J iyier t M. J. (1989) "Australian Frogs." (Viking O'Niell, 
Bird, P. & Tyler, M. J. (1990) Trans. R. Soc $, Ausl. 114, 

Tyler, M. J. & Martin, A. A. (1977) Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 
17, 261-276. 

'Tyler, M. J. & Davies M. (1986) "Frogs of the Northern 
Territory." (Conservation Commission of the Northern 
Territory, Alice Springs). 

Tyler, M. J., Smilh, L. A. & Johnslone, R. (1984) "Frogs 
of Western Australia." (Western Australian Museum, 

G. R. JOHNSTON, Depanment of Anatomy & Histology. University of Adelaide, G.P.O. Box 49M, Adelaide, S. Aust. 

3U\'I - 





N. A. LOCKET, M.A., B.M., B.Ch., Ph.D., D.O. 

Vice-Presiden ts: 

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W. D. WILLIAMS, B.Sc, Ph.D., D.Sc, Dip.Ed., F.A.I.Biol. 

S. C. McKILLUP, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

R. H. WATERS, IP., F.A.I. M 

M. DAVIES, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

Assistant Editor: 
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Programme Secretary: 
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